The Live/Synthetic Balance: Operational and Policy Perspectives


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The Live/Synthetic balance in defence simulation: Operational and Policy Perspectives

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  • Varies from system to system.Trend lines -
  • The Live/Synthetic Balance: Operational and Policy Perspectives

    1. 1. SMI Joint Forces Simulation and Training Conference – Farnborough UK 4/5 February 2013 THE LIVE/SYNTHETIC BALANCE: OPERATIONAL AND POLICY PERSPECTIVES Andy Fawkes & Rory Cunningham Pictures: BBC – Phil Coomes – Picture Editor
    2. 2. Live-Synthetic Balance!!   ? * # ! ?
    3. 3. OverviewPolicy Perspective Operational Perspective• Why Simulation • Cost vs Capability• Trends • COTS Technology• Beyond Simulation • What‟s being done• How to Respond • EDA• Future of Training? • Simulation For The Frontline • HERRICK • ELLAMY • Tomorrow‟s Conflict Summary
    4. 4. SMI Joint Forces Simulation and Training Conference – 4/5 February 2013The Live/Synthetic Balance: Operational and Policy Perspectives Policy Perspective Andy Fawkes
    5. 5. UK Military Training and Education• Scale - 257,160 Military/Civilian (2011)• Depth – eg. Fighter Pilot, Reactor Operator• Breadth – Apache Pilot through to Cook• Flexibility – Changing Operations Source DASA:- UK Defence Statistics 2011
    6. 6. Why Use Simulation?Improve SafetyTrainingReduce Reduce Costs Environmental Impact Reduce Time to Train
    7. 7. Cost of TrainingWeapons FuelPlatforms People Fuel Simulation People Estate Estate Live Simulation
    8. 8. How much? ?• “Cost Simulation 20% of Live Training” • “Save £100m‟s” $£ • “Cost Simulation 5% of Live Training” • “Training 20% of Defence Budget” €
    9. 9. The Mysteries of Simulation CGF VV&A LVC SEDRIS SOAP DIS MSHTF TENA Agent-based DTEC HLA RTI Architectures ASP Federate SISO SCORM CBML CORBA DLP AI MCTS AR DTED Serious Gaming SEBA CATT VR Distributed M&S AVCATT Monte Carlo FOM NMSG Human-in-the-loop DoDAFsynthetic environment DSALT ITEC BOM Latency I/ITSEC Emulation Constructive Accreditation
    10. 10. Nothing New? Predominantly Mechanical Era Images - Imperial War Museum
    11. 11. Predominantly Bespoke Electronic Era Images: Lockheed Martin
    12. 12. Predominantly Consumer-Driven Digital Era The Defence Equipment Plan 2012 Images: MoD, Royal Navy, Army, Bohemia
    13. 13. Trends1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Cloud? Mobile? Predominantly Digital Consumer Predominantly Bespoke Electronic Predominantly Mechanical1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s
    14. 14. Access to Simulation 1000’sNumbers 100’s 10’s 1990 2000 2010
    15. 15. The Live Synthetic Balance• Language – What does the word “Synthetic” Convey?• Culture - “Live will never be replaced”• Assessing Training Cost Effectiveness is Difficult• Technology is Changing and so do Operations• How often do we change the Way we Manage?
    16. 16. UK MoD - The Defence Equipment Plan 2012 “A priority for future investment when funds allow will be to expand our investment in simulated pilot training” 31 January 2013
    17. 17. And it‟s not just Simulation….. 20 Years Ago
    18. 18. Now - Training and Education
    19. 19. Knowledge in Your Hands
    20. 20. Recruit Expectations
    21. 21. Digital and Online Classrooms South Korea 2015 Florida 2015Stanford University 2012 - 23,000 Graduates
    22. 22. Time Spent in Training and Education?• Influence of Technology? Now “Classroom” “Simulation” “Live” Future? “Classroom” “Simulation” “Live”
    23. 23. Barriers LearningSimulation Tech Office and C2 Systems
    24. 24. Convergence? LearningSimulation Tech Office and C2 Systems
    25. 25. Improved Interoperability and Collective Training Training and Education Operating Model? Co-ordination Unification • Diverse Software, • Single Infrastructure Organisation Integration Shared Data & Network and Services Diversification Replication • Diverse Software, no • Similar Software, no Data Sharing & Data Sharing & Network Network Organisation Standardisation Decreasing Procurement Costs? Less Innovation? Derived from MIT Sloan School of Management
    26. 26. How should Organisations Respond? – UK MoD• The Defence Training and Education Capability (DTEC) programme takes an enterprise approach to training and simulation• An Enterprise approach to training and education technologies (including simulation) – Catalogue of software and services• Defence Systems Approach to Training – Understand the training requirement – Evaluate Source: - 9 Jan 13
    27. 27. Who/What is the Technology Benefitting? • The Organisation – eg. improved cost effectiveness • The Trainee – eg. 24/7 access to knowledge • The Trainer – eg. audio/visual aids • All of the Above Source DASA:- UK Defence Statistics 2011
    28. 28. The Future of Knowledge and Skills? Larry Page - 2004 "Search will be included in peoples brains…. Eventually, youll have the implant, where if you think about a fact, it will just tell you the answer.“ Sergey Brin – 2012 “Youll ride in robot cars within 5 years” Images - Google
    29. 29. Train Less.. Train at All?
    30. 30. Live and SimulationLess Simulation More SimulationOrganisational Inertia ResourcesCulture and Language Improving TechnologyLong Procurement OperationsStovepipes EnvironmentRisk Time and FlexibilityEvaluating Training Safety Issues are moving beyond Simulation
    31. 31. SMI Joint Forces Simulation and Training Conference – 4/5 February 2013 The Live/Synthetic Balance: Operational and Policy Perspectives Operational Perspective Rory Cunningham
    32. 32. Joint Forces Simulation and Training Does simulation have to be expensive?Why can’t the simulators connect with others? What can be done for less money? Why do I always need to re-train to use a different simulation package? Why should we travel to the simulator?
    33. 33. Simulation Cost/Capability Spectrum Expanding£20m+ areas: Full Motion£5m Simulators Part Task£1m Trainers Mission Trainers Training Media Individual Crew Collective
    34. 34. Commercial Off The Shelf Technology• Evidence of COTS synthetic training today: – EDA, Niteworks, NATO – Joint, Multinational, distributed synthetic training• Does it work? – Cost effective – Immersive – Flexible – 100% serviceability• Previous concerns with COTS: – Ability to model complex systems – Classification – Hardware
    35. 35. Joint Forces Simulation and Training - EDA’s ISHTC -• European Interim Support Helicopter Tactics Course• 3wk course – 10 per year• RAF Linton-On-Ouse Courtesy of EDA
    36. 36. Joint Forces Simulation and Training- Niteworks Training Transformation CCD - • Capability Concept Demonstrator • Defence Simulation Centre • A test bed for future Tactics Trainers; including targeted-fidelity, LVC blending, and distributed training Courtesy of Niteworks
    37. 37. Simulation For The FrontlineHow far forward should simulation be deployed?
    38. 38. Simulation For The Frontline Early/Initial Training Home Strategic Planning Pre Deployment Training Op/Tac Level Planning Deployed Mission Rehearsal/Prep Mission Post Mission - AAR Evaluate (systems/tactics) Home Develop future training
    39. 39. Live Vs Simulated - Op HERRICK - Live Simulated• The Gold standard Increasingly competent• Expensive Increasingly Cost Effective• Maximum Risk Minimal Risk• Availability of assets Distributed• Final Output Development/ Rehearsal
    40. 40. Simulation For The Frontline - Op HERRICK - Nature of Conflict Role of Simulation• Joint/Combined Competency/Familiarity• Established procedures Refinement/development• Minimal Risk Rehearsals• Corporate knowledge Roulement (RiPs)• Transitional nature Training & Mentoring
    41. 41. Simulation For The Frontline - Op ELLAMY - Nature of Conflict Role of Simulation• Joint/Combined Competency/Familiarity• Minimal preparation In-theatre training – No corporate knowledge Development of plans• Area of Operations – Vast/Unfamiliar Familiarisations (database) – Non-permissive Force-on-Force preparation• Politically Sensitive Minimising risk (rehearsals)
    42. 42. Tomorrow’s Conflict Nature of Conflict Role of Simulation• Joint/Combined Competency/Familiarity• Preparation – Short notice Deployed, in theatre training – Distributed planning/training Course of Action analysis• Duration No planned Msn Specific – Shorter than HERRICK(!) Training• „More-from-less‟ Max efficiency thru rehearsal• Area of Operations Familiarisation (database) – Unfamiliar – (non/semi)permissive? Force-on-Force preparation• Political complexities Minimising risk (rehearsals)
    43. 43. Summary
    44. 44. Live-Simulation Balance - Summary• Policy – Simulation and wider technologies can help to meet the significant challenges of today and tomorrow – Are organisations equipped to exploit technological trends as effectively as they did in the past? – Understanding the value of training and education is critical to making better decisions• Operational – Trust and understanding in simulation is improving – Emphasis on continuous demonstration followed by agile procurement to training services – EDA is currently delivering: Cost effective, Joint, Multinational, Distributed, Synthetic Training using COTS
    45. 45. Questions? ?