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MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA: A CASE
STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
PRESENTED BY:
CHRISTINE...
ii
DECLARATION
We declare that this research project report is my original work and has not been submitted to any
other Un...
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to acknowledge God for giving us the serenity to undertake this study. We
would also lik...
iv
DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to our parents for the massive support in our undergraduate education
and to the Scho...
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page...............................................................................................
vi
3.3.2 Sample Size.........................................................................................................
vii
List of Figures and Tables
Figure 1 Conceptual Framework ................................................................
viii
ABSTRACT
This study was on the mobile phone usage by the University of Nairobi Students. The focus
was on exploring t...
1
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
This chapter covers the background of the study, problem statement, objectives, scope ...
2
greater access to public information and foster targeted services delivery to the poor and
marginalized.
In a rejoinder,...
3
Students are depicted as the category in the world populations and they value their electronic
gadgets for certain grati...
4
sending or receiving SMS. Recently a research done in Kenya focused on the acquisition,
usage and impact of cell phone t...
5
Key Terms: Mobile phone, Mobile phone usage, Gender difference, University students
1.5 Research Questions
The following...
6
and the levels of mobile phone ownership. This will be key in understanding how the mobile
technology aide students in t...
7
The study limitations were limited time frame to carry out the study and negative responses as
well as unanswered questi...
8
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses definition of Concepts, definition of Variables, historica...
9
(or software) to run on top. The hundreds and thousands of applications, which operate as
software in PCs and allow user...
10
oriented with goals of information seeking, communications, online transactions and
managing personal information. In a...
11
that text messaging and emailing are two of the most commonly used functions on smart
phones among college students, fo...
12
the USA and South Africa access websites through mobile phones, especially amongst the
lower income youth who do not ow...
13
Students at the University level prefer the use of some mobile features to some among them is
the use of Short Message ...
14
2012). Ogunyemi (2010) found that African male students living in the UK prefer to text in
order to show affection whil...
15
One of the objectives of the current study is to examine the gender difference in mobile phone
usage among university s...
16
2004, phones were made quite slimmer e.g. Motorola V3 model. When it comes to outer
design, the slide feature was made ...
17
Students. To this researching on the related studies will aid the researchers in the trends of
what has been done to av...
18
telephones compared to adolescent girls. The men reported to begin spending more time in
their late adolescence and pea...
19
differences may be attributed to cultural and legal differences between these countries, other
factors such as age or t...
20
else females were more dependent on the cell phone for sustain their social relationships, male
students use their mobi...
21
2.6 Theoretical Framework
This study will be modeled on the Uses and Gratification theory of communication. The
theory ...
22
The exploration of gratifications that motivate people to be attracted to certain media is almost
as old as empirical m...
23
gratification. In other words we can say this theory states what people do with media rather
than what media does to pe...
24
The basic postulates that the book points out is that “many of the goals media use can be
derived from data supplied by...
25
academic discourse and not just the priority given to the students (media users) in gratifying
their needs.
2.7 Concept...
26
This improves productivity in knowledge sharing and dissemination. As there will be more
productivity the innovations b...
27
3.0 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter presents a detailed description of research methodology. The methodology ...
28
3.3.3 Sampling Techniques
The study will employ probability sampling techniques in which simple random sampling will
be...
29
3.5.1 Validity
Validity controls employed in the research includes that of internal and external validity. To
ensure in...
30
researcher hopes to minimize the degree of error in the calculation of the confidence intervals
in random sampling.
3.7...
31
4.0 FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the findings of the research study, the analysis of data and descri...
32
4.2.2 Age
The ages of the sampled population was 18 years and above, precisely with a standard deviation of
0.765. A me...
33
4.2.3 Year of Study
Among the 300 respondents, 139 were first years(46%), 41 second years(14%), 45 third years(15%),
67...
34
Kabete Campus took the largest percentage of the sampled population with 36%, followed by Main
campus with 33% and Chir...
35
4.4.1 Basic Applications and the Levels of Usage
Feature phones among the sampled population were relatively fewer comp...
36
concern here is that the percentages of male and female users of the various applications are
based on the totals of ma...
37
% within
GEN
94.1% 94.4%
Bluetooth
Count 141 101 242
% within
GEN
92.8% 93.5%
Cloud Storage Google
Drive Dropbox
Count ...
38
195 students are very satisfied with their phones, 21 of them are satisfied, 4 are dissatisfied
and 71 are very dissati...
39
4.5 Mobile Phone Usage for Academic Purposes
In this study, the mobile phone type (feature phone or smart phone) influe...
40
In detail, 82 students (40 male and 42 female) use their mobile phones to discuss and/or pass
information about class a...
41
Table 14: Gender * Seek/exchange research information (Cross-tabulation)
Count
How often do you use your mobile phone f...
42
In Table 17, majority of students (246) confirmed (very) often using their mobile phones for
social networking, with th...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -...
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Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

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Wanekeya R et al;B.A Journalism and Media Studies Research Project_MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA -A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

  1. 1. i MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI PRESENTED BY: CHRISTINE AKINYI OGUTU- K59/35935/2010 ABRAHAM MARIITA- K59/34473/2011 ELKANA FAITH NYAKERARIO- K59/35402/2011 RICHARD WANEKEYA- K59/27471/2009 JOCHEBED EMALI AKOTH- K59/32170/2010 Research Project Submitted In Partial Fulfillment for the Award of A Bachelor of Arts Degree In Journalism And Media Studies at the School of Journalism and Mass Communication University of Nairobi. October, 2014
  2. 2. ii DECLARATION We declare that this research project report is my original work and has not been submitted to any other University or College for award of diploma or degree NAME: CHRISTINE AKINYI OGUTU ABRAHAM MARIITA ELKANA FAITH NYAKERARIO RICHARD WANEKEYA JOCHEBED EMALI AKOTH Signature…………………………………Date……………………………………… Signature…………………………………Date……………………………………… Signature…………………………………Date……………………………………… Signature…………………………………Date……………………………………… Signature…………………………………Date……………………………………… I certify that this project report has been submitted for examination with approval as the university supervisor NAME : DR. HEZRON MOGAMBI Signature…………………………………Date………………………………………
  3. 3. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge God for giving us the serenity to undertake this study. We would also like to thank the School of Journalism and Mass Communication for equipping us with the necessary skills to carry out the project. Further we would like to thank Mr. Meshack Mutua and Mr Fredrick Ojigo for the massive support throughout the study.
  4. 4. iv DEDICATION This work is dedicated to our parents for the massive support in our undergraduate education and to the School of Journalism and Mass Communication for granting us an opportunity to undertake a degree in Journalism and further equipping us with the necessary skills in Journalism and Media Studies.
  5. 5. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Cover Page.......................................................................................................................i Declaration.......................................................................................................................ii Acknowledgement...........................................................................................................iii Dedication........................................................................................................................iv Table of Contents............................................................................................................v List of Table and Figures…. ..........................................................................................vii Abstract…………….……………………………..…………………………………….viii 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................1 1.2 Background of the study.............................................................................................1 1.3 Problem statement.......................................................................................................3 1.4 Purpose of the Study...................................................................................................4 1.4.1 Specific Objectives ..................................................................................................4 1.5 Research Questions.....................................................................................................5 1.6 Hypothesis...................................................................................................................5 1.7 Significance of the Study............................................................................................5 1.8 Scope and Limitations of the study.............................................................................6 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................8 2.2 Definition of Concepts................................................................................................8 2.3 Definition of Variables ...............................................................................................11 2.4 Historical Trends.........................................................................................................15 2.5 Related Studies............................................................................................................16 2.6 Theoretical Framework...............................................................................................21 2.7 Conceptual Framework...............................................................................................25 3.0 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................27 3.2 Research Design..........................................................................................................27 3.3 Population and Sampling............................................................................................27 3.3.1 Target Population.....................................................................................................27
  6. 6. vi 3.3.2 Sample Size..............................................................................................................27 3.3.3 Sampling Techniques...............................................................................................28 3.4 Data Collection ...........................................................................................................28 3.4.1 Instrumentation ........................................................................................................28 3.4.2 Research Procedures................................................................................................28 3.5 Quality Control ...........................................................................................................28 3.5.1 Validity ....................................................................................................................29 3.5.2 Reliability.................................................................................................................29 3.6 Data Management and Analysis .................................................................................29 3.7 Assumptions and Limitations .....................................................................................29 3.7.1 Assumptions.............................................................................................................29 3.7.2 Limitations...............................................................................................................30 3.8 Ethical Considerations ................................................................................................30 4.0 FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction…. .........................................................................................................31 4.2 Biographical Data .......................................................................................................31 4.2.1 Gender......................................................................................................................31 4.2.2 Age...........................................................................................................................32 4.2.3 Year of Study...........................................................................................................33 4.2.4 University of Nairobi Campus.................................................................................33 4.3 Mobile Ownership ......................................................................................................34 4.3.1 Mobile Phone Types ................................................................................................34 4.4 Mobile Phone Features & Applications......................................................................34 4.4.1 Basic Applications and the Levels of Usage............................................................35 4.4.2 Advanced Applications and the Levels of Usage ....................................................36 4.5 Mobile Phone Usage for Academic Purposes.............................................................39 5.0 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................46 6.0 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................49 7.0 REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................50 8.0 APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE................................................................................52
  7. 7. vii List of Figures and Tables Figure 1 Conceptual Framework ......................................................................................25 Figure 2 Gender Summary................................................................................................31 Figure 3 Percentages of Students in University of Nairobi Campuses.............................33 Figure 4 Mobile Ownership Summary .............................................................................34 Figure 5 Percentages on Students Levels of Satisfaction .................................................38 Table 1 Frequencies of Students Gender ..........................................................................31 Table 2 Mean and Standard Deviation of Students Age...................................................32 Table 3 Frequencies of Students Age ...............................................................................32 Table 4 Summary of the Undergraduate Levels of Study.................................................33 Table 5 University of Nairobi Campuses Summary.........................................................33 Table 6 Summary of Mobile Phone Types .......................................................................34 Table 7 Levels of Basic Applications...............................................................................35 Table 8 Levels of Advanced Applications........................................................................36 Table 9 Levels of Satisfaction...........................................................................................37 Table 10 Gender difference in Satisfaction with mobile phone applications ...................38 Table 11 Summary of Students Academic Usage per Gender..........................................39 Table 12 Discuss with/pass information about class assignments to course mates ……..40 Table 13 Exchange information about lecture timetable ………………………………..40 Table 14 Seek/exchange research information ………………………………………….41 Table 15 Enquire about the welfare of friends/course mates…………………………… 41 Table 16 Communicate with lecturers ……………………………………………………41 Table 17 Social networks ………………………………………………………… ……..42 Table 18 Seek information from the internet for learning activities………………………42 Table 19 Search for materials from the internet to complete my assignment ……………43 Table 20 Use email to communicate with lecturers ………………………………………43 Table 21 Use the internet as the main source of information for my studies……………..44 Table 22 Seek the latest information online to enhance my knowledge related to the courses taken in the university …………………………………………………………………….44 Table 23 Use forums to exchange opinions on academic matters with my friends……….45 Table 24 Access the library website to search for academic books……………………….45
  8. 8. viii ABSTRACT This study was on the mobile phone usage by the University of Nairobi Students. The focus was on exploring the various mobile phone applications and their frequencies among students, the levels of mobile phone usage among university students for academic purposes and the gender difference between male and female students mobile phone usage for academic purpose. The respondents were 300 students from the three University of Nairobi campuses (Chiromo Campus, Kabete Campus, and Main Campus). A self reported questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and was analyzed in figures and tables to represent the levels and the gender difference on mobile phone usage among students. After a test-retest method, the questionnaire yielded a reliability coefficient of .714, which indicates that the instrument is quite reliable for the study. The data was entered into EpiData statistical software and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. The results of the study indicated that majority of the students (both male and female owned smart phones, and a small percentage of them (less than 25%) owned feature phones. Male students were more satisfied with their phones applications than their female counterparts, although the female students rated higher (very often users) in terms of mobile phone usage for academic purposes. The study further showed that majority of the students were using their mobile phones to communicate with their classmates, and lecturers about lesson timetables, and exchanging other important information. Additionally, over 70% of the overall students sampled in this study confirmed to use their mobile phones applications to search important in relation to academics and help in their assignments.
  9. 9. 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction This chapter covers the background of the study, problem statement, objectives, scope and limitations as well as the rationale and the justification of the study. 1.2 Background of the Study Mobile phone technology has come a long way right from its discovery in the 1890s to 1908 when Nathan Stubblefield patented his invention of a wireless telephone with the then United States government (Mimi Malley 2011). Today, it is a technology that has revolutionized global lifestyles with the usage rates estimated to be that of 7 billion mobile subscriptions worldwide, according to (The International Telecommunication Union Report May 2014). The report further states that the foregoing statistics is equivalent to 95.5 percent of the world population. That’s a billion extra mobile subscriptions in three years, but growth is slowing with the year 2011 subscriptions standing at 5.9 billion, 2012 at 6.2 billion, 2013: 6.7 billion and 2014 at 6.9 billion. Africa is one of the emerging third world continents with government and its people keen on embracing new technologies to keep up with the growing nations. Mobile phone technology is one key element it its development. United Nations Development Programme 2012 report titled “Mobile Technologies and Empowerment: Enhancing Human Development through Participation and Innovation,” estimates that out of the 5.4 billion mobile subscriptions, over 483 million subscriptions came from low income countries and 2.6 billion from lower middle income countries, African Nations included. If the statistics are to go by, the mobile phone technology access is gradually improving in Africa and it tends to be a major mover in the changing livelihoods of the poor as well as middle income countries. In the foregoing, the report notes the impacts that the mobile technology plays in the development of the nations. The report quotes (ITU 2010; Castells et al. 2007) who said, “In principle, mobile devices can significantly impact development goals in terms of poverty reduction, democratic governance and crisis governance. Strategically deployed, mobile technologies can open new interactive communication channels that helps governments engage people in policy and decision making process, expand stakeholder participation, offer
  10. 10. 2 greater access to public information and foster targeted services delivery to the poor and marginalized. In a rejoinder, Sub Saharan Africa Mobile Economy Report 2013 by GSMA Intelligence states that “the mobile industry has already had a transformative effect on the socio economic development of the Sub-Saharan Africa, on the back of a sustained period of growth. By the middle of 2013, there were 253 million unique mobile subscribers (and 502 million active SIM connections) in the region, 95% of whom were on prepaid tariffs. The unique mobile subscriber base has grown by 18% per annum over the last five years, making SSA by some distance the fastest growing region globally.” Regionally it is estimated that by the close of 2011 Kenya was the leading country in terms of mobile usage with a 67.2% mobile penetration rate. This was followed by Tanzania with 56% mobile penetration and finally Uganda with 38.4%. These rates translated to 26 million mobile subscribers in Kenya, compared to Tanzania’s 23 million subscribers and Uganda’s 12 million mobile users. The mobile telephone services in Kenya started in 1992. During this entry period the services were so expensive that it was only a few within the upper rank of the society that could afford them. The cost of owning a mobile handset was as high as Kshs.250, 000. This resulted in a marginal mobile subscriber base of less than 20,000 for a period of seven years, CCK (2008). As expected, with increased mobility of population the region continued to register very few subscribers still using fixed lines. Particularly, it was reported that there were 374, 942 fixed lines in Kenya, 327, 114 in Uganda and 174,678 fixed line subscribers in Tanzania in 2011 (iHub 2012). Additionally, mobile phones subscribers use their phones to access internet and communication. Notably, the largest share of 99 percent of total internet subscriptions is from mobile data or internet. This could be as a result of factors such as the development of 3G network, social networking among others. The largest share of this composed of young people of the ages 15-35, who are also the largest age bracket in local tertiary institutions and universities. The growth of Mobile money with Kenya is on the lead with M-Pesa that has revolutionized lives and money markets. In Kenya, mobile phone technology usage is reported to have hit 31 million subscriptions by April 2014 (CCK 2014). This signifies an increase in the uptake of mobile telephony services in the country.
  11. 11. 3 Students are depicted as the category in the world populations and they value their electronic gadgets for certain gratifications. Balakrishnan and Raj, 2012 notes that mobile phones are known to be very popular among university students, increasing their social inclusion and connectedness as well as providing a sense of security as they can contact others in times of distress or emergency. Several studies in various countries (USA, Japan, Republic of Korea, Morocco, Norway, etc.) showed that mobile devices were widespread and they were used by nearly 100% of the young people (ITU/MIC, 2004). SMS was one of the most popular operations. PDAs and smart phones were considered more as business tools and were rarely owned by students (Attewell, 2004). Other studies showed that students were the top consumers of mobile phones and as a result the best audience for mobile applications (MobilEdia, 2005). It is worth mentioning that students who used e-learning were much more positive to m-learning (Trifonova et al., 2006). Of course, it is essential to take into account not only the changes of mobile use and communication, but also the effects of those changes for various social groups, organizations and individuals (Green, 2002; Lee & Whitley, 2002). In this study, the researchers’ goal is to examine mobile phone usage among university students in Kenya with a special reference to University of Nairobi students. The study will employ the nature of a quantitative study in its endeavor to explore the various mobile phone applications and their frequencies among students, to investigate the level of mobile phone usage among university students for academic purposes as well as examine the difference between male and female students mobile phone usage for academic purpose 1.3 Problem Statement Mobile phone usage trends and statistics among Kenyans are by and large based on the figures on the number of connections and subscriptions. There is limited empirical research on how people in Kenya use the mobile phones and the data available is usually not specific in terms of demographics. For instance, the Communications Authority of Kenya noted that there are 31.8million mobile subscribers, but no data on specific age groups (CAK 2014). The previous research on Mobile phone usage focused on the penetration rate, the reasons for owning (e.g. safety, fashion, social status, relationships, loneliness, and freedom) and the effects (e.g. addiction, distraction, gratification, psychology) of mobile phones. Additionally the previous studies investigated only some popular functions like talking on the phone or
  12. 12. 4 sending or receiving SMS. Recently a research done in Kenya focused on the acquisition, usage and impact of cell phone technology among university students in Kenya but failed to explicitly explain the full functions or the levels of usage of mobile phone features and their applications by university students for academic purposes. As a result of this, this study will endeavor to bridge the gap. In the study, the researchers will aim to investigate mobile phone usage among students in Kenya with a case study of the University of Nairobi students. Key focus areas will be to explore the various mobile phone applications and their frequencies among students, to investigate the level of mobile phone usage among university students for academic purposes as well as examine the difference between male and female students mobile phone usage for academic purpose. In line with the foregoing paragraph, the study will endeavor to generate empirical data that will be used as a basis of research in academic discourse in Kenya and globally. This will be key in informing the likeminded researchers on the level of mobile phone usage among students in their genders. Key to the focus of this study are the types of mobile phones owned by students, their features and applications , the usage as well as the gratifications gained by the students. Further to the foregoing, the research will employ the quantitative method of data collection that is base on self reported questionnaires to be sampled out by the research team. 1.4 Purpose of the Study The goal of the study is to investigate mobile phone usage among students in Kenya with a case study of the University of Nairobi students. 1.4.1 Specific Objectives The specific objectives of the study are, 1. To explore the various mobile phone applications and their frequencies among students. 2. To investigate the level of mobile phone usage among university students for academic purposes. 3. To examine the difference between male and female students mobile phone usage for academic purpose
  13. 13. 5 Key Terms: Mobile phone, Mobile phone usage, Gender difference, University students 1.5 Research Questions The following are the research questions which the researcher seeks to answer in this study: 1. What is the level of mobile phone usage among university students for academic purposes? 2. Is there difference in the satisfaction levels on mobile phone usage between male and female students? 3. What is the difference between male and female students mobile phone usage for academic purposes? 1.6 Hypotheses In this study, the following hypotheses guide the research process: 1. There is a high level of mobile phone usage among the University of Nairobi students for academic purpose, 2. There is a significant difference in the satisfaction levels on mobile phone usage between male and female students, 3. There is a significant difference on mobile phone usage between male and female students. 1.7 Significance of the Study The study will investigate mobile phone usage among university of Nairobi students. This will provide empirical data that will be used as a basis of analysis of the level of mobile phone usage and the gender difference in mobile phone usage among female and male students for academic purposes Additionally, the data generated in the study will be used as a basis of research in academic discourse to understand and explore the various features and applications used by students to bridge the need gap on their uses and gratifications. The data generated from the current study will also be key in understanding how University of Nairobi uses their mobile phones features and applications, their satisfaction level of usage
  14. 14. 6 and the levels of mobile phone ownership. This will be key in understanding how the mobile technology aide students in their daily academic activities as they seek to fulfill their needs for the technology for academic purposes. Further to the foregoing, the data provided will aide mobile phone companies, government policy makers or likeminded researchers who want to study mobile usage among students in academia as well as in market research which will in turn enable them understand the trend and criteria of mobile phone usage with regards to mobile phone applications and features among the sampled demographics for academic purposes. This will go further to yield data that would enable mobile phone application developers trim their application trends to merge with the needs and gratifications of the sampled demographics. The study is justified in the sense that it is the only study that will explicitly investigate on mobile phone usage among university students in Kenya. In its scope, it will endeavor to inform of the various mobile phone applications and their frequencies among students, to investigate the level of mobile phone usage among university students for academic purposes as well as examine the difference between male and female students mobile phone usage for academic purpose. This is due to the fact that the foregoing studies in Kenya have studied issues like the subscription levels and the use of mobile phone among the rural Kenya populations which depicts a different demographic and does not explain the usage by students in academia. As a result of this, the study aims to provide unavailable data and knowledge in this subject area. It will also add knowledge to the already studied trends and mobile phone usage among University students across the world. The study should therefore form a useful material for reference to other researchers and to other readers in general. 1.8 Scope and Limitations of the study This study on the mobile phone usage among university students in Kenya will be conducted at the University of Nairobi in three campuses: Main Campus, Kabete Campus and Chiromo Campus. The study will sample students in the University of Nairobi across schools and faculties. The major populations in this study are the undergraduates who are easily accessible in the three campuses. Additionally, the study will employ the use of self reported questionnaires as it seeks to investigate mobile phone usage among undergraduate students by the research team at the University of Nairobi.
  15. 15. 7 The study limitations were limited time frame to carry out the study and negative responses as well as unanswered questions. Additionally the study was carried out among the university of Nairobi students in three campuses: Main campus, Kabete Campus and Chiromo campus because of the limited timeframe and logistical reasons and hence the need to spread it across all campuses and even all tertiary institutions in Kenya to be able to develop a comprehensive data among the target group who are University students in Kenya.
  16. 16. 8 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter discusses definition of Concepts, definition of Variables, historical trends, related studies, theoretical framework and Conceptual framework. In this chapter the researcher will review literature related to the level of mobile phone usage among university students to understand the needs and gratifications attached to their uses and the gender difference in mobile phone usage among university students. The review is conceptualized in the objectives and the conceptual framework of the study. 2.2 Definition of Concepts Mobile phone is another term for the cellular phone. The term cellular comes from a description of the network in which cellular or mobile phones operate. The cellular communications system utilizes numerous low power transmitters, all interconnected to form a grid of “cell” (Amit Dhir, 2004). These cellular or mobile phones exist in various types of which the users are able to consume them to meet their needs and gratifications. They include smart phones and feature phones. Smart phones such as Blackberry, iPhone and most that use the Android operating system, are cellular phones with built-in applications and Internet access, so that they have become mobile computers. Use of smart phones has exploded and has become an essential part of business, commerce and society. They make it easy to stay in touch with people (T. Al- Khlaiwi, S.A. Meo 2014). In definition, Smart phones are devices that "support third party applications and syncing with company email, contacts and calendars allowing them to second as personal data assistants (PDAs). What separates smart phones from other phones is that they have faster processors, more memory and they run complete operating systems. This allows application developers to create applications for them. A huge number of devices fits this definition including iPhone, some Droids, and other devices based on the Google Android Operating System, some windows phones handhelds, some blackberries and many others" Fuxin (Andrew) Yu in the journal Mobile /Smartphone use in Higher Education in explaining the features of a smart phone notes that ” ...today’s smart phones, just like Personal Computers, also incorporate operating systems which allow the add-on applications
  17. 17. 9 (or software) to run on top. The hundreds and thousands of applications, which operate as software in PCs and allow users to do what they want, are the core sources of facilitation and convenience for people’s lives. Customized to its owner, every smart phone has different interface and applications to adapt to its owner’s needs. They also have constantly evolving computing power and capabilities as opposed to old “feature phone”. Also today’s smart phone has constant internet connectivity allowing users to stay informed and to have unlimited services available at their fingertips. The QWERTY keyboard, either physically or virtually available on smart phones, also makes typing as easy as on a PC. Finally, all smart phones on the market have touch screen now. Needless to say, smart phone has basic functions as feature phone has, such as phone call, text messaging, and camera. All these current features are allowing smart phones to have the same capabilities as computers but with the added bonus of mobility.” Scott Dunlop (2010) also notes that smart phones hosts a wealth of technology and applications that are as robust as PC in many situations. In addition to the standards audio and text capabilities, smart phones typically serve as video/still cameras, audio recorders, Maria players and mobile computers. They incorporate applications and browsers that can do a number of things ranging from video conferencing, global positioning system navigation and social networking via Wi-Fi and broadband internet protocol network. Feature phones on the other hand "are low end mobile phones. They have less computing power and use typically less advanced than smart phones. Although some new feature phones can run simple applications based on scaled down versions of JavaScript, their operating system doesn't support native applications, such as those available for iphone and android OS. The feature phone web browser is typically small and lacks the ability to run advanced web features such as Flash, CCS3 and HTML5.” (William Harrel pg 98) Students are depicted as the category in the world populations and they value the gadgets for diverse range of gratifications. Balakrishnan and Raj, 2012 notes that mobile phones are known to be very popular among university students, increasing their social inclusion and connectedness as well as providing a sense of security as they can contact others in times of distress or emergency. In education mobile phones play a key role among students in their daily activities. Both smart phones and feature phones are often used by university students to meet their needs and gratifications based on the features or applications that are inbuilt. Cui and Roto (2008) observed that smart phone usage among students for studies is majorly task
  18. 18. 10 oriented with goals of information seeking, communications, online transactions and managing personal information. In a rejoinder, Jane and Lin 2013 noted that currently, much of the use of mobile devices among students is for personal reasons. They say in these situations, many students are using mobile devices to create, communicate and connect with others from around the world. Cell phones are becoming more and more sophisticated, incorporating features students can use for work and play. According to Walker (2002), we may soon see students using their cell phones to search the web during an exam. “Having a browser in the cell phone puts a dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopedia into the hands of every student” (Prensky, 2004, p.4). Students, now having access to search engines, can use their cell phone as a research tool. Additionally, having search tools like Google search in their smart phones keeps them in the know of current affairs like fashion and celebrity gossips. Students can also use the search engines in getting quick facts on subject issues in classrooms and in their various locations. Mobile phones feature such as the inbuilt cameras aide students in snapping photos of the whiteboard or blackboard done by lecturers after class to make sure they don't miss notes, explanations or an assignment. Photos may also serve as a helpful visual reminder of what needs to be done. This they can manage by creating photo series of packing up homework, lunch, and other typically forgotten items. Roger Mchoney (2011) noted that students use cell phones cameras, digital cameras and webcams and their laptops, and even small video recorders to capture lecture and post on the web or email it to a classmate who is not in class. Today’s’ mobile phone comes with online features to which students are able to access their emails and communicate with friends through social networks. Students can use text messaging, such as Google SMS, to get definitions, facts, weather, and conversions sent directly to their phones. As with Google searches, if a student spell a word incorrectly, Google SMS will generally prompt for the correct word and provide both the correct spelling and the related information. On the other hand, students can text small messages about class contents, important concepts, reminders and other materials to themselves through micro blogging applications in their mobile phones such as twitter which permits students to organize and interact with classmates who share their tweet with one another (Peter McHoney 2011, pg 38). Further to the foregoing, text messaging plays an important role in college student’s life. A survey conducted at the University of Colorado and several other Universities in 2010 found
  19. 19. 11 that text messaging and emailing are two of the most commonly used functions on smart phones among college students, followed by reading news, watching video and reading books (Dean 2010). 2.3 Definition of Variables Modern phones have a variety of features that simply were not possible years ago: Mobile phones are not just for voice communication anymore (Ishii, 2006). College students can access the Internet, send or receive text messages, check email, and even video chat with others quite literally from the palm of their hand. In addition, students can access a variety of social network sites (SNS) from their mobile phones. Scholars Boyd and Ellison (2008) explain that SNS are online services that allow people to create a profile, create a list of other users who share a connection with the user, and view the lists of connections created by others within that system. Texting, the ability to send short messages to another person, is perhaps one of the more popular features of modern cell phones. Roughly 94% of report that they send or receive text messages using their phones, and 63% of this age group access the Internet using their phone (Zickuhr, 2011). There is little question that students’ communication habits regularly lead them to text while in class. Research conducted by the Pew Internet & American Life Project found that those who text typically send and/or receive roughly 60 text messages a day. Researchers at one university found that 62% of students admitted that they had texted while in class (Ransford, 2009). Campbell (2006) reported that young people ages 18- 23 are more tolerant of mobile phones in the classroom when compared to older age brackets. Essentially, ‘‘Young people tend to have very positive perceptions of mobile phones and regard the technology as an important tool for social connection’’ (Campbell, 2006, p. 290). Besides texting, accessing the internet and SNS has become a prolific communication activity among students. Texting and posting updates offers new communication channels that are frequently used by young adults to stay in contact with others. This ability to stay connected with others has allowed today’s college students to remain constantly connected to other people, something that was not the case even a decade ago. Additionally, mobile phones have become web enabled devices that may be constantly connected to the internet, providing more communication than just phone calls and Short-Messaging-Services (SMS) such as; social media and Instant Messaging (IM) (Auter, 2007; Beaver et al., 2010). University students in
  20. 20. 12 the USA and South Africa access websites through mobile phones, especially amongst the lower income youth who do not own computers (Brown, Campbell, and Ling, 2011; Kreutzer, 2009; Lenhart et al., 2010). Therefore students are spending an ever increasing amount of time on their phones replying to the increased sources of communication (Auter, 2007; Beaver et al., 2010; Kreutzer, 2009). A study conducted by Attila Endre SIMAY on Mobile phone usage and device selection of university students found that most students preferred talking against SMS usage and the others use approximately equally these applications, with a shift towards voice-based usage, which has characterized phone communication for long time. A study conducted by FHA. Shibly and M. Riswan on the Impact of Mobile Phone Usage on Muslim Students Learning at The University Level in 2008 however revealed that the students at the university level utilize the mobile phone technology in a better way by sharing useful information with their classmates and teachers. The study also showed that mobile phone is helpful to students for study purposes. Students can use it in exchanging useful information with their classmates about their studies and in contacting their parents. In this the students’ academic performance increased due to the way they were able to utilize the technology in sharing important and useful information with classmates, using dictionary, thesaurus and calculator and many applications available in their mobile phones. As to the foregoing mobile phone usage among college students, there exits their level of usage. These levels include the frequency of calling, sending SMS, surfing and just the different functions of mobile phones. University students in Malaysia were found to make between 1 and 5 calls per day, with the majority of calls going to friends and family (Balakrishnan & Raj, 2012). Malaysian university students tend to receive more calls than they make, this may be due to low budgets (Balakrishnan & Raj, 2012). Text messaging (IM and SMS) was found to be the most prevalent use of mobile phones by students in the USA (Brown et al., 2011), with the majority of students sending and receiving between 30 and 80 text messages a day (Lenhart et al., 2010). Students in the USA prefer to text rather than call, with the majority of texting taking place through the mobile internet (Brown et al., 2011). Much of the mobile phone calls by university students in New Zealand occurred to maintain friendships, keep in contact with family and most commonly, to make social arrangements, demonstrating that mobile phones facilitate rather than disrupt social communication (Dresler- Hawke & Mansvelt, 2008).
  21. 21. 13 Students at the University level prefer the use of some mobile features to some among them is the use of Short Message Services (SMS) and calling. The preference usually falls on the cost of usage and the applicability in their environment of usage which includes classroom and in external environment outside the confines of the campuses. Sheereen N. Zulkefly and Rozumah Baharudin in their study on Mobile Phone use Amongst Students in a University in Malaysia found that the university students in their focus used their mobile phone reasonably and appropriately. They demonstrated reasonable amount of time and money spent on their mobile phone. The most used feature of the mobile phone was SMS followed by voice calls. This finding is consistent with earlier studies (Nurvitadi, 2003; Lie, 2004; Madell & Muncer, 2004; Ling, 2001; Eldrige & Grinter, 2001). The most plausible explanations for these findings are that SMS feature is cheaper compared to conventional voice calls, and as students they have limited financial resources; thus making SMS the best mode of communication for them. The question of Gender difference in mobile phone usage among university students is also a subject of concern. Past research has shown that male users are more attracted to the technical application and features of the mobile phone such as games and MP3 player while females use the mobile phone as a socializing tool (Ling, 2001; Bianchi & Phillips, 2005).Adolescent girls do tend to develop the skills required to maintain their social networks as they attain their adult position in society. Bianchi and Philips (2005) in their study found that females use the mobile phone for social reasons while males called more people on a regular basis. Bianchi and Philips assumed that males used their phones frequently for business purposes and not for socializing. However, Bianchi and Philips did not find any significant relationship between gender and the patterns of mobile phone (i.e. SMS usage and time spent). Bianchi and Philips concluded that gender did not predict overall use of the mobile phone. They claimed that the mobile phone was a gender neutral device and both gender seemed to have embrace mobile phone technology equally. A research among the university students in USA and Malaysia found that female university students from the USA are more likely to have conversations over mobile phones more regularly (Baron & Campbell, 2010; Beaver et al., 2010), and Malaysian female students have lengthier conversations than male students (Balakrishnan & Raj, 2012). Male students in the USA and Malaysia generally make calls to make arrangements, whilst females are more likely to make calls for a social chat (Balakrishnan & Raj, 2012; Grellhesl & Punyanunt-Carter,
  22. 22. 14 2012). Ogunyemi (2010) found that African male students living in the UK prefer to text in order to show affection whilst the female students prefer to receive a call rather than a text. Beaver et al. (2010) and Baron and Campbell (2010) both agree that this is because women are more relationship oriented than males, and therefore use mobile phones to facilitate social interaction. Mehrotra and Nguyen (2012), who performed a study in Rwanda, found the opposite to be true. Mehrotra and Nguyen (2012) established that men spend more time in conversation over a mobile phone per day than women do, with women spending the majority of their talking time at night. Although the majority of the sample used in the study was of an older age group than university students, and Rwanda is still a very under developed country in global terms whereby the mobile phone adoption rate amongst women is low (Mehrotra & Nguyen, 2012). In addition to the foregoing paragraph, the research done in the USA and Malaysia found that female university students are more likely to keep in contact with their family members, to share experiences and seek emotional support. While male university students only contact their parents “to keep them happy” (Balakrishnan & Raj, 2012; Chen & Katz, 2009). Although male students from the USA use mobile phones less in conversation, they were found to participate in video games a lot more often than females, which may result in male students spending a greater amount of time on their mobile phones (Jackson et al., 2008; Jackson, von Eye, Fitzgerald, Zhao, & Witt, 2010). Baron and Campbell (2010) mentioned that female students in the USA were possibly more troubled by reach ability, because female students send and receive more text messages than male students. Dresler and Mansvelt 2008 in their study found that Male students in New Zealand were more likely to use text messaging to make new contacts than female students, whilst female students predominantly used text messaging for communicating with close friends and family (Dresler-Hawke & Mansvelt, 2008). In summary, the literature finds that university students tend to make 1-5 calls and send 30 – 80 text messages per day. University students tend to receive more calls than they make, with most of their calls aimed at maintaining friendships, keeping in contact with family and making social arrangements. Text messaging seems to be the most prevalent use of mobile phones. Female university students tend to make more and lengthier calls, send more text messages, and are more likely to keep in contact with their parents than male university students. Whilst male students were more likely to use their mobile phones to play video games and make new friends.
  23. 23. 15 One of the objectives of the current study is to examine the gender difference in mobile phone usage among university students. Concurrently studies on the same have showed that there exists a difference on how the male and female students use their mobile phones. Gender difference is shown on the use of web applications. Male college students were more likely to use the Internet for recreational purposes, information gathering and entertainment while females preferred to use the Internet for communication (Shaw & Gant, 2002). Furthermore, females tended to be social as they used e-mail and instant messaging more than their male peers (Media Report for Women, 2000). Also, they stated that the electronic mail messaging was the most important function of the Internet (Wilson, 2000) and actually used the email more than males (Boneva et al., 2001; Jackson et al., 2001). Another survey reported that females made more cell phone calls and sent more SMS messages than men did. Also, teenage girls used their devices more frequently so as to express their feelings while boys were more interested in the technical aspect (Doring et al., 2004). Saunders & Quirke (2002) stated that males expected the new technology to offer to them easy and quick answers and they worked alone or sometimes even in pairs. On the other hand, females were interested in the quality of the product and they preferred interactive group work. It is worth mentioning that females tended to study online more than men as online learning may be appropriate for women’s lifestyles and they were also more likely to look for further views of education (Selwyn, 2006). Moreover, Selwyn (2006) reported that as the current situation changes, educational technology can be seen as a predominantly feminine activity. Generally, further research has to take place because gender differences emerge (Doring et al., 2004). 2.4 Historical Trends Mobile phones like any other technology have evolved through a myriad of transformations as the needs and gratifications of the world populations grow by the day. There has been sporadic, almost unbelievable advancement in mobile phone features. Things that were only explainable in novels and old sci-fi movies are currently not only normal but expected in the current configuration of phones. The speed at which these technological changes have occurred has been quite breathtaking. In 1995 for example, the mobile was a big object, black with a long antenna. The only features available were to enable voice calling and texting. The change in outer color only came by 1998, and it is only until the year 2000 that touch screen feature was made available. 2002 was the year of color as phone displays integrated this. By
  24. 24. 16 2004, phones were made quite slimmer e.g. Motorola V3 model. When it comes to outer design, the slide feature was made available by 2006 and within a year the first ever touch screen Smartphone. Additionally by 2010 there were designs such as slider phones with QWERTY keypads and flipper phones (which allows the user to flip the screen on the back of the phone for easy working). By 2012 the phone features catered to internet, radio, computer, GPS etc and still remained small enough to be handheld. (Rahul Chowdhury, 2012). There is much more mobile technology that has come up, like the Wi-Fi phones, open source phones, mobile payment (such as M-Pesa) and tactical feedback feature such as Google talk which carries out the users instructions like setting of alarms , that the user instructs it through voice. With the unveiling of wearable like the Apple Watch (2014), that can be used as and with the phone, it is only a fine guess that sci-fi communication in old movies could be actually possible in our lifetime. Wale Akinyemi (Akinyemi, 2014) has noted the myriad stages that the mobile phone technology has passed through down from the less expensive feature phones to the now over Ksh80000 mark phones with the functionality growing as the standards continue to rise over the ages. He writes that today the market is full of Smart Phones that are worth Ksh80000 up from the popular Nokia 3310 which was popular, very cheap and was able to perform the basic function like calling and texting just like the current phones but was then a feature phone. He however notes that the very early versions of Smart phones were differentiated by features such as cameras and voice recorders but even the basic phone began to have such features and as those features began to become standard in most phones new extras began to appear. Phones now come with heart beat readers, calorie trackers, maps and many other features that did not affect the basic functionality of a phone. He further observed that smart phones today have in built memory that can be up to 64GB or more that is able to store pictures, videos and music. 2.5 Related studies A number of studies have been done on the use of mobile and smartphones. These studies typically looked at usage patterns on mobile devices (H. Falaki, D. Estrin, 2010), data traffic, battery life, interactions on servers and interactions with mobile applications (H. Verkasalo, C. López-Nicolás 010).This study however aims to investigate The level of mobile phone usage and the gender difference in Mobile phone usage among University of Nairobi
  25. 25. 17 Students. To this researching on the related studies will aid the researchers in the trends of what has been done to avoid duplications and to build further on the gaps experienced in the various studies. David North, Kevin Johnston, and Jacques Ophoff 2014 Studied the Use of Mobile Phones among South African University Students. The study found that the main reason UCT university students use a mobile phone is for socializing, as well as for safety and privacy purposes, with female respondents emphasizing more on safety and socializing, this is in line with the findings of Balakrishnan and Raj (2012). Most of the respondents socialized with family and friends through their mobile phones, with female respondents emphasizing more on family whilst the male respondents were more inclined to socialize with their friends. Regarding usage the study found large variances with the majority of the students making between 0 and 4 calls per day and receiving more calls than they made, consistent with what Balakrishnan and Raj (2012) found. Text messaging was found to be the dominant use of mobile phones, with 65% of students sending over 21 text messages a day. Mobile phone use patterns have been studied in different age groups. Numerous research related to mobile phone usage reveals that mobile usage pattern varies from one group to another (Patel & Harishchandra Singh Rathod, 2011). The results of these researches also have demonstrated that young people are more likely than any other demographic group to use mobile phones and adopting mobile phones as an integral part of their daily lives (Yen et al., 2009). Beneficial and adverse effects of mobile phones in college students have been studied. A number of studies proposed that having mobile phone is necessary for college students to keep in touch with their family. Also students use mobile phones to fulfill their family roles by sharing their experiences with and getting an emotional and psychic support from their family (Chen & Katz, 2009) . The results of Ahmed et al. (2011) that explored the pattern of mobile phone usage among youngsters in Pakistan demonstrated that youngsters use their cell phones under reasonable limits and do not tend towards extreme behaviors leading towards addictive cell phone usage(Ahmed, Qazi, & Perji, 2011). Chakraborty (2006) investigated usage patterns of mobile phones among university students in United States and India. This study showed that students in India use mobile phones differently from their American counterparts (Chakraborty, 2006). Another study done by Ling 2001 notes the varying trends in usage depending on the age groups of the genders. He found that young adult men spent more time on the mobile
  26. 26. 18 telephones compared to adolescent girls. The men reported to begin spending more time in their late adolescence and peaks in the mid 20’s. Their high level of use extends into their early 30’s after which their length of usage drops. In his additional analyses, Ling noted that women had quite different patterns of mobile phone use. Although women also begin to spend more time on their mobile phones during their late adolescence, their length of use is lower than the men. Furthermore, as they enter adulthood their length of usage steadily declines as they prefer more face to face interactions compared to their male counterparts. A study was also done on Mobile phone usage patterns among students in Iran. The study found that mobile phone usage patterns in male students were different from that of female student. (Maryam Amidi Mazaheri,Fariba Mohamed, Mojtaba Karbasi 2014). Consequently, in a similar research done among the male and female Greek students that tried to provide a better understanding of how mobile devices are used by students. A survey conducted in a Greek University showed that students tend to use their devices mostly for conversations and sending receiving SMS. Moreover, they do not deal with many of the devices’ services and characteristics. Generally, both genders do not use the Internet and they do not send or receive emails via their mobiles. This occurred due to their current habits, lack of support and knowledge, high cost of the devices and of subscribing to mobile Internet services, or some other reasons. Furthermore, participants mentioned the reasons about which they would limit the use of the mobiles. Also noted in the study was the gender differences in the operation and use of the mobile devices but they are not significant. Isaac, Nickerson, and Tarasewich (2004) studied cell phone usage in social settings in two developed countries majorly in the United States and France. Their research focused on the cell phones used in social settings, the perception of the acceptable use of mobile phones in social settings. They studied whether the use and attitudes related to the use of cell phones vary by country. Their survey indicated significant differences between users in United States and France when it came to using phones in public streets or while driving an automobile. French users had a significantly negative view of using mobile phones while driving, this may be attributed to the fact that it is illegal in France to drive and talk on a phone simultaneously. Variances were also observed in the use of and attitudes toward the use of mobile phones for both voice calls and text messaging. French users were more likely to use text messaging in all the scenarios studied except while driving. The researchers explained that, some of the
  27. 27. 19 differences may be attributed to cultural and legal differences between these countries, other factors such as age or the length of time that someone has used a cell phone may be important. Carlson, Kahn, and Rowe (1999) studied the organizational behavior aspect by observing the impact of mobile phones on decision making in sales forces within organizations in United States and France. They compared the differences in sales force behavior. Correlations were conducted to determine whether the country, length of time the technology has been used, or their interactions were the major effect. Their study showed that new technology adoption was responsible for a shortening of decision making time in both countries. On the other hand, differences in standardization, formalization and decision making time were identified. The results of the study indicated that cultural differences between countries accounted for most of the differences. The other study on mobile phone usage includes that of Aoki and Downes (2004) which focused on the behavioral and psychological aspects of cell phone usage among college students. They tried to find the reasons behind why a technology is adopted in a particular way. They identified several attitudinal factors based on the exploratory study including, necessity in modern times, cost efficiency when compared to landline phone, safety or security, and dependency. The study also endeavored to look at the motivational and behavioral characteristics of mobile phone usage. The authors tried to combine their results and the result of previous research to find the trends in usage by the youth, “why college students in the US use the cell phone, what they think of the technology, and how they use it”. The motivational themes identified by the study include personal safety, financial incentive, information access, social interaction, parental contacts, time management/coordination, dependency, image, and privacy management results of the focus group interviews indicated five distinct user groups in terms of their attitudes toward their cell phone usage and in terms of the levels of integrating cell phones into their lives. Cell phones are used for lot of purposes to satisfy the requirements of users. Usage depends on social interactions, information purpose, security and safety, communication with family and friends and everyday management life even for health services (Loo, 2009).However, there is a difference into how mobile phone is used among the genders. In 2011 (Hakoama, Hakoyama, 2011) studied the impact of Cell Phone usage and its development among students. Gender differences were exposed the different aspects of cell phone usage, where
  28. 28. 20 else females were more dependent on the cell phone for sustain their social relationships, male students use their mobile phones for games and to connect with other students and friends. In Kenya the studies on mobile phone usage have cut across the demographics with some on students and others on rural populations. In a related study to Mobile phone usage, Ng’ethe Josephine Wanjiku (2010) in Mobile Phones Usage in Rural Kenya for Business: A Survey Study in Machakos District Sort to find out how the rural populations in Machakos District perceived the relationships between mobile phones and incomes. The research investigated mobile usage patterns among the poor, what the phones are used for, the source of income from mobile running expenses, use of mobile phones for business and information access. This study however represents a different population and mobile usage purpose. (Wanjiku, 2010). The current study population is among the University of Nairobi students which are intended to generate data on the level of mobile phone usage and the gender difference. This goes along to update the information already available from other research globally on the same as well as help understand how university students in Kenya use their mobile phones from the sampled population. Further to the foregoing is a study by Frederick Kangethe Iraki. The study titled "The Cultural, Economic, and Political Implications of New Media: A Case Study of Mobile Telephony among University Students in Kenya,” sought to investigate the extent to which the cell phone technology has impacted on the lives of Kenyans especially within the context of a University in Kenya. The study focused on the acquisition, usage and impacts of cell phone technology among university students both the undergraduate and graduate in Kenya. In particular, the survey showed how the technology has transformed the way the students generate, access and comment information within the context of media convergence. Of particular interest was how the students tapped into the now popular electronic money transfer system (M-Pesa) for daily business transactions. (Frederick Kangethe Iraki 2011). Based on the previous studies and their respective arguments, there results a knowledge gap of diversified usage of mobile phones more so for academic purposes. Although many studies have explored use of mobile phones for social networking and for psychic reasons, the academic aspect seems to have been neglected yet it’s the core of a university function. This study seeks to explore the various ways in which students use their mobile phones for academic advantage.
  29. 29. 21 2.6 Theoretical Framework This study will be modeled on the Uses and Gratification theory of communication. The theory became prevailing in the late 1950s till 1970s when television had grown up. Some basic assumptions of the approach were proposed when it was rediscovered during that era. Among the group of scholars who focus on uses and gratifications research, Elihu Katz is one of the most well-known and contributed greatly to establishing the structure of the approach. Katz’s mentor in Columbia University is Paul Lazarsfeld, who is one of the pioneers of gratifications research. Their cooperating work produced important outgrowths that connect the concept of gratifications with the functional theory model. Later, Katz introduced uses and gratification approach when he came up with the notion that people use the media to their benefit. In a study by Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973), a subject which is known as the uses and gratifications research were explored. They viewed the mass media as a means by which individuals connect or disconnect themselves with others and found that people bend the media to their needs more readily than the media overpower them (Katz, Gurevitch and Haas, 1973). Along with colleague Jay G. Blumler, Katz published a collection of essays on gratifications in 1974 which were entitled The Uses of Mass Communication. They took a more humanistic approach to looking at media use. They suggest that media users seek out a medium source that best fulfills the needs of the user and they have alternate choices to satisfy their need. (Blumler & Katz, 1974). They also discovered that media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals (Blumler and Katz, 1974). Uses and gratifications theory is said to be originally stemmed from a functionalist paradigm in the social sciences (Blumler & Katz, 1974) which tended to explain the media effects on users. Functional theory on communication agrees with media’s effects towards people. In an example is a model often used in the theory, the Hypodermic Syringe model, which discusses that “the mass media have a direct, immediate and influential effect upon audiences by ‘injecting’ information into the consciousness of the masses” (Watson & Hill 1997, p. 105). Functional theory influenced studies on communication from the 1920s to the 1940s. After that, a shift which rediscovered the relationship between media and people occurred and led to establishment of uses and gratifications approach.
  30. 30. 22 The exploration of gratifications that motivate people to be attracted to certain media is almost as old as empirical mass communication research itself (McQuail, 1983). Dating back to the 1940s, researchers became interested in the reasons for viewing different radio programmes, such as soap operas and quizzes, as well as daily newspaper (Lazrsfeld & Stanton, 1944, 1949; Herzog, 1944; Warner & Henry, 1948) In these studies, researchers discovered a list of functions served either by some specific content or by the medium itself (Katz et al., 1974b). For instance, radio soap operas were found to satisfy their listeners with advice, support, or occasions for emotional release (Herzog, 1944; Warner and Henry, 1948); rather than just offering information, newspaper was also discovered to be important to give readers a sense of security, shared topics of conversation and a structure to the daily routine (Berelson, 1949). For these diverse dimensions of usage satisfaction, psychologist Herzog (1944) marked them with the term “gratifications." Uses and gratifications theory is an alternative to the other classical communication theories to which cannot suffice the emphasis of mobile phone (media) usage in this study because they fail shot to explain what the user does with the media. For instance the Media-system Dependency Theory (MSDT or Media Dependency Theory) has been studied as an offshoot of Uses and Gratification Theory. However, media dependency theory focuses on audiences' goals for media consumption as the source of their dependency; while uses and gratification theory focuses on audience's needs as drivers for media consumption. MSDT states that as a person becomes increasingly dependent on media to satisfy their needs that media will become more important in a person’s life and thereby has increased influence and effects on that person. MSDT acknowledges and builds upon UGT because it is based on the assumptions that people have different uses for media that arise from their needs. In line with the foregoing is the Cultivation theory which is concerned with the understanding of the role that media play in shaping a person's world view with a special reference to television. Whereas UGT tries to understand the motivations that drive media usage, Cultivation theory focuses on the psychological effects of media. Cultivation theory is used especially to study violence in television and how it shapes audience's understanding of the reality of violence in society. Often, because of media's influence, audiences have a more heightened and unrealistic perception of the amount of violence. Most of the theories on media explained about the effects media had on people. It is the uses and gratification theory which explains of how people use media for their need and
  31. 31. 23 gratification. In other words we can say this theory states what people do with media rather than what media does to people. Also this theory is contradictory to the magic bullet theory which states the audience is passive. According to uses and gratification theory, it is not so people make use of the media for their specific needs. This theory can be said to have a user/audience-centered approach. Even for communication (say interpersonal) people refer to the media for the topic they discuss with themselves. They gain more knowledge and that is knowledge is got by using media for reference. Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch in explaining the uses and gratification theory in the book mass communication research, postulates that “the audience is conceived as active.”(Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch pg 15) this proposition focuses around the assumption that the viewers are goal oriented and attempt to achieve their goals through the media source. this directly reflects and responds to the needs of the audience member in obtaining the media source. this relates directly to why students who in this study are the users (audience). the students here are the active users who use mobile phone (media) to fulfill their goals or needs. According to the book, the second basic proposition is that “in the mass communication process much initiative in linking need gratification and media choice lies with the audience member.”(Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch pg 16) this is encompassing the idea that people use the media to their advantage more often than the media uses them. The receiver determines what is going to be absorbed and does not allow the media to influence them otherwise. The individual opinion is more powerful than what the media is portraying. This affirms the part that the media does not influence what the user does with it but the user determines what they do with the media for self gratification. The third basic postulate to the uses and gratifications theory is that “the media competes with other sources of need satisfaction.”(Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch pg 16) this focuses on the idea that each individual has several needs. In response to this, they have created a wide range of choices that will meet these needs. mobile phone users to which in the is study are the students always have other means of a communication like the face to face communication as well as virtual communication through the internet via social networks like Facebook and twitter as well as video links and therefore would get the type of mobile phones that gratifies their needs. This type includes smart phones and the analogue types.
  32. 32. 24 The basic postulates that the book points out is that “many of the goals media use can be derived from data supplied by the individual audience members themselves.”(Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch pg 17) this idea claims that people are very aware of their motives and choices and are able to explain them verbally if necessary. There have been several studies in all parts of the world that have sampled viewers and come to conclusions about the type of media used as well as the content explored. Furthermore, it was found that audience members use these media forms to shape their own identities. The final basic postulate from the book mass communication research is that “value judgments about cultural significance of mass communication should be suspended while audience operations are explored on their own terms” (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch pg 17). The theorists believe that the audience can only determine the value of the media content. It is the individual audience members who make the decision to view the media; therefore, they place the value on it by their individual decision to view it. These basic assumptions provide a framework for understanding the exact correlation between the media and the viewers. In addition, it provides a distinction as to how the audience is more or less active and the consequences of their involvement in the media as a whole. These basic assumptions provide a framework for understanding the exact correlation between the media and the viewers. In addition, it provides a distinction as to how the audience is more or less active and the consequences of their involvement in the media as a whole. As adapted in these study the uses and gratification theory holds that the needs and gratifications influence the mobile phone usage by students: that the nature of mobility, constant access and the ability to add and access content and the ease of communication influences ability of students to adopt Mobile phones to gratify their needs. Uses and gratifications theory will therefore inform the study in understanding what students do with their mobile phones to achieve their own needs and gratifications. However in adopting the uses and gratifications theory in this study, the researcher is not ignorant to its shortcomings. The impacts of the uses and gratifications of the mobile phones to the students have to be recognized in their bid to fulfill their needs and gratifications. Another factor that ought to be recognized is the social structure, context and the status of the mobile technology in the whole structure. This is the status of mobile phone technology in
  33. 33. 25 academic discourse and not just the priority given to the students (media users) in gratifying their needs. 2.7 Conceptual Framework Figure 1: Conceptual Framework The figure above illustrates the conceptual framework of the study on mobile phone usage by students. According to the study, there are two types of mobile phones: Smart phones and feature phones. Feature phones contain the basic applications which can only perform the most basic functions like calling, texting and music and calculating sums. Smart phones on the other hand is conceptualized to contain advanced applications like internet browser, camera, document viewers and the capability of adding more applications from either Google play or play store. The researcher conceptualization is that with increase in the mobile phone applications which go in handy with the type of phones (Smart phones, feature phones), there is more diverse usage of mobile phones in calling, texting, internet, document viewing among many other uses to be denoted by the data collected from the field. With increase in the mobile phone applications there is more diverse usage of mobile phones which go in handy with satisfactions and the many gratifications achieved by students from their mobile phone usage. Smart phone Feature phone More Diverse Usage - Calling - Taking Pictures - Internet - Document viewing More Satisfaction and Gratification More Productivity (Knowledge sharing & dissemination) More advanced and sophisticated Innovations More Applications Need Gap
  34. 34. 26 This improves productivity in knowledge sharing and dissemination. As there will be more productivity the innovations becomes more sophisticated and as the level of productivity increases there will be more innovation which is the radical change in mobile phone applications. Further to this is the need gap that is created by the adverse usage which indicates increase in productivity and hence the continuing innovations in mobile phone applications to satisfy the needs and gratifications of mobile phone users.
  35. 35. 27 3.0 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter presents a detailed description of research methodology. The methodology is the detailed procedure that would be used to answer the research questions. Methodology includes the description of research design, sampling techniques, instrumentation and data analysis techniques. As in the foregoing paragraph, this chapter will describe in detail of what will be done and how it will be done. It will cover research design, population and sampling, data collection, quality control, data analysis, assumptions and limitations as well as ethical considerations. 3.2 Research Design The research design to be employed is that of a quantitative study. The research will be conducted through a survey methodology in which self reported questionnaires will be issued out to the University of Nairobi students. 3.3 Population and Sampling Under this section target population and the sampling techniques to be used in the research are explained. 3.3.1 Target Population The target population for this study consists of 300 students from three University of Nairobi Campuses: Main campus, Kabete Campus and Chiromo campus. These students are mainly undergraduates drawn from the faculties in the three Campuses. This target population has been chosen to represent all students at the University of Nairobi because it is easier to work with and also the three campuses are accessible within the environs of Nairobi. 3.3.2 Sample size The sample size for this study is 300 respondents who are the undergraduate students. The self reported questionnaires are to be issued out with each of the three University of Nairobi Campuses (Kabete Campus, Chiromo Campus, and Main Campus) taking 100 questionnaires.
  36. 36. 28 3.3.3 Sampling Techniques The study will employ probability sampling techniques in which simple random sampling will be used to collect data among the University of Nairobi undergraduate students in Chirom, Kabete and Main Campuses. Simple random sampling refers to selecting a sample from a population without any bias from the target population. The technique is mainly used to select random representatives or respondents within a large population. The purpose of the technique in the study is to ensure that each member of the target group has an equal and independent chance of being included in the study. The technique also will enable the researchers to produce a random sample that will inform the understanding of the whole population. 3.4 Data Collection This sub section covers instrumentation and data collection procedures. The section describes precisely how the research data will be obtained. The data for the study will be collected from primary sources. 3.4.1 Instrumentation The instrument for data collection to be used in this study is questionnaires. These questionnaires are self reported and would be closed ended. 3.4.2 Research Procedures The data collection in the study follows a comprehensive analysis and conceptualization of the research problem over a period of time after which followed the issuance of self reported questionnaires to the 300 respondents. Data collection was done by a team of five researchers engaged in the study for the purposes of ease of work, credibility and accuracy. The choice of the team is because they are the ones with the in depth knowledge of the study. 3.5 Quality Control This sub section of the research methodology describes the question of validity and reliability of the research instruments.
  37. 37. 29 3.5.1 Validity Validity controls employed in the research includes that of internal and external validity. To ensure internal validity the researchers ensured that what is to be measured is actually what is intended to be measured through clearly defined purpose and objectives. After piloting the questionnaire and establishing the suitability of the questions in the questionnaires, modifications were made. Additionally, the researchers decided on 300 respondents as a sample size to which will be generalized to represent the target population. 3.5.2 Reliability To ensure the reliability of the data to be collected in the study, the researchers piloted the research instrument (questionnaire) and yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.714 through a test-retest method. 3.6 Data Management and Analysis In the study, data would be gathered through self reported questionnaires after which it would be keyed into EpiData statistical software and then exported to Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) where data cleaning will be done before it is analyzed. All the information will be crossed in order to understand all the particular details or phenomena that might have an influence to the objectives of this research. Descriptive statistics will be used to determine the distributional characteristics of each of the study variables. 3.7 Assumptions and Limitations This section of the project methodology explains the assumptions and limitations of the study. 3.7.1 Assumptions The researchers in their bid to collect data on mobile phone usage among the university of Nairobi students in that every randomly selected respondent in the study has a mobile phone and can use to communicate, text or perform any other functions that meets their needs and gratifications. In line with the foregoing, the researcher’s expectation is that each of the randomly selected respondents would give tried and credible information to be used in our study. In this the
  38. 38. 30 researcher hopes to minimize the degree of error in the calculation of the confidence intervals in random sampling. 3.7.2 Limitations The questionnaires used are self administered; thus the reliability and validity of the information shared depend solely on the honesty of the respondents in responding to the questionnaire. 3.8 Ethical Considerations The major ethical issues to be considered in the study among the university of Nairobi students are confidentiality and observation of anonymity in the process of data collection through self reported questionnaires. The research is to guarantee the confidentiality of the participants. Additionally, the participants in this study are to remain anonymous throughout the study.
  39. 39. 31 4.0 FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction This chapter presents the findings of the research study, the analysis of data and description of the variables of the study. The data is presented in forms of tables, graphs and prose (narratives). 4.2 Biographical Data This study was aimed at investigating mobile phone usage among students in Kenya with a case study of the University of Nairobi students. 300 students were randomly sampled and responded to self administered questionnaires. 4.2.1 Gender Frequency Percent Male 176 59% Female 124 41% Total 300 100.0 Table 1: Frequencies of Students Gender As indicated in the above figure, the studied population comprised of 176 male and 124 female students represented by 59% and 41% respectively. All the students were in their undergraduate level. Figure 2: Gender Summary 59% 41% Male Female
  40. 40. 32 4.2.2 Age The ages of the sampled population was 18 years and above, precisely with a standard deviation of 0.765. A mean of 1.48 means that the age of the majority of the sample population ranged between 18 and 27, but the bulk lies within 18-23 years, as shown by the frequency of 198 in the table below. The mean age, in this case is small (1.48) because the ages have been given in ranges. Therefore, the 1.48 implies that the age mean covers category 1(18-23) and category 2 (24-27), but the majority lies within category 1. Age N Valid 300 Missing 0 Mean 1.48 Std. Deviation .765 Minimum 1 Maximum 4 Table 2: Mean and Standard Deviation of Students Age The 18-23year category consists of 198 students, who make up 66% of the entire sample population. The 35+ category consist of 9 students who make up 3% of the sample population, while category 2 (24-27) and category 3 (30-34) consist of 70 and 23 students who make up 23.3% and 7.7% respectively. Age Frequency Valid Percent Valid 18-23 198 66.0 24-27 70 23.3 30-34 23 7.7 35+ 9 3.0 Total 300 100.0 Table 3: Frequencies of Students Age
  41. 41. 33 4.2.3 Year of Study Among the 300 respondents, 139 were first years(46%), 41 second years(14%), 45 third years(15%), 67 forth years (22%)and 8 firth year students(3%) as represented in the table below. Year of Study Frequency Percentage 1st Year 139 46% 2nd Year 41 14% 3rd Year 45 15% 4th Year 67 22% 5th Year 8 3% Total 300 100.0 Table 4: Summary of the Undergraduate Levels of Study 4.2.4 University of Nairobi Campuses The 300 respondents were sampled from 3 University of Nairobi campuses; 94 were from Chiromo Campus, 107 from Kabete Campus and 99 from Main Campus. Chiromo Campus is comprises of students in the faculties of biological and physical sciences, while Kabete Campus hosts students pursuing business courses, and Main Campus hosts students in the faculties of humanities and social sciences and the faculty of architecture and engineering. Campuses Frequency Valid Percent Chiromo 94 31% Kabete 107 36% Main Campus 99 33% Total 300 100.0 Table 5: University of Nairobi Campuses Summary Figure: 3 Percentages of Students in University of Nairobi Campuses Chiromo Kabete Main Campus 31% 36% 33%
  42. 42. 34 Kabete Campus took the largest percentage of the sampled population with 36%, followed by Main campus with 33% and Chiromo Campus with 31%. 4.3 Mobile Ownership The figure below show the percentage of mobile ownership among the 300 sampled respondents. 97% of the 300 respondents owned mobile phones and 3% did not. Figure 4: Mobile Ownership Summary 4.3.1 Mobile Phone Types The figure below indicates the statistics on the types of mobile phones owned by the students of University of Nairobi. Among the sampled population, 118 first year students owned Smart Phones and 21 owned feature phones represented by 48% and 38% respectively. All the sampled students (8) in their 5th year of study owned Smart phones, and none among them owned a feature phone. Second year, third year and fourth year students owned smart phones with each group taking 13%, 14% and 22% respectively. Smart Phone Percent Feature Phone Percent Year of study 1st Year 118 48% 21 38% 2nd Year 31 13% 9 16% 3rd Year 33 14% 9 16% 4th Year 54 22% 16 29% 5th Year 8 3% 0 0% Total 244 100% 55 100% Table 6: Summary of Mobile Phone Types 4.4 Mobile Phone Features and Applications This section gives the analysis of the mobile phone features and applications. The section is divided into basic applications and the levels of usage and advanced applications and the levels of usage. 97% 3% Yes No
  43. 43. 35 4.4.1 Basic Applications and the Levels of Usage Feature phones among the sampled population were relatively fewer compared to the number of smart phones, with the 1st years having the highest number (21). Most of the applications of the feature phones, which are categorized as basic in this study, were found in almost all the phones including smart phones. These applications include notes memo, alarm clock, calendar, phone book, organizer, calculator, SMS and games. Basics* GEN Cross-tabulation Gender Total Male Female Basic Appsa Notes Memo Count 108 73 181 % within GEN 85.0% 80.2% Alarm Clock Count 119 89 208 % within GEN 93.7% 97.8% Calendar Count 120 91 211 % within GEN 94.5% 100.0% Phone Book Count 125 88 213 % within GEN 98.4% 96.7% Organizer Count 112 82 194 % within GEN 88.2% 90.1% Calculator Count 121 91 212 % within GEN 95.3% 100.0% SMS Count 122 88 210 % within GEN 96.1% 96.7% Games Count 116 75 191 % within GEN 91.3% 82.4% Total Count 127 91 218 Percentages and totals are based on respondents. a. Group Table 7: Levels of Basic Applications Calendar and calculator are some of the basic applications that were used by virtually all students across the various campuses and years of study, with each taking 100% usage levels. The females are the most users of the basic applications of phones as indicated by the relatively higher percentages of the female users. The count cannot be used in determining the levels of usage in this case, because the numbers of male versus female are varied, and therefore percentages will describe the proportions of users between the two genders. The key
  44. 44. 36 concern here is that the percentages of male and female users of the various applications are based on the totals of male and female, that is 176 and 124 respectively, and not the total sample population, that is 300. 4.4.2 Advanced Applications and the Levels of Usage In the study, advanced applications were mostly found on smart phone. Mobile phone scanner was the most used by students with the male and female count of 260 as compared to Google Drive and Dropbox that recorded only 153. Male students are the most users of the internet browser (99.3%) with the female students recording 99.1% on the same. Compared to the basic applications use, advance applications in some cases records less than 80% user-ship, while in basic applications the usage level is always above 80% across the two genders. Virtually all mobile phones possess basic applications, and their applications will definitely record higher than advance applications which some may even lack in some smart phones. Advance *GEN Cross-tabulation Gender Total Male Female Advanced Appsa Video Audio Recording Count 133 100 233 % within GEN 87.5% 92.6% Internet Browser Count 151 107 258 % within GEN 99.3% 99.1% Google SMS Count 117 81 198 % within GEN 77.0% 75.0% Social Networks Count 138 102 240 % within GEN 90.8% 94.4% Maps GPS Count 126 91 217 % within GEN 82.9% 84.3% Camera Count 149 106 255 % within GEN 98.0% 98.1% Memory Card Count 143 102 245
  45. 45. 37 % within GEN 94.1% 94.4% Bluetooth Count 141 101 242 % within GEN 92.8% 93.5% Cloud Storage Google Drive Dropbox Count 96 57 153 % within GEN 63.2% 52.8% Document Viewer Count 104 68 172 % within GEN 68.4% 63.0% Email Count 135 107 242 % within GEN 88.8% 99.1% Play Store Google Store Count 123 94 217 % within GEN 80.9% 87.0% Mobile Phone Scanner Count 95 59 154 % within GEN 62.5% 54.6% Total Count 152 108 260 Percentages and totals are based on respondents. Table 8: Levels of Advanced Applications Among the 300 sample of students, majority of the respondents were satisfied with their phones and the applications and few were dissatisfied. The satisfaction level was categorized into two levels: very satisfied and satisfied, and each took 67% and 7.2% respectively. The dissatisfaction level was categorized into two: dissatisfied and very dissatisfied, and each took 1.4% and 24.4% respectively. Frequency Valid Percent Very Satisfied 195 67.0% Very Dissatisfied 71 24.4% Satisfied 21 7.2% Dissatisfied 4 1.4% Total 291 100.0% Missing System 9 Total 300 Table 9: Levels of Satisfaction
  46. 46. 38 195 students are very satisfied with their phones, 21 of them are satisfied, 4 are dissatisfied and 71 are very dissatisfied. These figures are summarized as percentages in the graph below. Figure 5: Percentages on Students Levels of Satisfaction The satisfaction levels however vary between the two genders. 124 male students are categorized as ‘very satisfied’ compared to the female counterpart recorded 71. In the ‘satisfied’ category, 7 male students as compared to 14 female students are classified as such. 3 male students as compared to 1 female student are classified as dissatisfied and finally 36 male versus 35 female students are classified as very dissatisfied. Therefore, 131 male students are overall classified as satisfied regardless of the levels, while their female counterparts records 85. The dissatisfaction levels records a lower count: overall of 39 male and 36 female students. Gender*How would you rate your satisfaction of your mobile phone applications? Cross tabulation. Count How would you rate your satisfaction of your mobile phone applications? Total Very Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Gender Male 124 36 7 3 170 Female 71 35 14 1 121 Total 195 71 21 4 291 Table 10: Gender difference in Satisfaction with mobile phone applications 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Very Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied 67% 24% 7% 1%
  47. 47. 39 4.5 Mobile Phone Usage for Academic Purposes In this study, the mobile phone type (feature phone or smart phone) influenced the usage purposes. When asked to rate how frequent they use their phones for academic purposes, most students recorded ‘very often’ use, while the least number recorded ‘never’ use. A frequency of 770 by male students recorded ‘very often’ for using their mobile phones for academic purpose(s) as compared to 561 by the female students. 717 by male versus 511 by female students recorded ‘often’ use, 401 by male versus 270 by the female students recorded ‘rarely’ use while 322 by male and 231 by female students recorded ‘never’ use. Academic use* GEN Cross-tabulation Gender Total Male Female Academic usea Very often Count 770 561 1331 % within GEN 452.9% 463.6% Often Count 717 511 1228 % within GEN 421.8% 422.3% Rarely Count 401 270 671 % within GEN 235.9% 223.1% Never Count 322 231 553 % within GEN 189.4% 190.9% Total Count 170 121 291 Percentages and totals are based on respondents. Table 11 Summary of Students Academic Usage per Gender These figures are inflated because of the multiple responses in this question. The students were responding to 13 statements of academic functions: discuss with/pass information about class assignments to course mates; exchange information about lecture timetable; seek/exchange research information; enquire about the welfare of friends/course mates; communicate with lecturers; social networks; seek information from the internet for learning activities; search for materials from the internet to complete my assignment; use email to communicate with lecturers; use the internet as the main source of information for my studies; seek the latest information online to enhance my knowledge related to the courses taken in the university; use forums to exchange opinions on academic matters with my friends as well as access the library website to search for academic books. Among these statements, majority of the students stated that they used their mobile phones for the different academic functions.
  48. 48. 40 In detail, 82 students (40 male and 42 female) use their mobile phones to discuss and/or pass information about class assignments with their course mates very often. 137 students (84 male and 53 female) often use. Overall 219 students (very) often use their mobile phones for the aforementioned function compared to 72 students who either rarely or never use their phones for such purpose (See Table 12). Table 12: Gender * Discuss with/pass information about class assignments to course mates (Cross-tabulation) Count How often do you use your mobile phone for academic purposes? Total Very often Often Rarely Never Very often Gender Male 40 84 30 16 170 Female 42 53 14 12 121 Total 82 137 44 28 291 According to Table 13, majority (214) of the students (very) often use their mobile phones to exchange information about lecture timetable, with the male having a relatively higher numbers (104) and female students following at 90. A smaller number of students (73) would rarely or never use their mobile phones to exchanging information about lecture timetable. Table13: Gender * Exchange information about lecture timetable (Cross-tabulation) Count How often do you use your mobile phone for academic purposes? Total Very often Often Rarely Never Very often Gender Male 40 84 30 16 170 Female 42 53 14 12 121 Total 82 137 44 28 291 The use mobile phones to seek/exchange research information among students indicated a frequency of 212 very often use, with the male students taking the lead with 123. Additionally, 82 students report to rarely or never use of the mobile phones for such purpose (See Table 14).
  49. 49. 41 Table 14: Gender * Seek/exchange research information (Cross-tabulation) Count How often do you use your mobile phone for academic purposes? Total Very often Often Rarely Never Very often Gender Male 56 64 34 16 170 Female 41 48 19 13 121 Total 97 112 53 29 291 In Table 15, 64 male and 53 female students use their mobile phones to enquire about the welfare of friends/course mates ‘very often’, 67 male and 39 female students ‘often’ use their mobile phones on the same. In the category of ‘rarely’, 20 male as compared to 19 female were classified as such while 58 male and 41 female were classified as ‘never’. Table 15: Gender * enquire about the welfare of friends/course mates (Cross-tabulation) Count How often do you use your mobile phone for academic purposes? Total Very often Often Rarely Never Very often Gender Male 64 67 20 19 170 Female 53 39 19 10 121 Total 117 106 39 29 291 31 male and 20 female students use their mobile phones to communicate with lecturers ‘very often’. In the ‘often’ category, 41 male students as compared to 27 female students were classified as such. 40 male and 33 female reported that they ‘rarely’ use their mobile phones for the same and finally 58 male students versus 41 female students are classified as ‘never’ (See Table 16) Table 16: Gender * Communicate with lecturers (Cross-tabulation) Count How often do you use your mobile phone for academic purposes? Total Very often Often Rarely Never Very often Gender Male 31 41 40 58 170 Female 20 27 33 41 121 Total 51 68 73 99 291
  50. 50. 42 In Table 17, majority of students (246) confirmed (very) often using their mobile phones for social networking, with the male having 149 frequencies and female with 97. Further, 45 students had rarely or never used their mobile phones for accessing social networks. Table 17: Gender * Social networks (Cross-tabulation) Count How often do you use your mobile phone for academic purposes? Total Very often Often Rarely Never Very often Gender Male 104 45 10 11 170 Female 73 24 10 14 121 Total 177 69 20 25 291 Most students (92 male and 62 female) use their mobile phones to seek information from the internet for learning activities very often. In the ‘often’ category, 52 male students as compared to 42 female students were classified as such. 12 male and 7 female reported that they ‘rarely’ use their mobile phones for the same and finally14 male students versus 10 female students are classified as ‘never’ (See Table 18). Table 18: Gender * Seek information from the internet for learning activities (Cross- tabulation) Count How often do you use your mobile phone for academic purposes? Total Very often Often Rarely Never Very often Gender Male 92 52 12 14 170 Female 62 42 7 10 121 Total 154 94 19 24 291 139 students (77 male and 62 female) (very) often use their mobile phones to search for materials from the internet to complete their assignment. In the ‘often’ category, 53 male students as compared to 39 female students were classified as such. 22 male and 8 female reported that they ‘rarely’ use their mobile phones for the same and finally 18 male students versus 12 female students are classified as ‘never’ (See Table 19)

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