Organizational   Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and       Osborn                 Prepared by             Michael K. McCu...
Chapter 6 Study Questions What is motivation? What do the content theories suggest about  individual needs and motivatio...
Study Question 1:What is motivation? Motivation refers to forces within an individual  that account for the level, direct...
Study Question 1:What is motivation? Categories of motivation theories.   – Content theories.      • Focus on profiling t...
Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Content theories.   – Motiva...
Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation?             Organizational Be...
Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? ERG theory.  – Existence nee...
Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Acquired needs theory.   – N...
Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation?             Organizational Be...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Process theories.  – Focus on the thou...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Equity theory.   – People gauge the fa...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Equity restoration behaviors.  – Chang...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Coping methods for dealing with equity...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation?             Organizational Behavior: Ch...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? A person’s motivation is a multiplicat...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Extrinsic rewards.  – Positively value...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of ext...
Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of ext...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Reinforcement.  – The administrat...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation?             Organizational Behavio...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Law of effect.  – Theoretical bas...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation?             Organizational Behavio...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational behavior modificat...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Positive reinforcement.  – The ad...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Principles governing reinforcemen...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Scheduling reinforcement.  – Cont...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation?             Organizational Behavio...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Negative reinforcement.  – Also k...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Punishment.  – The administration...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Implications of using punishment....
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Extinction.  – The withdrawal of ...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation?             Organizational Behavio...
Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Ethical issues with reinforcement...
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Ch06

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Ch06

  1. 1. Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  2. 2. Chapter 6 Study Questions What is motivation? What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 2
  3. 3. Study Question 1:What is motivation? Motivation refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. – Direction — an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives. – Level — the amount of effort a person puts forth. – Persistence — the length of time a person stays with a given action. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 3
  4. 4. Study Question 1:What is motivation? Categories of motivation theories. – Content theories. • Focus on profiling the needs that people seek to fulfill. – Process theories. • Focus on people’s thought or cognitive processes. – Reinforcement theories. • Emphasize controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 4
  5. 5. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Content theories. – Motivation results from the individual’s attempts to satisfy needs. Major content theories. – Hierarchy of needs theory. – ERG theory. – Acquired needs theory. – Two-factor theory. Each theory offers a slightly different view. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 5
  6. 6. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 6
  7. 7. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? ERG theory. – Existence needs. • Desire for physiological and material well-being. – Relatedness needs. • Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships. – Growth needs. • Desire for continued personal growth and development. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 7
  8. 8. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Acquired needs theory. – Need for achievement (nAch). • The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. – Need for affiliation (nAff). • The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others. – Need for power (nPower). • The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 8
  9. 9. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 9
  10. 10. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Process theories. – Focus on the thought processes through which people choose among alternative courses of action. The chapter focuses on two process theories: – Equity theory. – Expectancy theory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 10
  11. 11. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Equity theory. – People gauge the fairness of their work outcomes in relation to others. – Felt negative inequity. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively less than others in proportion to work inputs. – Felt positive inequity. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively more than others in proportion to work inputs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 11
  12. 12. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Equity restoration behaviors. – Change work inputs. – Change the outcomes received. – Leave the situation. – Change the comparison person. – Psychologically distort the comparisons. – Take actions to change the inputs or outputs of the comparison person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 12
  13. 13. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Coping methods for dealing with equity comparisons. – Recognize that equity comparisons are inevitable in the workplace. – Anticipate felt negative inequities when rewards are given. – Communicate clear evaluations for any rewards given. – Communicate an appraisal of performance on which the reward is based. – Communicate comparison points that are appropriate in the situation Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 13
  14. 14. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 14
  15. 15. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? A person’s motivation is a multiplicative function of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence (M = E x I x V). Motivational implications of expectancy theory. – Motivation is sharply reduced when, expectancy, instrumentality, or valence approach zero. – Motivation is high when expectancy and instrumentality are high and valence is strongly positive. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 15
  16. 16. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Extrinsic rewards. – Positively valued work outcomes given to the individual by some other person. Intrinsic rewards. – Positively valued work outcomes that the individual receives directly as a result of task performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 16
  17. 17. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards. – Clearly identify the desired behaviors. – Maintain an inventory of rewards that have the potential to serve as positive reinforcers. – Recognize individual differences in the rewards that will have a positive value for each person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 17
  18. 18. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards (cont.). – Let each person know exactly what must be done to receive a desirable reward; set clear target antecedents and give performance feedback. – Allocate rewards contingently and immediately upon the appearance of the desired behaviors. – Allocate rewards wisely in terms of scheduling the delivery of positive reinforcement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 18
  19. 19. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Reinforcement. – The administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior. – Proper management of reinforcement can change the direction, level, and persistence of an individual’s behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 19
  20. 20. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 20
  21. 21. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Law of effect. – Theoretical basis for manipulating consequences of behavior. – Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 21
  22. 22. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 22
  23. 23. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod). – The systematic reinforcement of desirable work behavior and the nonreinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior. – Uses four basic strategies: • Positive reinforcement. • Negative reinforcement. • Punishment. • Extinction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 23
  24. 24. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Positive reinforcement. – The administration of positive consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. – Rewards are not necessarily positive reinforcers. – A reward is a positive reinforcer only if the behavior improves. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 24
  25. 25. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Principles governing reinforcement. – Law of contingent reinforcement. • The reward must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited. – Law of immediate reinforcement. • The reward must be given as soon as possible after the desired behavior is exhibited. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 25
  26. 26. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Scheduling reinforcement. – Continuous reinforcement. • Administers a reward each time the desired behavior occurs. – Intermittent reinforcement. • Rewards behavior periodically — either on the basis of time elapsed or the number of desired behaviors exhibited. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 26
  27. 27. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 27
  28. 28. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Negative reinforcement. – Also known as avoidance. – The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in a similar setting. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 28
  29. 29. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Punishment. – The administration of negative consequences or the withdrawal of positive consequences to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 29
  30. 30. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Implications of using punishment. – Punishing poor performance enhances performance without affecting satisfaction. – Arbitrary and capricious punishment leads to poor performance and low satisfaction. – Punishment may be offset by positive reinforcement from another source. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 30
  31. 31. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Extinction. – The withdrawal of the reinforcing consequences for a given behavior. – The behavior is not unlearned; it simply is not exhibited. – The behavior will reappear if it is reinforced again. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 31
  32. 32. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 32
  33. 33. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Ethical issues with reinforcement usage. – Is improved performance really due to reinforcement? – Is the use of reinforcement demeaning and dehumanizing? – Will managers abuse their power by exerting external control over behavior? – How can we ensure that the manipulation of consequences is done in a positive and constructive fashion? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 33
  34. 34. COPYRIGHTCopyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express writtenpermission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for furtherinformation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own useonly and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes noresponsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of theseprograms or from the use of the information contained herein. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 34

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