pollution and environmental chemistry in ke

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pollution and environmental chemistry in ke

  1. 1. MEMBERS: MOHD AZIZI AL-HAFIZ BIN WIRZAL SITI NORATIKA BINTI AHMAD WAN NURUL SYAFAWANI BINTI WAN MOHD TAUFEK AIMAN ARIF BIN MOHAMED BUKHARY MOHAMAD ABDIN SHAKIRIN BIN SAMRI SITI ATIKAH BINTI KADIAN WAN MOHD HILMEY BIN W MOHD ARIFIN
  2. 2. PARAMETERS USED TO MEASURE WATER POLLUTION. • Dissolved Oxygen (DO) • pH • Temperature Change • Fecal Coliform • Nitrate content • Phosphate content • Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) • Turbidity
  3. 3. DISSOLVED OXYGEN
  4. 4. WHAT? • Amount of oxygen freely available in water. • From atmosphere and plant. • Running water dissolve more oxygen than still water.
  5. 5. WHY? • Aquatic animals consumes oxygen for their survival. • Decomposition. • Chemical reactions. • Stormwater runoff from farmland or urban streets, feedlots and failing septic system.
  6. 6. DEPENDING ON? • Water temperature. • Altitude.
  7. 7. DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN KELANTAN’S RIVER The DO levels of the Kelantan River varied from 5.60 to 6.57 mg/L
  8. 8. CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE AND pH VALUE • The water temperature is the most important ecological factor because it controls the physiological behavior and distribution of an organisms. (Krishnamoorthy,2011) • pH is one of the most important factors serves as index for pollution. (Tan and Rohasliney,2011)
  9. 9. Tan and Rohasliney,2011
  10. 10. Notes: Class Uses l -Conservation of natural environment - practically no treatment necessary (except by disinfection of boiling only) llA - conventional treatment required llB -Recreational use with body contact lll - extensive treatment required lV -Irrigation V -None of the above • Normal kelantan water temperature range is 25.29 - 25.98 celcius. (Tan and Rohasliney, 2011)
  11. 11. Wet and dry season • In wet season pH of the water in Kelantan ranged between 5.2 to 8.1, with an average of 6.5. While during dry season the well water samples become more acidic, with pH ranging between 4.7 and 6.9, with an average of 5.7. (Zani, Wahidah and Hasliza, 2005) • Based on the INWQS the wet season average falls into Class I, while the dry season falls into Class III category. This observation might be attributed to the great reduction in water volume in the wells during dry season.
  12. 12.  Form of bacteria found in human and animal waste.  From poor water treatment.  Do not dangerous as themselves but they may some lead to other disease.
  13. 13.  Found in ice cubes  Origin: poor quality of water in Kelantan.  The manufacturing of ice cubes are used this kind of water.  Ice cubes are distributed to all place.  Ice cubes are the necessity for Kelantanese in this hot weather.
  14. 14.  Food poisoning  Diarrhoea  Fever  Stomach ache  Headache
  15. 15.  District Number of Samples Total Coliform (MPN/100ml) E.coli (MPN/100ml) Salmonella species (MPN/100ml)  Bachok 40 215.73±1082.2 0.0 0.0  Gua Musang 21 62.48±158.2 24.95±104.37 0.0  Kota Bharu 76 1218.5±4062.9 7.93±32.55 0.33±0.88  Kuala Krai 22 1.45±4.15 0.09±0.43 0.0  Machang 20 8.80±22.85 4.05±12.52 0.0  Pasir Mas 55 4.62±21.39 1.69±9.67 0.0  Pasir Puteh 80 564.92±2377 4.88±30 0.0  Tanah Merah 20 2.45±3.97 0.10±0.447 0.0  Tumpat 120 10780±33814 5.14±19.55 0.03±0.288  Total 454 3175.94±18032 5.09±30.77 0.06±0.41
  16. 16.  http://www.msptm.org/files/71_- _76_Noor_Izani_N_J.pdf  http://h2o.water.gov.my/man_water/WRP21. pdf
  17. 17. • Kelantan River has been used heavily by the local people for I. Domestic uses II. Transportation III. Agriculture IV. Plantation irrigation V. Small scale fishing industries VI. Sand mining activities
  18. 18. • Kelantan River’s case study revealed that I. Nitrate contents were exceed the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standard (INWQS) range and were significance different Kota Bharu and Tanah Merah. II. Nitrate concentration of Kelantan River ranged from 13.3 to 21.7 mg/L, exceed INWQS range. Maximum concentration was observed at Kota Bharu and minimum at Tanah Merah.
  19. 19. I. High value of concentration of nitrate at Kota Bharu was due to the agricultural run-off as there were few agricultural sites along Kota Bharu. This indicated minimal influence of industrial effluents on Kelantan River ecosystem. II. Significance difference was found between Kuala Krai and Tanah Merah. Highest value of nitrite concentration was observed at Kuala Krai (0.183 + 0.122mg/L) and lowest value at Tanah Merah (0.098 + 0.030mg/L). (Tan and Rohasliney, 2011 )
  20. 20. I. Extreme high concentration of nitrate caused the poor and stressful condition for the aquatic life in Kelantan River. II. Nitrates are a measure of the oxidized form of nitrogen and are an essential macronutrient in aquatic environments. III. Nitrates can be harmful to humans, because our intestines can break nitrates down into nitrites, which affect the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen and cause serious illnesses in fish (Davis and McCuen, 2005).
  21. 21. Tan P. Y and Rohasliney H. (2011), Status of Water Quality Subject to Sand Mining in Kelantan River, Kelantan. Kubang Kerian : Universiti Sains Malaysia. REFERENCES
  22. 22. Total Dissolved Solids TDS
  23. 23. What is TDS • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are the total amount of mobile charged ions, including minerals, salts or metals dissolved in a given volume of water, expressed in units of mg per unit volume of water (mg/L), also referred to as parts per million (ppm). • TDS is directly related to the purity of water and the quality of water purification systems and affects everything that consumes, lives in, or uses water, whether organic or inorganic, whether for better or for worse. Sources - http://www.tdsmeter.com/what-is
  24. 24. Sources Dissolved Solids • Organic sources such as leaves, silt, plankton, and industrial waste and sewage. Other organic solids are runoff from urban areas, road salts used on street during the winter, and fertilizers and pesticides used on lawns and farms. • Inorganic materials such as rocks and air that may contain calcium bicarbonate, nitrogen, iron phosphorous, sulfur, and other minerals. Many of these materials form salts, which are compounds that contain both a metal and a nonmetal. Salts usually dissolve in water forming ions. Ions are particles that have a positive or negative charge. • Water may also pick up metals such as lead or copper as they travel through pipes used to distribute water to consumers. Sources - http://www.tdsmeter.com/what-is
  25. 25. Why we Should Measure TDS? • The EPA Secondary Regulations advise a maximum contamination level (MCL) of 500mg/liter (500 parts per million (ppm)) for TDS. Numerous water supplies exceed this level. When TDS levels exceed 1000mg/L it is generally considered unfit for human consumption. Sources - http://www.tdsmeter.com/what-is
  26. 26. Bar chart of TDS Levels in Groundwater at Kota Bharu Areas 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Feb May Sep Dec Feb Apr Jul Nov Tanjung Mas Pintu Geng Chicha TDS(mg/l) 2010 2011Month
  27. 27. Amount of TDS Recorded in Groundwater • Tanjung Mas • Average = 41.23 mg/l (2010) • Highest = 50.1 mg/l (February 2010) • Lowest = 32 mg/l (February 2010) • Pintu Geng • Average = 70.38 mg/l • Highest = 92.30 mg/l (November 2011) • Lowest = 48.4 mg/l (April 2011) Siti Halwani, M. N.(2012). Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Groundwater Quality at Kota Bahru, Kelantan, 1, pg. 50-51.
  28. 28. Amount of TDS Recorded in Groundwater • Pintu Geng • Average = 48.99mg/l • Highest = 51.90 mg/l (December 2010) • Lowest = 35.00 mg/l (February 2010) Siti Halwani, M. N.(2012). Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Groundwater Quality at Kota Bahru, Kelantan, 1, pg. 50-51.
  29. 29. From the research… • TDS levels for this area are small compared to the guidelines • Therefore, water in Kelantan is drinkable . Siti Halwani, M. N.(2012). Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Groundwater Quality at Kota Bahru, Kelantan, 1, pg. 50-51.
  30. 30. TOTAL PHOSPHATE
  31. 31. TOTAL PHOSPHATES • PHOSPHATES ARE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MADE FROM THE ELEMENTS PHOSPHOROUS AND OXYGEN; THEY ARE NECESSARY FOR PLANT AND ANIMAL GROWTH. PHOSPHATES CAN BE PRESENT IN WATER IN MANY FORMS, SO TOTAL PHOSPHATE GIVES AN ESTIMATE OF THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF PHOSPHATE POTENTIALLY AVAILABLE IN A GIVEN WATER SUPPLY.
  32. 32. NONPOINT SOURCES • NATURAL: PHOSPHATE DEPOSITS AND PHOSPHATE-RICH ROCKS RELEASE PHOSPHORUS DURING WEATHERING, EROSION, AND LEACHING (SMITH, 1990). • PHOSPHORUS MAY BE RELEASED FROM LAKE AND RESERVOIR BOTTOM SEDIMENTS DURING SEASONAL OVERTURNS.
  33. 33. ANTHROPOGENIC NONPOINT SOURCES • ANTHROPOGENIC: THE PRIMARY ANTHROPOGENIC NONPOINT SOURCES OF PHOSPHORUS INCLUDE RUNOFF FROM • 1) LAND AREAS BEING MINED FOR PHOSPHATE DEPOSITS • 2) AGRICULTURAL AREAS • 3) URBAN/RESIDENTIAL AREAS.
  34. 34. POINT SOURCES • POINT SOURCES: SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS PROVIDE MOST OF THE AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS TO SURFACE WATER BODIES. • ADDITIONAL PHOSPHORUS ORIGINATES FROM THE USE OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS, SUCH AS TOOTHPASTE, DETERGENTS, PHARMACEUTICALS, AND FOOD-TREATING COMPOUNDS.
  35. 35. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FRONTIERS OF ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND BIOSCIENCE
  36. 36. TABLE 1 SUMMARY • ALL SPECIES OF FREE-FLOATING AQUATIC PLANT ANALYSED AT KELANTAN WERE DETECTED WITH HIGH LEVEL OF PHOSPHATE AT LEVEL AT LEVEL III WHICH IS POLLUTED. • PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATION RANGE FROM 0.75 ± 0.19 MG/L TO 1.38 ± 0.80 MG/L DETECTED AT ALL LOCALITIES IN KELANTAN.
  37. 37. TURBIDITY • Measure of water clarity, how much the material suspended in water decreases the passage of light through the water. • Higher the intensity of scattered light, higher the turbidity. • Turbidity can affect the color of water. ¨Acquired from United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  38. 38. • Substances that can cause water to be turbid: –Soil particles • Clay • Silt • Sand –Algae –Plankton –Microbes –Other substances
  39. 39. Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) • Units for measuring turbidity. • Nephelometer @ turbidimeter is the instrument used to estimate light scattering from suspended particulate material.
  40. 40. Safe NTU Units • Raw Water (river, etc.) – 0-5 NTU • Treated Water (drinking water) –Less than 0.3 NTU ¨Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Programme (Ministry Of Health Malaysia)
  41. 41. ¨Adapted from Interim National Water Quality Standard for Malaysia (INWQS)
  42. 42. Main Kelantan River NTU Units • Kuala Krai – 672.00 • Tanah Merah – 264.98 • Pasir Mas – 453.04 • Kota Bharu – 437.42 ¨The American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information (AENSI)
  43. 43. ¨Adapted from "Turbidty: A Water Quality Measure“. (http://www.waterontheweb.org/)
  44. 44. Biological Oxygen Demand
  45. 45. BOD • The biological oxygen demand is defined as the ‘measure of dissolved oxygen required to decompose the organic matter in water biologically’ • Normally, it is measured over 5 days
  46. 46. What’s it for then? • Since most aquatic organisms need oxygen to carry out anaerobic respiration/ photosynthesis… • Water with High BOD, but can’t replenish oxygen fast enough, won’t be able to meet the needs of the aquatic community… • …Hence they will eventually suffocate
  47. 47. Some Comparisons… • Rapid waters can rapidly replenish Oxygen supply due to its fast flow • Lakes are less efficient at doing this • Pure water BOD = 1 ppm • Polluted water BOD = 5 ppm or above
  48. 48. Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Decomposition Element Aerobic Decay Product Anaerobic decay product C CO2 CH4 N NO3 NH3 H H2O CH4, NH3, H2S, H2O S SO4²- H2S P PO4³- PH3
  49. 49. Eutrophication Excess of nitrates/ artificial fertilisers/ phosphates Excessive growth of plants/ algae Dissolved O2 not sufficient to cope with anaerobic decomposition NH3, H2S, PH3 poison water Aquatic species dies MORE anaerobic decay Lake = Devoid of life
  50. 50. Thermal Water Pollution • Thermal pollution is the ‘degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature’
  51. 51. Sources • 1. Careless discharge of heated water – i.e. in industrial places • 2. Removal of shading vegetation
  52. 52. Effects 1. • Increase Water Temperature 2. • Solubility of Water decreases 3. • Metabolic rate of aquatic organisms increases 4. • Demand for O2 increases
  53. 53. CONCLUSION. • Kelantan water are clean except for a certain parameters (Turbidity, Nitrate) which exceed the limit provide by INWQS and need further treatment. • This might be due to sand mining, upstream logging activities near the area and others.

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