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Service and guidance in education


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psychology and guidance in education

Published in: Education

Service and guidance in education

  1. 1. Guidance Services
  2. 2. Definition The systematic and organized procedures, tools and facilities to assist an individual in securing knowledge and skills needed in making plans and services, and in interpreting life. These services provide comprehensive information about opportunities, personality development, effective studying and learning.
  3. 3. Help students recognize, accept and develop their potential, adjust to the school, and develop the skills needed to cope with the problems they meet. Help young people come to know and accept themselves, their aptitudes and interests.  Teach pupils/students learn to use their interests and capabilities.  Teach pupils/students develop the skills to cope with the problems they meet both inside and outside the school. Purposes
  4. 4.  Both are integral components of education system.  Provide an opportunity for an individual to see a variety of available options and thereafter, assist the person in making a wise choice.  Both aims to promote the personal/social, educational, and career development of all students 4
  5. 5. Both are used to solve problems of life. The basic difference is in the approach. In guidance, the student's problems are listened carefully and readymade solutions are provided by the expert. In counseling, the student's problems are discussed, analyzed, and relevant information are provided. In the end, the student himself/herself have an insight to the problem and he/she become empowered to take own decision. 5
  6. 6. Consider a new student in a university who is to register for courses in a program. The course list has two categories - compulsory and elective courses. The compulsory courses are mandatory. The elective courses offer some choice. A teacher’s effort at assisting the learner to select suitable elective courses provides an example of guidance service. 6
  7. 7. Assume after registration and some way into the program, the student has problems with some courses. Perhaps the student is unable to cope with the rigor of work or is having some problems with a course lecturer. Offering informed advice on how to cope with emerging problems is counseling. 7
  8. 8. Personal Guidance Educational Guidance Vocational Guidance
  9. 9. Educational Guidance  Assisting students in their choices in and adjustment to the curriculum and institutional life in general.  Guiding students to pursue the right type of education according to their aptitude, market demands, etc. 9
  10. 10. Career & Vocational guidance • The word “career” is used to refer to one’s progress through his/her working life, particularly in a certain profession or line of work. • The goals that one has for one’s working life are called “career goals,” and • planning how we will reach them is called setting a “career path.” The word “vocation” refers to a strong feeling within an individual that they are meant to do a certain job. It can also be used to refer to a trade or profession. Vocational guidance helps students to choose a suitable occupation, make the necessary preparations for it, enter into it, and develop in it. This is a continuous process since an individual is likely to re-evaluate the career choice at various points in his/her life and may make changes at any point in his/her career. Common Activities • Personal Exploration • Providing Information on Career Possibilities and Stereotypes • Recognizing the Talents of the Student • Helping to Develop Life and Employability Skills • Helping Students Make a Career Plan • Helping Students Find Employment 10
  11. 11. The process of helping students on how to behave with consideration to other people. Help students to understand oneself, how to get along with others, manners and etiquette, leisure time activities, social skills, family and family relationships and understanding masculine and feminine roles. Personal and social guidance 11
  12. 12. Counselors expresses care and concern towards the person with a problem to facilitate that person's personal growth and positive change through self-understanding. Counseling is usually viewed as one part of guidance services. It is learning-oriented process which usually occurs in an interactive relationship with the aim of helping the person learn more: 1. about the self; 2. about others 3. about situations and events related to given issues and conditions 4. and also to learn to put such understanding to being an effective member of the society. Certainly it is not counseling 12
  13. 13.  To help students understand the self in terms of their personal ability, interest, motivation and potentials.  To help students gain insight into the origins and development of emotional difficulties, leading to an increased capacity to take rational control over their feelings and actions.  To alter maladaptive behaviours.  To help students develop decision making skills. • To assist students in moving towards the direction of fulfilling their potentials or in achieving an integration of previously conflicting parts of themselves. • To provide students with skills, awareness and knowledge which will enable them to confront social inadequacies. • • To help students gain some insight into the world of work, the realities therein and the relationships to their education and specialization. 13
  14. 14.  Anxiety over a career decision  Lingering anger over an interpersonal conflict  Insecurity about getting older  Depressive feelings when bored with work  Excessive guilt about a serious mistake  A lack of assertion and confidence Deals with emotional distress and behavioral difficulties that arise when an individual struggles to cope with developmental stages and tasks. • Grief over the loss of a loved one • Disillusionment and loneliness after parents divorce. • Failure in examinations • Inability to make friends • Conflict with lecturers 14
  15. 15.  Abiding interest and faith in students capabilities  Understanding of students' aspirations  Sympathetic attitude  Friendliness  Sense of humour  Patience  Objectivity  Sincerity  Tact  Fairness 15
  16. 16.  Assist the student to make adjustment to life in the institution.  Encourage the student to participate in appropriate activities with a view toward increasing his or her effectiveness in personal and social activities.  Show concern for and assist in the planning of the student's educational, career, personal, and social development.  Aid the student in self-evaluation, self-understanding, and self-direction, enabling him or her to make decisions consistent with immediate and long-rage goals to higher education opportunity granted him or her. 16
  17. 17.  Assist the student in developing healthy and positive attitudes and values  Help the student to acquire a better understanding of the world of work through the acquisition of skills and attitudes and/or participation in work-related programs.  Encourage the student to plan and utilize leisure time activities well.  Assists the student in understanding his strengths, weakness, interest, values, potentialities and limitations. 17
  18. 18. Scop e1. Services rendered to an individual and his needs – inventory of each pupil, information regarding opportunities, counseling for all pupils, follow-up on studies, placement, and assisting teachers in case studies. 2. Services to staff members in providing for leadership, in securing cooperation of the staff members, in assisting teachers in utilizing information, in organizing and conducting in-service training. 3. Services pertaining to evaluation of services – follow-up making results available, surveys, securing cooperation of parents and community, and conducting research to further improve guidance services. .
  19. 19. Characteristics of a Good Guidance Service: 1. Identifiable aids to assist individuals. 2. Involved in achieving goals of education. 3. Provide for competent leadership. 4. Supported by functional preparations for teachers in guidance services. 5. Based on the knowledge of the needs of the pupils and upon competencies of the staff members. 6. Services made available to all. 7. Needs the cooperation of parents and community. 8. More preventive than curative. 9. Founded on the concept of the totality of the individual. 10. Should be evaluated constantly.
  20. 20. 1. It is an integral part of school system. 2. It is organized; it has structure, system and personnel. 3. It is more of a preventive than curative.
  21. 21. 4. It promotes educational objectives. 5. It adheres to the principle that the individual/students is the center of all efforts. 6. It promotes student development.
  22. 22. 1. To improve self-understanding. 2. To increase student understanding of self in relation to others. 3. To emphasize relationships between academic pursuits and personal development. 4. To promote better understanding of the teacher to achieve such as an important role in relating to life, the students should have understanding.
  23. 23. 5. To contribute to feeling of security. 6. To supplement teachers’ effort in assisting children with problems. Steps which teachers can take: a. Maintain an attitude of sympathy. b. Make an effort to understand these children and convey a feeling of genuine understanding.
  24. 24. c. Provide counseling in appropriate cases. d. Make referrals to the counselor. e. Maintain contact with home, as appropriate. f. Provide for the needs of an individual students within instructional setting. g. Provide personal attention incident to classroom and other activities.
  25. 25. 7. To provide for the accomplishment and attainment of long range goals. 8. To accumulate and interpret important information.
  26. 26. 1. INFORMATION SERVICES The intentional and purposive delivery of information to students; the primary purpose of which is to enable students to use said information to reasonably guide their choices and actions inside and outside of the school. This service makes available to learners certain kinds information not ordinarily provided through the instructional program or during the regular period of instruction. Basic Guidance Services
  27. 27. 1. Educational Information - valid and usable data about present and probable future educational requirements. Examples:  Plan and lay-out of school plan  Policies governing school attendance, uniform, tardiness, etc  History and traditions of the school  Use of the library and other school services
  28. 28.  Campus Tour/Open House before school starts.  Early level: Guidance personnel will work with parents and children in the discussion of informing children about how the school operates.  Grade six: Seminars informing students what lies ahead in high school, if they go into one.  High School level: Advise students of extra-curricular activities of the school – joining in sports fests, friendly Quiz Bees and other competitions.  Providing printed materials like pocket-sized school map, summary of the schools policy, vision/mission, list of contact numbers for the school’s student personnel, etc.
  29. 29. 1. Occupational Information - valid and useful data about positions, jobs, and occupations. Examples:  Conditions for work  Duties & requirements for work applications  Rewards offered  Existing or predicted supply of/demand for workers.  Advancement/Promotion patterns
  30. 30.  Classroom Discussions Guidance personnel forums to get a general understanding about the world of work. Learners can be helped if they come to understand that there are many reasons for working, and that money is JUST one of them.  One-on-One Interview/Consultation Guidance officers can reach out to students and schedule interviews with them before graduation and are asked these questions:  What job you want to take?  How much money you want to make?  How long would you be willing to work?  Dissemination of job vacancies and opportunities through bulletin board, posters and flyers.  Mock Job Fair or Mock Interview
  31. 31. 3. Personal-Social Information - valid and usable data about the opportunities and influences of the human being which will help learners to understand themselves better and improve their relationship with others. Examples:  Boy-girl relationships  Personal appearance  Home and family relationships  Manners and etiquette  Way of living (health)  Social skills  Leisure-time activities
  32. 32.  Home visits  One-on-One Consultation  Seminar-Orientation Team Building
  33. 33. 2. Individual Inventory Services The process of accumulating and analyzing information about an individual through the use of an Inventory Form and through routine interview. Data may be used to check for students who may need counseling or specialized guidance services. Provides a synthesis of information about the individual which can be used to gain understanding of themselves as a person – their potential strengths and weaknesses, abilities, interests and needs. Basic Guidance Services Covers the collection, organization and interpretation of the data about pupils/students.
  34. 34.  Pupil’s complete name, address, birthdate, gender.  Familial background – names of parents and siblings, their birthdates and birthplaces, parents religion and occupation, their hobbies and interests. 2. Cumulative Record  information concerned with learner’s appraisal and should cover the entire span of their academic career – past and present school performance. 3. Test Records  Provides information on the learner’s mental ability, aptitudes and interests. 4. Interest Inventories  Indicative of the learner’s likes and dislikes – thus can indirectly guide the counselor in determining how the learner choose their goals and purposes. 1. Individual Identification Data
  35. 35. 5. Personalities Inventory - designed to measure emotional adjustment, social relations and the motivational aspects of behaviour. Assess the elusive non-intellective aspects of an individual’s psychological makeup. 6. Non-Test/Self Evaluation Reports - information that are obtained through non-test techniques, like autobiographies and essays about an important experience. Guidance Activities: (for Individual Inventory Services)  Asking applicants to fill out Questionnaires  Entrance exams  Screening Interviews Weekly Homeroom Guidance Class
  36. 36. 3. Placement Services - related to practically all areas of the educational program such as academic courses, attendance, work experience, electives, part-time work, and extra-curricular activities. Through Placement Services, students are placed in grade levels, classes and activities suitable to their needs, interests, abilities, and if applicable - schedules. Basic Guidance Services - a continuous program which helps determine the manner (how) to assign a student based on his/her personal and social adjustment. 1. Educational Placement
  37. 37.  College Admission Tests  Dissemination of Printed Communications listing colleges, universities and trade schools with a summary of their particular area of specializations.  Surveys/Tests designed to determine the student’s suitable specialization 2. Vocational Placement - also known as “job placement”. Graduates receive appropriate training and preparation to ensure them that they can land in a stable job after school/graduation. Guidance Activities (for Vocational Placement):  OJT/Internship – students are sent to external businesses and agencies to familiarize them on the actual working environment.
  38. 38. Guidance Activities (continuation for Vocational Placement):  Posters and Printouts for Job Opportunities  Linkages with schools, industries and agencies for job placements. - allows students to choose a job which fits academic preparation, needs, abilities and interests.  Job Fair  Series of Symposia - where professionals and vocation animators are invited to discuss their job requirements and activities.  Field trips - posted in bulletin boards.
  39. 39. 4. Counseling Services - core of the guidance program that is a form of intervention that leads to a more effective behaviour. This is done where there is a pressing need to talk to the student or pupil urgently. Basic Guidance Services 1. Group Counseling - a group activity aimed to assist EACH INDIVIDUAL member of the group to solve his/her problem and make adjustments on how he/she behaves in the group.
  40. 40. Guidance Activities (for Group Counseling):  Organizing Home Room Organizations - earliest form to bring about group guidance activities. - students/pupils are grouped into committees assigned for a particular task. Most of the time, a leader is chosen to spear head the activity. - usual groups/assignments: Sweepers of the Day; Front yard Cleaners.  Lectures, conferences, programs, parties and convocations.
  41. 41. 2. Individual Counseling - the counseling service is now more focused to one individual – how he/studies, plays or behaves in a group. Guidance Activities: (for Individual Counseling)  Consultation – one-on-one scheduled guidance talk between the client and the guidance councillor.  Voluntary Counseling/Walk-in Counseling – when an individual seeks the help of counselor to aid him/her in a difficult or challenging situation.  Referral Counseling – a parent, faculty, counselor or other students recommends a consultation/appointment between the student and guidance counselor.
  42. 42. 5. Vocational/Career Services Basic Guidance Services Example: Job Fair (as discussed thoroughly in the “Job Placement Services” earlier) Guidance Activities: - set of services specifically designed to assist students in their career and planning choices. It creates awareness and appreciation of the different stages of life and professional careers. - Cultivates proper attitude towards work decision and choice settings.  Career Education Example: seminars or seminar-workshops on writing an effective resume, application letter, cover letter, biodata etc.  Career Information Example: Job posting and dissemination  Career Placement
  43. 43. 6. Remedial and Enrichment Services Basic Guidance Services - practical measures adapted to enrich students especially those that need more attention to cope up with regular classes. Mostly made available to students or individuals with reading, speech or any other form of learning difficulties. Guidance Activities:  Remedial Classes/Periods  Tutorial sessions  Organizing specialized groups for specific subjects like Math Club, Science Club, etc.
  44. 44. 7. Special Guidance Services Basic Guidance Services a. Developmental Learning Services b. Psycho-therapeutic Intervention Program -Seminars or workshops facilitated by counselors or invited resource persons on topics not covered by the information service and personality education classes. - programs specifically planned, designed, and implemented to meet the need of a particular group of students (i.e. athletes, single-mothers). - the aim of such program is to promote psychological wellness and prevent future incidents of maladjustments or to remedy an already existing case of maladjustments among students belonging to special target groups. - The aim of such program is to facilitate the learning experience of students on a wide variety of topics that could help them in their adjustment in school and life in general.
  45. 45. 8. Research and Evaluation Research is a guidance function where the counselor develops and implements research plans that would generate empirical data about students and student life that could be used to inform policy and decision-making in the school, especially on matters relevant to student welfare and development, and to inform the direction and suitability of the various guidance services, as well as of the other student services and programs provided. Evaluation, on the other hand, is a guidance function where the counselor develop and implement assessment and evaluation plans that would provide soft and hard data on the quality, results, and impact of the various student services and programs. Evaluation data can be used as basis for enhancement of existing programs and development of new programs. Basic Guidance Services
  46. 46. 9. Follow-up Services - intended to secure information about former students and provide continuing services for students after they leave school. This technique for evaluating the appropriateness and adequacy of the instructional program. Basic Guidance Services
  47. 47. Counselors coordinate and gets in touch with the parents so the child’s behaviour is still observed even at home. Types of Follow-up Service a. In-School Follow-up - help diminish the number of drop-outs by knowing the causes/reasons why students leave school. Also helps students adjust to student life. Guidance Activities:  One-on-One Consultation and Monitoring  Parent Conference A test is given, results are kept and are communicated to the student concerned. Counselors continue to monitor the child’s behaviour every now and then.
  48. 48. Types of Follow-up Service (continuation) b. Out-of-school Follow-up - applies to services extended even to the graduates to instill in them a sense of belongingness. It also helps the school analyse its effectiveness. Guidance Activities: Questionnaires for former students Questionnaires for employers Feedback from employers Organizing alumni associations Organizing alumni homecoming parties Interviews with former students Interviews with employers