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Operational and Policy Perspectives to Mission Training & Simulation


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A co-presentation with Neil Sierens DFC at the Royal Aeronautical Society 13 June 2013. What makes good Mission Training? Drawing on recent operational experience in both Afghanistan and Libya, this presentation discusses the current state of the art. It then provides an historical context to where we are today and the challenges that organisations face in the delivery of Mission Training. Concluding, what is the future for Mission Training?

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Operational and Policy Perspectives to Mission Training & Simulation

  1. 1. OPERATIONAL AND POLICY PERSPECTIVES TOMISSION TRAINING & SIMULATIONAndy Fawkes & Neil SierensRoyal Aeronautical Society – 12/13 June 2013
  2. 2. • Operations – role of simulation• Policy – the journey to now• Operations – future requirements• Policy – a new way forwardContents
  3. 3. • Operations – role of simulation• Policy – the journey to now• Operations – future requirements• Policy – a new way forwardContents
  4. 4. What is the purpose of Mission Trainingand Simulation?• Mission preparation, in order to:– Maximising the effect of resources– Win the fight– De-risk the operationor
  5. 5. • Joint/Combined• Minimal risk appetite• Established procedures• Corporate knowledge• Transitional natureCompetency/FamiliarityMission rehearsalsRefinement/developmentRoulement (RiPs/HOTOs)Training & Mentoring toolNature of Conflict Role of SimulationOperation HERRICK - Afghanistan
  6. 6. Operation ELLAMY - Libya
  7. 7. • Joint/Combined• Politically Sensitive• Minimal preparation– No corporate knowledge• Area of Operations– Vast/Unfamiliar– Non-permissiveOperation ELLAMY - LibyaNature of Conflict Role of SimulationCompetency/FamiliarityMinimising risk (rehearsals)In-theatre trainingDevelopment of plansFamiliarisations (database)Force-on-Force preparation
  8. 8. Op ELLAMY – AH Strike Mission CompositionProtectionFind / Cue CoordinateC2
  9. 9. Planning / Briefing / Rehearsal / AAR
  10. 10. Mental Capacity Demands of a MissionAviateComms &ProceduresMission / SituationalawarenessEnemy ForcesFriendlyForcesInternal External othersFly ChecksCrew Training Mission Training
  11. 11. Military Simulators: One size doesn’t fit all(The right sim, in the right place, at the right time)
  12. 12. • Operations – role of simulation• Policy – the journey to now• Operations – future requirements• Policy – a new way forwardContents
  13. 13. Mission Training RequirementReflects theC4ISTAREasilyAccessibleReflects theOperation
  14. 14. Anything New?
  15. 15. 1960s - Mobile Simulation for B52sSource - A Career in Simulation - Jeff Beish(
  16. 16. SIMNET Vision - 1978Enemy aggression detected Planning a responseRehearsal and analysis Real time mission observationSource - Trends in Modeling, Simulation, & Gaming: Personal Observations about the Past ThirtyYears and Speculation about the Next Ten. Jack Thorpe, Ph.D.Networks of simulators that would be used for combat planning, rehearsal, and execution1 23 4
  17. 17. SIMNET Principles• “concepts which tightly align training systems withreal combat readiness and make themindistinguishable”• Best use of simulators might be for non-substitution tasks• Selective fidelity• The 60% solution– Fast approximate and cheap was better than slow,deliberate and expensiveTrends in Modelling, Simulation, & Gaming: Personal Observations about the Past Thirty Years andSpeculation about the Next Ten. Jack Thorpe, Ph.D.
  18. 18. 1990s and 2000s• 1990 – Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)• 1994 – US STOW-E (Synthetic Theater of War)• 1995 – High Level Architecture• 1999 – UK MTDS Concept• 2004 - NATO First Wave• 2005-8 UK MTDS CCD• 2006 - UK and Coalition Universal Networks• C4ISTAR/Simulation Interoperability Initiatives(eg. C-BML)
  19. 19. Challenges Now• Mission Training Requirement– Essentially remains the same• Research/Acquisition– Technology has changed, but little organisationalchange• Post Defence Reform– Delivering an enterprise approach in a more delegatedworld
  20. 20. • Operations – role of simulation• Policy – the journey to now• Operations – future requirements• Policy – a new way forwardContents
  21. 21. Tomorrow’s Conflict• Where?• What?• With who?• Against who?
  22. 22. Tomorrow’s Conflict• Joint/Combined• Preparation– Short notice– Distributed planning/training• Duration– Shorter that HERRICK(!)• „More-from-less‟• Area of Operations– Unfamiliar?– (non/semi)permissive?• Political complexitiesNature of ConflictCompetency/FamiliarityDeployed, in theatre trainingCourse of Action analysisNo planned Msn SpecificTrainingMax efficiency thru rehearsalFamiliarisation (database)Force-on-Force preparationMinimising risk (rehearsals)Role of Simulation
  23. 23. Deployed Mission SimulationAir/Land Maritime
  24. 24. • Operations – role of simulation• Policy – the journey to now• Operations – future requirements• Policy – a new way forwardContents
  25. 25. The Mission Training Requirement• Long Standing Vision• Operational Requirement Clear andUnchanging• Operation Specific RequirementUnpredictable• We have the Technology and Standards• Years of Research, Demonstration andReports• Mission training requires the rapid integrationof C4ISTAR and simulation elements
  26. 26. Organisational BoundariesOfficeSystemsOfficeSystemsSimSimSimSimSimSimSimDLPLearningTechLearningTechLearningTechLearningTechSimLearningTechISTARSystemsC2SystemsC2SystemsISTARSystemsOfficeSystems
  27. 27. Meeting the Mission Training Requirement• Rapidly reconfigurable networkedsimulation– Single network– Common rapidly available up-to-date simulation data– Minimal simulation software diversity– Targeted fidelity– 60% solution• Accessible/Mobile• Simulation and C4ISTAR Interoperability
  28. 28. ConvergenceSimulation& LearningTechnologiesOfficeSystemsC4ISTARSystems
  29. 29. Digital Convergence• Digital technology advances andconvergence offer the prospect ofchanging the way we create simulations,learn, deliver training content and interactwith each other• We may need to train lessSource - Digital Media Convergence in Flight Simulation and Training Conference 20/21 Nov 13
  30. 30. One Digital Acquisition OrganisationSimulationC4ISTAR SystemsLearning TechnologiesOffice Systems
  31. 31. Simulation for Operations:More than just training?• Exploiting the simulation facility• Collating, filtering, displayingthe information• Through-mission simulation
  32. 32. Enduring Principle• Focus on the Human Element of Warfareand Decision Making
  33. 33. Summary• The mission simulator must:– be easily accessible– represent the operation– represent the C4ISTAR• No new concepts..• Enduring requirement –Acquisition organisationchanges required?Representative
  34. 34. Questions??