Institute of Business & Technology (BIZTEK) LECTURE-3 System Analysis & Design
Technological requirements should be taken into account when designing information systems. The important points are as fo...
SYSTEM SURVEY <ul><li>The survey process is often divided into 2 main phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary survey:  defin...
PRELIMINARY SURVEY <ul><li>in this phase, important questions to ask are: </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need to carry it out? </...
DETAILED SURVEY <ul><li>The objective of detailed survey is to find out the best solution in  </li></ul><ul><li>terms of t...
<ul><li>To get the best outcome of detailed survey, it’s  </li></ul><ul><li>useful to follow the tips below: </li></ul><ul...
INVESTIGATION METHODS <ul><li>Survey Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire Methods...
SURVEY METHODS <ul><li>The contexts in which you make interviews are often different and  </li></ul><ul><li>unpredictable....
<ul><li>Before the interview, you should contact the interviewee directly (or through his/her secretary) to set up an appo...
<ul><li>You should carefully choose the kind of question you will ask.  </li></ul><ul><li>As each kind of question serve a...
The language you use and the way you talk about technical stuff should in some way create a close contact between you and ...
OBSERVATION METHODS <ul><li>OFFICIAL OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>UNOFFICIAL OBSERVATION </li></ul>
<ul><li>It’s not a good method to observe every single elements while collecting information to develop the system.  </li>...
In order to get an overview of an organization, take a look at its pile of paper and document, interruption of work, unrea...
QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD This method requires your clear instructions to the user.  A questionnaire can be designed base on th...
SURVEY REPORT <ul><li>Theoretically, survey report should be written in user’s language (not necessarily non-technical </l...
LIFE CYCLE versus MATHODOLOGY <ul><li>A  system life cycle  divides the life of an information system into two stages,  sy...
SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE Conversion Obsolescence Lifetime of a System LIFE CYCLE STAGE System Development using System Developmen...
REQUIREMENTS DISCOVERY Given an understand of problems, the systems analyst can start to define requirements. Fact-finding...
Fact-Finding Ethics <ul><li>Fact-Finding often brings systems analysts into contact with sensitive information. </li></ul>...
Fact-Finding Methods <ul><li>Sampling of existing documentation, forms, and databases.  </li></ul><ul><li>Research and sit...
Sampling of Existing Documentation, Forms, and Files <ul><li>The process of collecting a representative sample of  </li></...
Observation <ul><li>A fact-finding technique wherein the systems analyst either participates in or watches a person perfor...
Observation Guidelines <ul><li>Determine the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ob...
Questionnaires <ul><li>A special-purpose document that allows the analyst to collect information and opinions from respond...
Free-format questionnaire  – a questionnaire designed to offer the respondent greater latitude in the answer. A question i...
Types of Fixed-Format Questions <ul><li>Multiple-choice questions  </li></ul><ul><li>Rating questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ra...
Interviews <ul><li>A fact-finding technique whereby the systems analysts collect information from individuals through face...
Types of Interviews and Questions <ul><li>Unstructured interview  – an interview that is conducted with only a general goa...
Interview Questions <ul><li>Types of Questions to Avoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loaded questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Communicating With the User <ul><li>Guidelines for Communicating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach the Session with a Positiv...
BODY LANGUAGE AND PROXEMICS <ul><li>Body language  – the nonverbal information we communicate.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faci...
Interviewing Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Be courteous </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully </li></ul><ul><l...
Prototyping <ul><li>The act of building a small-scale, representative or working  </li></ul><ul><li>model of the users’ re...
Joint Requirements Planning <ul><li>A process whereby highly structured group meetings are conducted for the purpose of an...
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SYSTEM ANALYSIS & DESIGN BY WAQAS

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  1. 1. Institute of Business & Technology (BIZTEK) LECTURE-3 System Analysis & Design
  2. 2. Technological requirements should be taken into account when designing information systems. The important points are as follows: Information volume : Information technology equipment must be suitable with the volume of information that is to be processed; Period : Everyday information which arises regularly is repetitive information that requires special care; Accuracy : Specially high accuracy is required now and then. Accuracy is important but difficult to meet; Complexity : Issues in information treatment can be processed in principle. However, due to its complexity, the current system fails to resolved the issues that need to be resolved by the new system. Technical Requirements
  3. 3. SYSTEM SURVEY <ul><li>The survey process is often divided into 2 main phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary survey: define the project’s feasibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed survey: define what needs to be done and accomplishments that should be achieved. </li></ul>
  4. 4. PRELIMINARY SURVEY <ul><li>in this phase, important questions to ask are: </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need to carry it out? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need to continue to do? </li></ul><ul><li>How long do we need to do it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the estimated price? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits and difficulties? </li></ul>
  5. 5. DETAILED SURVEY <ul><li>The objective of detailed survey is to find out the best solution in </li></ul><ul><li>terms of technology, finance, time etc... The outcome of this </li></ul><ul><li>phase is a report which clarifies user’s requirements, identifies </li></ul><ul><li>information current, evaluate and pick up the best solution and </li></ul><ul><li>gives advice users on the current system and how to utilize it in </li></ul><ul><li>the future. Surveying is divided into 2 parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Detailing the objectives set forth; </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying information sources and information requirements. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>To get the best outcome of detailed survey, it’s </li></ul><ul><li>useful to follow the tips below: </li></ul><ul><li>Review all paper and reports of preliminary </li></ul><ul><li>survey in the previous phase; </li></ul><ul><li>Review all technical terms; </li></ul><ul><li>Make good plan for the survey; </li></ul><ul><li>Give assignment to each group member; </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise closely the implementation of the </li></ul><ul><li>plan. </li></ul>
  7. 7. INVESTIGATION METHODS <ul><li>Survey Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire Methods </li></ul>
  8. 8. SURVEY METHODS <ul><li>The contexts in which you make interviews are often different and </li></ul><ul><li>unpredictable. However, interviews are the main source of information </li></ul><ul><li>about the future system and the current system. There are 2 main reasons </li></ul><ul><li>for interview failures: </li></ul><ul><li>interviewer fails to understand what users say, </li></ul><ul><li>bad communications between interviewer and interviewee. </li></ul><ul><li>The followings are tips for interviewer: </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Before the interview, you should contact the interviewee directly (or through his/her secretary) to set up an appointment and agree with him/her on time, venue and interview objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>During the interview, if you behave professionally, you will receive the same attitude from your interviewee. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to attentively listen to the people you’re talking to and take notes of all the necessary information you are provided during the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>The interview paper and minute are always useful for you and your successor because it helps you master the origin of the information you have. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s important to open and close the interview carefully because this may impact the way your questions are answered. </li></ul>INTERVIEW
  10. 10. <ul><li>You should carefully choose the kind of question you will ask. </li></ul><ul><li>As each kind of question serve a particular context, you will suffer if you choose it wrongly. </li></ul><ul><li>Open questions always create more opportunities for the interviewee to answer, but don’t expect too much, not all the answers are good enough. </li></ul><ul><li>You should take those questions which show your prediction such as &quot;I feel that...&quot;, &quot;I sense that...&quot; and use the words that can help emphasize your idea. </li></ul>QUESTIONS
  11. 11. The language you use and the way you talk about technical stuff should in some way create a close contact between you and the one you’re interviewing. COMMUNICATIONS
  12. 12. OBSERVATION METHODS <ul><li>OFFICIAL OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>UNOFFICIAL OBSERVATION </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>It’s not a good method to observe every single elements while collecting information to develop the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, those you’re looking at may feel uncomfortable and may behave unusually, which will affect your survey’s quality. </li></ul>OFFICIAL OBSERVATION
  14. 14. In order to get an overview of an organization, take a look at its pile of paper and document, interruption of work, unreasonable timing and positive reflection of a good working environment... It’s also important to know the quantity and quality of data that need to be processed and predict how they change over the time. Researching through document is the final good method to get important information. UNOFFICIAL OBSERVATION
  15. 15. QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD This method requires your clear instructions to the user. A questionnaire can be designed base on the following points: Title: describe the objectives and main contents; Data classification: categories of data that will be used; Data: contents of the data in each category.
  16. 16. SURVEY REPORT <ul><li>Theoretically, survey report should be written in user’s language (not necessarily non-technical </li></ul><ul><li>language). </li></ul><ul><li>All reports must have a cover page with name of project, its author, address, contact numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover page is followed by content pages with the following main items: </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-connection between related departments </li></ul><ul><li>Details of the current system </li></ul><ul><li>Future system and sketchy estimate of costs and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Advice </li></ul><ul><li>Time frame and plan for system development </li></ul><ul><li>General description (non-technical) </li></ul><ul><li>Original document </li></ul>
  17. 17. LIFE CYCLE versus MATHODOLOGY <ul><li>A system life cycle divides the life of an information system into two stages, systems development and systems operation and support . </li></ul><ul><li>A system development methodology is a very formal and precise system development process that defines a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that system developers and project managers are to use to develop and maintain information systems and software. </li></ul>
  18. 18. SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE Conversion Obsolescence Lifetime of a System LIFE CYCLE STAGE System Development using System Development Methodology LIFE CYCLE STAGE System Operation and Support using Information Technology
  19. 19. REQUIREMENTS DISCOVERY Given an understand of problems, the systems analyst can start to define requirements. Fact-finding – the formal process of using research, meetings, interviews, questionnaires, sampling, and other techniques to collect information about system problems, requirements, and preferences. It is also called information gathering or data collection.
  20. 20. Fact-Finding Ethics <ul><li>Fact-Finding often brings systems analysts into contact with sensitive information. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee salaries or medical history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer credit card, social security, or other information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethical behavior includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysts must not misuse that information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysts must protect that information from people who would misuse it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Otherwise: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analyst loses respect, credibility, and confidence of users and management, impairing ability to do job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization and systems analyst could have legal liability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analyst could lose job </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Fact-Finding Methods <ul><li>Sampling of existing documentation, forms, and databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Research and site visits. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation of the work environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint requirements planning (JRP). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sampling of Existing Documentation, Forms, and Files <ul><li>The process of collecting a representative sample of </li></ul><ul><li>documents, forms, and records. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memos and other documents that describe the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard operating procedures for current system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual and computerized screens and reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples of databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowcharts and other system documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And more </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Observation <ul><li>A fact-finding technique wherein the systems analyst either participates in or watches a person perform activities to learn about the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages? </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages? </li></ul>IN BOOK PAGE 247
  24. 24. Observation Guidelines <ul><li>Determine the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain permission from appropriate supervisors or managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform those who will be observed of the purpose of the observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a low profile. </li></ul><ul><li>Take notes during or immediately following the observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Review observation notes with appropriate individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't interrupt the individuals at work. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't focus heavily on trivial activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't make assumptions. </li></ul>Observation… (cont)
  25. 25. Questionnaires <ul><li>A special-purpose document that allows the analyst to collect information and opinions from respondents. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages? </li></ul></ul>IN BOOK PAGE 248
  26. 26. Free-format questionnaire – a questionnaire designed to offer the respondent greater latitude in the answer. A question is asked, and the respondent records the answer in the space provided after the question. Fixed-format questionnaire – a questionnaire containing questions that require selecting an answer from predefined available responses Questionnaires… (cont) Types of Questionnaires
  27. 27. Types of Fixed-Format Questions <ul><li>Multiple-choice questions </li></ul><ul><li>Rating questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking questions </li></ul>Rank the following transactions according to the amount of time you spend processing them. ___ % new customer orders ___ % order cancellations ___ % order modifications ___ % payments The implementation of quality discounts would cause an increase in customer orders.  Strongly agree  Agree  No opinion  Disagree  Strongly disagree Is the current accounts receivable report that you receive useful?  Yes  No Questionnaires… (cont)
  28. 28. Interviews <ul><li>A fact-finding technique whereby the systems analysts collect information from individuals through face-to-face interaction. Interviews Can be used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generate enthusiasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get the end-user involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solicit ideas and opinions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages? </li></ul></ul>IN BOOK PAGE 251
  29. 29. Types of Interviews and Questions <ul><li>Unstructured interview – an interview that is conducted with only a general goal or subject in mind and with few, if any, specific questions. The interviewer counts on the interviewee to provide a framework and direct the conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Structured interview – an interview in which the interviewer has a specific set of questions to ask of the interviewee. </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended question – question that allows the interviewee to respond in any way that seems appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed-ended question – a question that restricts answers to either specific choices or short, direct responses. </li></ul>Interviews… (cont)
  30. 30. Interview Questions <ul><li>Types of Questions to Avoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loaded questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biased questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interview Question Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use clear and concise language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t include your opinion as part of the question. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid long or complex questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid threatening questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use “you” when you mean a group of people. </li></ul></ul>Interviews… (cont)
  31. 31. Communicating With the User <ul><li>Guidelines for Communicating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach the Session with a Positive Attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the Other Person at Ease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let Them Know You Are Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t Assume Anything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Notes </li></ul></ul>Interviews… (cont)
  32. 32. BODY LANGUAGE AND PROXEMICS <ul><li>Body language – the nonverbal information we communicate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial disclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proxemics – the relationship between people and the space around them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate zone—closer than 1.5 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal zone—from 1.5 feet to 4 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social zone—from 4 feet to 12 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public zone—beyond 12 feet </li></ul></ul>Interviews… (cont)
  33. 33. Interviewing Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Be courteous </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain control </li></ul><ul><li>Probe </li></ul><ul><li>Observe mannerisms and nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient </li></ul><ul><li>Keep interviewee at ease </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain self-control </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing an interview unnecessarily. </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming an answer is finished or leading nowhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Revealing verbal and nonverbal clues. </li></ul><ul><li>Using jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Talking instead of listening. </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming anything about the topic and the interviewee. </li></ul><ul><li>Tape recording -- a sign of poor listening skills. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Prototyping <ul><li>The act of building a small-scale, representative or working </li></ul><ul><li>model of the users’ requirements in order to discover or </li></ul><ul><li>verify those requirements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages? </li></ul></ul>IN BOOK PAGE 257
  35. 35. Joint Requirements Planning <ul><li>A process whereby highly structured group meetings are conducted for the purpose of analyzing problems and defining requirements. </li></ul>

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