ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

AMERICAN
GOVERNMENT
AND CIVICS
Encyclopedia of

American
Government
and Civics
Michael A. Genovese and Lori Cox Han
Encyclopedia of American Government and Civics
Copyright © 2009 by Michael A. Genovese and Lori Cox Han
All rights reserve...
Contents

List of Entries	
Introduction	
Contributor List	
Foundations and Background
of U.S. Government	
Civil Rights and...
LIST OF ENTRIES

FOUNDATIONS AND BACKGROUND OF
U.S. GOVERNMENT

Mayflower Compact
monarchy
natural rights
New Jersey Plan
...
viii List of Entries

equality
equal protection
freedom
freedom of association
freedom of religion
freedom of speech
freed...
List of Entries

legislative process
Library of Congress
logrolling
party politics
pork-barrel expenditures
private bills
...
x List of Entries

signing statements
solicitor general, U.S.
State of the Union Address
transitions
treaty making
unitary...
List of Entries

initiative (direct democracy)
intergovernmental relations
justices of the peace
legislative process, stat...
INTRODUCTION

In the end, this definition seems to both avoid and
embrace the many contradictions and complexities
that ma...
xiv I ntroduction

citizens and how they participate within the political, electoral, and policymaking processes. The
ency...
CONTRIBUTOR LIST

Dawson, Jill, University of Idaho
Delja, Denis M., Independent Scholar
Devine, James, Loyola Marymount U...
xvi C ontributor List

Henderson, Robert E., Independent Scholar
Hodapp, Paul, University of Northern Colorado
Hoff, Samue...
Contributor List

Sussman, Glen, Old Dominion University
Tadlock, Barry L., Ohio University
Tatalovich, Raymond, Loyola Un...
FOUNDATIONS AND BACKGROUND
OF U.S. GOVERNMENT

accountability

checking and balancing the others. Not trusting
power in th...
2 ac countability

government documents as “secret,” in limiting access
to information, and in the exercise of secrecy, ev...
Albany Plan of Union 3

ordered President Nixon to turn over the tapes in a
criminal case involving several high administr...
4 antif ederalists

And while the Iroquois Confederacy served as a
model for Franklin’s Plan for Union, the new government...
antifederalists 5

tion of newspaper articles written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, arguing in favor...
6 antif ederalists

right for the federalist position, and the time had
passed for the antifederalists. The antifederalist...
Articles of Confederation 7

reserved others to the states. It is over this concept
of federalism that we still have polit...
8 Ar ticles of Confederation

if there were 13 separate and semi-independent
sovereign states, with a mere umbrella of a f...
Bill of Rights 9

Another reason for the failure of the Articles of
Confederation is that they were in many ways a first
a...
10 Bill of Rights

might create a monarch. As the debates over ratification heated up, it became clear that the key issue ...
Bill of Rights 11

the bounds of the Bill of Rights, the government can
only go so far, and no further. It makes for a com...
12 checks and balances

checks and balances
A central feature of the American system known as
the separation of powers hol...
checks and balances

effective in preventing tyranny it has not always been
effective in promoting efficient government. B...
14 checks and balances

powers. Even those who do not see the emergence
of an imperial presidency do concede that the pres...
colonial governments 15

Further Reading
Goldwin, Robert A. and Art Kaufman. Separation
of Powers—Does It Still Work? Wash...
16 c olonial governments

which considered colonists to be servants of the company. In 1664, the colony was surrendered to...
commerce clause 17

load. Rules and procedures were adopted, and staff
and facilities were provided. In many ways colonial...
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American government & sivics
American government & sivics
American government & sivics
American government & sivics
American government & sivics
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American government & sivics
American government & sivics
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