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Training and Simulation for Decision Makers


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A presentation on defence training and simulation for non experts and policy makers

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Training and Simulation for Decision Makers

  1. 1. IQPC International Armoured Vehicles Conference – Farnborough UK 7 February 2013 Training and Simulation for Decision Makers Andy Fawkes
  2. 2. Overview• Training and Education• Simulation• Live-Simulation Balance• Beyond Simulation• Beyond Training
  3. 3. Training and Education
  4. 4. UK Military Training and Education• Scale - 257,160 Military/Civilian (2011)• Depth – eg. Fighter Pilot, Reactor Operator• Breadth – Apache Pilot through to Cook• Flexibility – Changing Operations Source DASA:- UK Defence Statistics 2011
  5. 5. How do the Armed Forces Achieve this Level of Training and Education Capability? • The Military understands that training and education is fundamental to their endeavour • People are assessed by how well they do in Training • Career progression depends on training and education • Much of military life is spent training and exercising • Lessons Learnt are fed back
  6. 6. Armoured Vehicle Training and Education • Individual • Crew • Collective • Joint • Combined • Support and Maintenance • OA, Experimentation and Acquisition
  7. 7. Simulation
  8. 8. What is Simulation? Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time Typically a military training simulation is interactive, with a “human in the loop” eg. a flight simulator or driving simulatorSource: Wikipedia; Pictures: Lockheed Martin, Royal Navy, CAE, PA
  9. 9. Why Use Simulation?Improve SafetyTrainingReduce Reduce Costs Environmental Impact Reduce Time to Train
  10. 10. Nothing New? Predominantly Mechanical Era Images - Imperial War Museum
  11. 11. Predominantly Bespoke Electronic Era Images: Lockheed Martin
  12. 12. Networked Simulation – SIMNET – 1980s/90s
  13. 13. Predominantly Consumer-Driven Digital Era The Defence Equipment Plan 2012 Images: MoD, Royal Navy, Army, Bohemia
  14. 14. Trends1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Cloud? Mobile? Predominantly Digital Consumer Predominantly Bespoke Electronic Predominantly Mechanical1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s
  15. 15. Access to Simulation 1000’sNumbers 100’s 10’s 1990 2000 2010
  16. 16. Live-Simulation Balance
  17. 17. Live-Synthetic Balance!!   ? * # ! ?
  18. 18. The Mysteries of Simulation CGF VV&A LVC SEDRIS SOAP DIS MSHTF TENA Agent-based DTEC HLA RTI Architectures ASP Federate SISO SCORM CBML CORBA DLP AI MCTS AR DTED Serious Gaming SEBA CATT VR Distributed M&S AVCATT Monte Carlo FOM NMSG Human-in-the-loop DoDAFsynthetic environment DSALT ITEC BOM Latency I/ITSEC Emulation Constructive Accreditation
  19. 19. Cost of Training?Weapons FuelPlatforms People Fuel Simulation People Estate Estate Live Simulation
  20. 20. How much? ?• “Cost Simulation 20% of Live Training” • “Save £100m‟s” $£ • “Cost Simulation 5% of Live Training” • “Training 20% of Defence Budget” €
  21. 21. The Live Synthetic Balance• Language – What does the word “Synthetic” Convey?• Culture - “Live will never be replaced”• Assessing Training Cost Effectiveness is Difficult• The simulation needs to be in place first• Technology is Changing and so do Operations• How often do we change the Way we Manage?
  22. 22. Simulation Cost/Capability Spectrum Expanding£20m+ areas: Full Motion£5m Simulators Part Task£1m Trainers Mission Trainers Training Media Individual Crew Collective
  23. 23. Tomorrow’s Conflict Nature of Conflict Role of Simulation• Joint/Combined Competency/Familiarity• Preparation – Short notice Deployed, in theatre training – Distributed planning/training Course of Action analysis• Duration No planned Msn Specific – Shorter than HERRICK(!) Training• „More-from-less‟ Max efficiency thru rehearsal• Area of Operations Familiarisation (database) – Unfamiliar – (non/semi)permissive? Force-on-Force preparation• Political complexities Minimising risk (rehearsals)
  24. 24. Beyond Simulation
  25. 25. And it‟s not just Simulation….. 20 Years Ago
  26. 26. Now - Training and Education
  27. 27. Knowledge in Your Hands
  28. 28. Digital and Online Classrooms South Korea 2015 Florida 2015Stanford University 2012 - 23,000 Graduates
  29. 29. Recruit Expectations
  30. 30. Time Spent in Training and Education? Now “Classroom” “Simulation” “Live” Future?“Classroom” “Simulation” “Live”
  31. 31. Barriers LearningSimulation Tech Office and C2 Systems
  32. 32. Convergence? LearningSimulation Tech Office and C2 Systems
  33. 33. Improved Interoperability and Collective Training Training and Education Operating Model? Co-ordination Unification • Diverse Software, • Single Infrastructure Organisation Integration Shared Data & Network and Services Diversification Replication • Diverse Software, no • Similar Software, no Data Sharing & Data Sharing & Network Network Organisation Standardisation Decreasing Procurement Costs? Less Innovation? Derived from MIT Sloan School of Management
  34. 34. Getting it WrongPhotograph: Alamy
  35. 35. Beyond Training
  36. 36. Military & Civilian Technology Convergence?
  37. 37. and there’s more… Interfaces & Augmented Reality Images: Microsoft, Organic Motion
  38. 38. and there’s even more… Sensors“Internet of Things” Image Paul Sloan/CNET Image Beam Technologies Image CES
  39. 39. The Future of Knowledge and Skills? Larry Page - 2004 "Search will be included in peoples brains…. Eventually, youll have the implant, where if you think about a fact, it will just tell you the answer.“ Sergey Brin – 2012 “Youll ride in robot cars within 5 years” Images - Google
  40. 40. Train Less.. Train at All?
  41. 41. Diluting the Human Experience?Retaining the Ability to Manage the Human Aspects of Warfare
  42. 42. Who/What is the Technology Benefitting? • The Organisation – eg. improved cost effectiveness • The Trainee – eg. 24/7 access to knowledge • The Trainer – eg. audio/visual aids • All of the Above
  43. 43. Questions? ?