Analyzing Types of Bilingual Education


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Language education reflects largely unstated government policies, mainstream cultural values, and minority group aspirations. Their diverse aims result in monolingualism or various types of bilingual education, weak or strong forms in terms of bilingual outcomes among students. This presentation shows how 10 cases of school systems in Japan and the world can be analyzed into types of bilingual education.

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Analyzing Types of Bilingual Education

  1. 1. Classes with students of different native languages Native NativeJapanese English Students learnspeakers speakers from each other learn learn English Japanese Japanese and English native speaking teachers
  2. 2. Presentation Handouts Aims and Types of Bilingual Education There are “varying aims of bilingual education” because it “does notnecessarily concern the balanced use of two languages in theclassroom. Behind bilingual education are varying and conflictingphilosophies and politics of what education is for” (Baker, 2001, pp.193). These different aims then lead to various actual school systems ofmonolingual or bilingual education. 「バイリンガル教育では必ずしも、2つの言語が教室で均等に使用されるわけではない。バイリンガル教育の背後には、何のために教育を行うというかということに関して、相反するさまざまな考え方がある。」(Oka, 1996, p. 182). そうして、それぞれの目的がさまざまな実際の1言語や2言語による教育制度で現れる。One activity is to say which of the following aims you think are good foreveryone in a society. A more advanced activity would be to match theaims with the Types of Bilingual Education that each aim might lead to.
  3. 3. Varying Aims of Bilingual Education (バイリンガル教育のさまざまな目的)1. To assimilate individuals or groups into the mainstream of society (個人や集団を社会の主流へと同化させる).2. To unify a multilingual society (多言語社会を統一する).3. To enable people to communicate with the outside world (人々が外の世界とコミュニケーションができるようにする).4. To provide language skills which are marketable, aiding employment and status (雇用や地位の面で役に立つ言語技能を身につけさせる).5. To preserve ethnic and religious identity (民族的、宗教的アイデンティティを保つ).6. To reconcile and mediate between different linguistic and political communities (言語、政治の面で異なる共同体の間を仲裁し、和解させる).7. To spread the use of a colonial language (宗主国の言語の使用を広める).8. To strengthen elite groups and preserve their position in society (エリート集団を強化して、社会の中でその地位を保持する).9. To give equal status in law to languages of unequal status in daily life (法律によって、日常生活の中で不平等な地位にある言語に平等な地位を与える).10. To deepen understanding of language and culture (言語や文化への理解を深める). Adapted from Baker (2001, p. 193) and Oka (1996, p. 182).
  4. 4. Cases of Bilingual Education in the WorldActivities: Using the information on the following slides, consider the “10 Cases ofLanguages in Education” one at a time. The cases describe various realisticsituations in the world where languages are connected to education. Considerhow the varying aims and other factors lead to the chart of “Types of BilingualEducation” based on Baker (1993, 2001) and Oka (1996). Next use the templateto make a paragraph for each case assigned to your group by deciding on one ofthe choices in boldface type for each factor. Then have one person say it out loudto everyone. An extra activity is to describe a school system in another region ofthe world for everyone to analyze. ReferencesBaker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (3rd ed.). Clevedon,UK: Multilingual Matters.Oka, H. (1996). Bairingaru kyoiku to daini gengo shutoku [Bilingual education and secondlanguage acquisition]. Tokyo: Taishukan Shoten. (岡秀夫 (訳)『バイリンガル教育と第二言語習得』。東京:大修館書店。[Baker 1st ed. (1993)の翻訳です].)Ruiz, R. (1984). Orientations in language planning. NABE Journal, 8(2), 15-34.[Ruiz is the original source that authorities view language as a problem, resource, or right]
  5. 5. 10 Cases of Languages in Education1. Native speakers of Japanese start studying English in the 5th grade of elementaryschool and several hours a week from junior high school. This is because English as anInternational Language may be valuable for their future studies and career.2. Immigrants from South America and Asia are working in a small city in Japan wherethere are not many other foreigners. Their children can study only in regular publicschool classes.3. There are Korean and Chinese ethnic schools in Japan. They teach Korean or Chineselanguage and culture. Including Japanese and some English, students may becomebilingual or multilingual to some extent.4. An American Indian tribe tries to keep their children in their home region, to protecttheir language and culture, so they teach subjects mostly through their native language,using some English where it is necessary.5. In some areas of Africa, black Africans are isolated from government support andsuffer from problems like child labor. Their children do not have the choice to study in aregional or international language like Swahili, Arabic, French or English, which could liftthem out of poverty. Such African villages must try to conduct their own education intheir native language.
  6. 6. 6. Many Canadian Eskimos wish to maintain their native language and culture, but also totrade with others in North America. The government recognizes their right to keep theirnative language and helps their children learn English along with their native language.7. Most Canadians speak English, but people in the province of Quebec are mostly nativespeakers of French. Canada has a bilingual and multicultural policy with both English andFrench as official languages. Many schools in Quebec conduct classes in English at leasthalf of the time.8. Mexican immigrants to the United States are often seen as having difficulty in schooland adjusting to American society because they speak Spanish. Many of their children aretherefore taught in simple English or regularly taken out of mainstream classes for lessonsin English as a Second Language (ESL).9. Uyghur children receive education only in Chinese. The government has called it“bilingual education” in a press release that appeared in international news. RecentlyUyghur students have been urged to live in dormitories at school and see their parentsmostly during vacations.10. A small number of American schools form classes with about half English and halfSpanish native speakers (or native speakers of other languages, including Japanese). Thetwo languages are alternated in the curriculum, both cultures are valued, and the studentscan help each other.
  7. 7. Paragraph Template for Analyzing each CaseI (or We) think that … Leaders of the society or community see different languages as a[ problem | resource | right | human right as well as a resource].The leaders are trying to [ change | maintain | develop ] the native language use ofchildren.This education is for language [ majority | minority | majority and minority ] students.Education for these students is mostly in their [ native | second | foreign ] language.This education is for the purpose of [ assimilation of language minority students intothe majority culture | separation of an ethnic group from the mainstream culture |maintenance of a minority or ethnic language | enrichment of language majoritystudents | encouraging linguistic diversity and multiculturalism ].The result of the educational system is [ elite (or elective) | folk (or circumstantial) ]and [ additive | subtractive | monolingualism, not a kind of ] bilingualism. (continued next slide)
  8. 8. It is [ a strong form | a weak form | not really a type ] of bilingual education. This is because [ students may be bilingual but their native language is not used in school | students learn all subjects in their native language | students take some foreign language classes taught in their native language | students learn in two languages but not enough to become bilingual | students can get enough input and interaction in both languages to become bilingual (and bicultural) ]. This type of bilingual education is [ submersion | submersion with pull-out or sheltered second language classes | segregationist | transitional | mainstream with foreign language teaching | separatist | immersion | maintenance or heritage language | two-way or dual language | mainstream bilingual ]. AppendixThe following details can be added to the analysis if an educational program is called immersion:It is [ actually enrichment, because the teaching is less than 50% in the second language |partial immersion | total immersion ]. It is [ not immersion | early immersion (startingaround pre-school) | middle immersion (starting around elementary school) | lateimmersion (starting around junior high school)].
  9. 9. Sources (other than the author)Seigakuin Atlanta International School: animals & Multi-colored parakeets: shared on FacebookMulticultural school: Naito Shingo, JICA TokyoCreative Commons Image AttributionsSubmersion: http:// Road: http:// Types: Bilingual: FLT mitten: face: and students: Bilingualism and Japanology Intersection: