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The systems development environment in system analysis and design BY WAQAS

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Chapter01 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 The Systems Development Environment
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the concept of systems analysis and design as a disciplined approach to development </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with the evolution of systems analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concepts of data-centricity and process-centricity </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the various roles and responsibilities in systems development </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the types of skills necessary to be a successful systems analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Review the different classes of information systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Develop an initial understanding of the phased life-cycle approach to systems development </li></ul><ul><li>Identify two alternative approaches to systems development beyond the life-cycle approach </li></ul>
  5. 5. Systems Analysis and Design <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A structured process that is employed in the development of information system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysis activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems design activities </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Systems Analysis and Design <ul><li>Systems analysis activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on determining the nature and domain of the business problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with issues such as problem identification, solution alternatives, solution requirements, organizational goals, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Systems Analysis and Design <ul><li>Systems design activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on the final design specification and the construction, development, and implementation of the solution proposed during analysis and deemed best among any alternatives available </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A Disciplined Approach <ul><li>Methodologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A multi-step approach to the analysis, design, and delivery of an IS </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. A Disciplines Approach <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer programs that are designed to facilitate the wide variety of techniques and activities to be conducted during a complete analysis and design scenario </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. A Disciplines Approach <ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes that are followed to ensure that the analysis being performed is accurate, comprehensive, and comprehensible to others </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Modern SAD <ul><li>The evolution of software development and application design began with a focus on the process, evolved to a focus on the data, and has now come to an understanding of the need to consider both elements in the design of a modern IS </li></ul><ul><li>Data-Centric and Process-Centric development approaches </li></ul>
  12. 13. Systems Analysis as a Profession <ul><li>Career and Job Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Typical career paths for Systems Analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Societies and Standards of Practice (ACM) </li></ul>
  13. 15. Typical Systems Analyst Duties and Responsibilities <ul><li>Entry-Level Systems Analyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working under the supervision of a more senior staff member, junior systems analysts may be responsible for any of the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>investigate requirements, information flow, processes, etc., </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produce documentation specifying logical information flows and processes, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perform technical calculations for input to project budgets and monitor budget, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>convert limited parts of a logical specification into a physical design, and/or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>construct, interpret and execute test plans of a limited scope. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Typical Systems Analyst Duties and Responsibilities <ul><li>Full Working Systems Analyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At this level, you will be performing the systems analyst job without supervision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may be responsible for the supervision of other staff on a project. In addition you may be responsible for small projects or portions of larger projects, and you may have to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specify logical information flow, processes, data objects and dialogues, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produce technical and descriptive documentation, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>devise, construct and interpret test plans and ensure proper execution, and/or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prepare estimates, monitor budgets and report constraints. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Typical Systems Analyst Duties and Responsibilities <ul><li>Intermediate System Analyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the intermediate systems analyst, you will be expected to supervise staff. You may also be required to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supervise performance of team players in reaching objectives, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plan and schedule small work teams, prepare projects less than 3 person-months in size, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develop service level agreements and business plans with clients, and/or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>devise outlines or models of systems solutions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Typical Systems Analyst Duties and Responsibilities <ul><li>Senior Systems Analyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the senior systems analyst you will most likely be involved in planning, conducting and supervising complex informatics assignments. You will also be involved in designing and applying new methods and procedures and supervising staff. Your job could also require you to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plan and manage multiple projects, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lead systems implementation throughout systems life cycle, and/or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>manage and maintain operations of mission-critical systems. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. The Roles and Responsibility in Systems Development <ul><li>Client and System Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ultimately benefit from the development effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>directly involved in either the use of system itself or the information and reports generated by it </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. The Roles and Responsibility in Systems Development <ul><li>IS management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>directly involved in the daily activities of the IS project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for the allocation of resources to the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for the establishment of criteria necessary to determine the success of the development effort </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. The Roles and Responsibility in Systems Development <ul><li>Systems Analysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>key individuals in the system development process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can act as consultant, a staff expert, a project manager, or even a change agent </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. The Roles and Responsibility in Systems Development <ul><li>Application programmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the labor-intensive nature of manual programming became untenable and often cost-ineffective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with CASE tools, the modern programmers can spend more time on finalization, optimization, and integration of the code into the IS under development </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. The Roles and Responsibility in Systems Development <ul><li>IS Support Personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors and Technologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database Administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit and Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT Steering Committee </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Skill Set for Systems Analysis <ul><li>Technical Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A working knowledge of the technology in the areas of database management, data networks, telecommunications, operating systems, distributed architectures, object technology, languages and protocols, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Skill Set for Systems Analysis <ul><li>Analytical Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A systems analyst is a problem solver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to examine a complex set of components without losing sight of the bigger picture is essential to an analyst’s success. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Skill Set for Systems Analysis <ul><li>Managerial skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A successful analyst is a team player. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes business domain knowledge, resource and project management, assessment and management of risk, and management of change. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Skill Set for Systems Analysis <ul><li>Interpersonal Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A successful analyst is a good communicator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the ability to question, listen, and observe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively conduct oral and written presentations; facilitate groups; and be a team player. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>automate the capture and recording of information about business activities (transaction) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Figure 1-3. Transaction Processing Systems Can Support a Management Information Systems
  28. 30. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Management Information Systems (MIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepts input from a TPS and transforms it into meaningful format. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is considered an important management resource, and the opportunities for analysis and design in this area are endless. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Decision Support Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides support to the decision process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a powerful tools and is rapidly becoming an integral component within the realm of organizational information systems. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Expert Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitates reasoning processes based on the concept of information fit used by human experts in solving specific knowledge domain problems </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Executive Information Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates and supports the information and decision-making needs of senior executives by providing easy access to internal and external information. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Office Automation and Workgroup Management Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates the analysis and dissemination of information throughout the organization. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Web-based Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports business-to-business and business-to-consumer electronic commerce, data management, customer relations, supply chain management, and enterprise resource management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysts will be increasingly expected to provide Web-based solutions to the business problems of tomorrow. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Figure 1-4. Relationships between various System Types and Organizational Level
  35. 37. SDLC <ul><li>Composed of a common set of phases and activities serve to structure and guide the development process </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Waterfall Model </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1-5 </li></ul>
  36. 38. Figure 1-5. The Systems Development Life Cycle
  37. 39. Overview of Phases and Activities <ul><li>Preliminary investigation phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and selection of a development project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation of a preliminary investigation to determine project feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of a project team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of the project plan </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Overview of Phases and Activities <ul><li>Analysis Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of the organization’s processes, procedures, and systems </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Overview of Phases and Activities <ul><li>Logical Design Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise and refine the logical model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation independent </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Overview of Phases and Activities <ul><li>Physical Design Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert logical model into physical specification </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Overview of Phases and Activities <ul><li>Implementation Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation of the physical model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End user training </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Overview of Phases and Activities <ul><li>Maintenance Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed modifications to the new system </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Drawbacks to the SDLC <ul><li>Sequential process </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance cost </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1-6 </li></ul>
  44. 46. Figure 1-6. Relative Cost of Fixing an Error in a Development Project
  45. 47. Alternative Development Approaches <ul><li>Object-oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of process- and data-oriented approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reusability </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. Alternative Development Approaches <ul><li>Rapid Application development (RAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on the use of CASE tools and prototyping approach </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Systems analyst represents an expert blend of technical, analytical, managerial, and interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Modern information systems development involves several structured approaches </li></ul>
  48. 50. Chapter 1 End of Chapter