Ch13

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Ch13

  1. 1. Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  2. 2. Chapter 13 Study Questions What is the nature of communication in organizations? What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? What are the barriers to effective communication? What are current issues in organizational communication? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 2
  3. 3. Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 3
  4. 4. Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Feedback and communication. – Feedback is the process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message. – Giving feedback often is associated with one or more persons communicating an evaluation of what another person has said or done. – 360-degree feedback. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 4
  5. 5. Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Guidelines for effective constructive feedback. – Give feedback directly and in a spirit of mutual trust. – Be specific, not general; use clear examples. – Give feedback when the receiver is most ready to accept it. – Be accurate; check validity with others. – Focus on things that the receiver can control. – Limit how much feedback the receiver gets at one time. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 5
  6. 6. Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Communication channels. – Formal channels. • Follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority. – Informal channels. • Do not follow an organization’s hierarchy of authority. • The grapevine is an informal channel through which rumors and unofficial information pass. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 6
  7. 7. Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Channel richness. – The capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively. – Richest channels — face-to-face communication. – Moderately rich channels — telephone, electronic chat rooms, E-mail, written memos, and letters. – Leanest channels — posted notices and bulletins. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 7
  8. 8. Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Organizational communication is the specific process through which information moves and is exchanged throughout an organization. Information flows: – Through formal and informal structures. – Downward, upward, and laterally. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 8
  9. 9. Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 9
  10. 10. Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Effective and efficient communication. – Effective communication. • The accuracy of communication. – Efficient communication. • The cost of communication. – Effectiveness does not guarantee efficiency or vice versa. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 10
  11. 11. Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Nonverbal communication. – Occurs through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures. – Gives clues to what a person is really thinking. – Two important aspects of nonverbal communication. • Kinesics  the study of gestures and body postures. • Proxemics  the study of how space is utilized. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 11
  12. 12. Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Active listening. – Ability to listen well is a distinct asset. – Everyone needs to develop good skills in active listening. – Active listening is the ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 12
  13. 13. Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Guidelines for active listening. – Listen for content. – Listen for feelings. – Respond to feelings. – Note all cues. – Reflect back. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 13
  14. 14. Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Cross-cultural communication. – Ethnocentrism. • The tendency to believe that one’s culture and its values are superior to those of others. – Cross-cultural communication challenges. • Language differences. • Use of gestures. – One of the best ways to understand cultural differences is to learn some of the language. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 14
  15. 15. Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Physical distractions. – Any aspect of the physical setting in which communication takes place. – Can interfere with communication effectiveness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 15
  16. 16. Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Semantic problems. – Involves a poor choice or use of words. – Use the KISS principle of communication. • “Keep it short and simple.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 16
  17. 17. Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Mixed messages. – Occur when a person’s words communicate one thing while actions or body language communicates another. – Nonverbals add important insights in face-to- face meetings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 17
  18. 18. Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Absence of feedback. – One-way communication flows from sender to receiver only, with no direct and immediate feedback. – Two-way communication goes from sender to receiver and back again. – Two-way communication is more effective than one-way communication. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 18
  19. 19. Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Status effects. – Status differences create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks . – Mum effect. • Occurs when people are reluctant to transmit bad news. – Management by wandering around (MBWA). • Getting out of the office to directly communicate with others as they do their jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 19
  20. 20. Study Question 4: What are currentissues in organizational communication? Advances in information technologies enable organizations to: – Distribute information much faster. – Make more information available. – Allow broader and more immediate access to information. – Encourage participation in the sharing and use of information. – Integrate systems and functions, and use information to link with the environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 20
  21. 21. Study Question 4: What are currentissues in organizational communication? Potential disadvantages of electronic communications. – Technologies are impersonal. – Nonverbal communication is removed from situation. – Can unduly influence the emotional aspects of communication. – Information overload. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 21
  22. 22. Study Question 4: What are currentissues in organizational communication? Communication and social context. – Mean and women are socialized into different communication styles. • Women are socialized to be more sensitive to interpersonal relationships in communication. • Men are socialized to be competitive, aggressive, and individualistic, which may cause communication problems. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 22
  23. 23. COPYRIGHTCopyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express writtenpermission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for furtherinformation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own useonly and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes noresponsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of theseprograms or from the use of the information contained herein. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 23

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