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Towards future networks an itu perspective

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Towards future networks an itu perspective

  1. 1. C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS Toward Future Networks: A Viewpoint from ITU-T Daisuke Matsubara, Hitachi Takashi Egawa, NEC Nozomu Nishinaga and Ved P. Kafle, NICT Myung-Ki Shin, ETRI Alex Galis, University College London ABSTRACT in the industry has started, and others are expect- ed to start in the future. There have been continuous efforts and Driven by this underlying tendency, Interna- progress regarding the research and develop- tional Telecommunication Union Telecommuni- ment of future network technologies in recent cation Standardization Sector (ITU-T) has years, such as network virtualization and soft- started the standardization of FNs as networks ware defined networking, information centric to be deployed roughly in the 2015–2020 time- networking (ICN), cloud networking, autonomic frame. The standardization work in ITU-T was management, and open connectivity. ITU-T started at a very early stage because a global started working on the standardization of FNs in public network takes much time to be developed late 2009, and it has developed some initial Rec- and deployed, and because new concepts require ommendations that lay out the essential direc- a gradual step-by-step approach to development tions for subsequent detailed work. This article and acceptance. FN standardization was started presents the background and the context of FNs’ with two approaches: a top down approach, standardization, and the deliverables and future working from the objectives and design goals of plans originated from the initial standardization FNs, and a bottom up approach, working from work performed by ITU-T. individual candidate technologies that are rela- tively mature. INTRODUCTION The reason for the former approach is that although FN is in its very early stage, there Recently, various new equipment types have seems to be a coarse consensus on the larger been connected to the public telecommunica- trend. For example, it is obvious that data explo- tion network. Data centers are becoming the sion or environmental issues will become central new norm with significant realization of cloud issues of FNs. The result of this analysis has computing systems. Various and many sen- been reflected in ITU-T Recommendation sors, actuators, and other “things” are now Y.3001 [1]. The latter approach is to investigate connected in the network to realize machine- various candidate technologies as building to-machine (M2M) and Internet of Things blocks of FNs because technologies in particular (IoT) services. The mobile phone is penetrat- areas tend to mature earlier than the overall ing all the markets, not only in developed architecture. For example, network virtualiza- countries, but also in developing countries, tion technology, such as SDN, has already and as such the necessity for continuously emerged. In addition, some technologies’ stan- considering their evolving requirements is dards are being developed in other standards increasing. These issues have changed the bal- development organizations (SDOs). It is impor- ance and relationships between various net- tant to understand and benefit from this ecosys- working requirements and motivate the tem of technologies. creation of new networks. Standardization in some cases can restrict the In the research community continuous efforts freedom of innovation if it is developed at an have therefore been made to investigate future early stage where the technology and the indus- networks (FNs). Various technologies such as try are not mature. We should therefore be care- network virtualization [10] and software defined ful to avoid speculative forecast-based networking (SDN) [14], cloud networking [13], standardization. The ITU-T approach has been information centric networking (ICN) [8], auto- to avoid this early standardization drawback as nomic management [7, 11, 12], and open con- much as possible. This article describes the cur- nectivity have been discussed and developed. rent achievements on FN standardization and its The deployment of some of these technologies underlying concepts. 112 0163-6804/13/$25.00 © 2013 IEEE IEEE Communications Magazine • March 2013C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND®
  2. 2. C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® This article is organized as follows. The next section provides an overview of FN standardiza- tion activities in ITU-T. Then Recommendation Service Data ITU-T Y.3001, which describes the objectives awareness awareness and design goals of FNs, is introduced. The fol- Service diversity lowing sections describe other FN-related Rec- ommendations and the ITU-T future plan. Then Functional flexibility an analysis of related standardization activities is Data access Virtualization of resources presented. The final section concludes the arti- cle. Network management Identification Mobility FUTURE NETWORK Reliability and security STANDARDIZATION IN ITU-T ITU-T Study Group 13 (SG13), a group for net- Energy consumption Service universalization work architecture and the lead group for FN Optimization Economic incentives standardization in ITU-T, started its activities on FNs in January 2009. Since the discussion of FN was in its very early stage, ITU-T concluded that Environmental Social and awareness economic it is very important to listen to the voices of not awareness only ITU-T members, but also experts including researchers outside of ITU-T. Consequently, the Focus Group on Future Networks (FG-FN), a temporary organization open to all experts inside and outside of ITU-T, was established, and its activity started in July 2009. Until its closure at Figure 1. Four objectives and 12 design goals of future networks [1]. the end of 2010, it held its meetings in various places in Europe, the United States, and Asia, listened to opinions of many experts, and devel- oped deliverables that later were turned into the ITU-T Y.30xx series of Recommendations. Service diversity At the closure of FG-FN, its deliverables were transferred to SG13 and reviewed. All Service A Service B Service X management function Network and service major deliverables have become Recommenda- contents delivery enterprise net service legacy IP network tions, and those that have completed the publi- cation process are open to the general public at the ITU-T web site. Virtual network A Virtual network B Virtual network X ITU-T Y.3001 AND THE Functional flexibility OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN GOALS OF Seamle Virtualization of resources ss mob FUTURE NETWORKS ility ITU-T Recommendation Y.3001 [1], “Future Network management Networks: Objectives and Design Goals,” Mobility Reliability and security describes four objectives and 12 design goals for FNs, and as such it presents the first standard definition and description of FNs. The funda- Figure 2. Service awareness in FNs. mental difference between FNs and other trans- port networks systems such as those using the Internet Protocol (IP) is the shift from separate SERVICE AWARENESS transport and service strata to a packet-based An overview of service awareness in FNs is network with service- and management-aware shown in Fig. 2. The number and range of ser- characteristics, which is based on shared (virtual- vices is expected to explode in the future. ized) combined processing, storage, and commu- Today’s network, the basic design of which was nication/connectivity resources. introduced more than 30 years ago, has support- Objectives are fundamental issues to which ed so far any service using its basic functionality not enough attention was paid in designing cur- and design. FNs are expected to support not rent networks, and as such they represent the only current services such as email and web differential characteristics of FNs as compared browsing, but also emerging services in an opti- to current networks. The four objectives identi- mal way, by providing additional functionality fied and described in Y.3001 are service aware- and flexibility that can accommodate diverse and ness, data awareness, environmental awareness, evolving service requirements. and social and economic awareness. Twelve FNs are aimed to support these services with- design goals were identified as advanced capabil- out drastic increases in, for instance, deployment ities and features that are needed together in the and operational costs. In addition, FNs are realization of FNs. Figure 1 shows the mapping required to be flexible and elastic so that they of design goals to the objectives. can adapt to new services. For example, if a ser- IEEE Communications Magazine • March 2013 113C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND®
  3. 3. C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® assumption that the location of the terminal is already known by the other terminal, and the Local cache location ID (e.g., IP address) is globally unique. content ID - abcdef1 Cache So the exchange of information in current net- training works is based on the globally unique location Content ID IDs and location-based routing, as shown in Fig. based routing 3. However, if identical information objects are placed in multiple locations, it is not always opti- Location ID based routing Content source mal to access information using globally unique content ID - abcdef1 static location IDs. For example, popular video Location ID - V:W:X:Y:Z location ID - Z:Y:X:W:V content that is downloaded by a large number of people may be accessed via a local cache instead of the remote content server, thus eliminating consumption of extra bit miles. Identical con- tents may have the same content ID, and the Figure 3. Data awareness in FNs. content can be accessed via the nearest cache using content-ID-based routing, as shown in Fig. 3. A content delivery service provider may modi- vice requires a certain process to be done inside fy the response to a Domain Name System the network, the network should dynamically (DNS) query so that the nearest server is provision all managed communication, comput- accessed, but it would be valid only for that par- ing, and storage resources needed for that ser- ticular service provider and would be difficult to vice. Furthermore, these resources may be expand to a global scale. virtualized to allow flexible deployment and In FNs, communication paradigms using IDs usage by the services. other than location IDs is envisaged. FNs aim to In order to support diverse services for support communication using data (or content) mobile users, including M2M communication IDs. Furthermore, it will support communication devices, advanced mobility features that guaran- using node IDs, application process IDs, and so tee sufficient quality of service experience to on. These IDs need to be treated separately users in both homogeneous and heterogeneous from location IDs, and FNs should support not mobile environments are needed. only separation of endpoint or node IDs and Network management will play a significant locators such as specified in Locator/ID Separa- role in allowing the network to take in and tion Protocol (LISP) and ITU-T Recommenda- accommodate these diverse services. Network tion Y.2015, but also communication using data management will need to manage not only physi- IDs, service IDs, and so on. cal resources, but also virtual resources located inside the network. In addition, unified manage- ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS ment of FNs, which includes in-network auto- According to [15], the ratio of carbon dioxide nomic management [7, 11, 12], is an approach (CO2) the information and communication tech- where management and control functions are nology (ICT) industry produces is two percent of distributed and located or hosted in or close to the entire CO2 emission. This includes CO2 con- the managed network and service elements. tribution by PCs, servers, cooling systems, fixed Additionally, the services themselves may need and mobile telephony, local area networks to be managed along with the network in a uni- (LANs), office telecommunications, and printers. fied manner; hence, in-network autonomic man- Internet traffic is growing year by year. It has agement will play an essential part in realizing been predicted that the traffic triples every five these services. years and will reach 1.3 zettabytes by 2016. Con- Finally, the services will need to support the sidering the necessity to transmit information social infrastructure, including mission-critical bits via the network, the increase in traffic will services; hence, FNs will require substantially mean an increase in energy consumption; hence, enhanced security and reliability compared to the emission of CO2 will most likely continue to current networks. increase. For this reason, FNs aim at minimizing the energy needed to transmit bits at the device, DATA AWARENESS equipment, and system levels. At the same time, FNs are aimed at optimizing the handling of energy can be managed in a better manner by enormous amounts of data in a distributed envi- utilizing ICT for various industries such as man- ronment with users enabled to access desired ufacturing and distribution of goods. data safely, easily, quickly, and accurately, regardless of their location. In the context of SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC AWARENESS data awareness, “data” is not limited to specific Telecommunication networks have become an data types such as audio or video contents, but essential infrastructure utility that is indispens- includes all information that is accessible via the able to our society, very similar to electricity, network. gas, and water. For this reason, FNs aim to take The current networks are mainly used for into consideration social and economical aspects accessing and distributing information. To real- when realizing the architecture. ize this, the networks establish a communication As networks are evolving from just connect- connection between an application process of ing people with common interests to a social each terminal (end host) and exchange data infrastructure, service universalization is becom- using the connection. This is based on the ing a key objective in realizing the new network- 114 IEEE Communications Magazine • March 2013C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND®
  4. 4. C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® NewArch (DARPA) Telecommunication networks have U.S.A. 100 x 100 clean slate project FIND (NSF) FIA (NSF) (NSF) become an essential GENI (NSF) US-ignite infrastructure utility Euro-NGI Euro-FGI that is indispensable Network of Euro-NF excellence to our society, very ICT challenge 1.1 future networks (>150PJs) EU similar to electricity, Future internet research and experimentation gas, and water. For FI-PPP this reason, FNs aim UNS strategic programs NWGN implementation to take into consid- Japan AKARI architecture design NWGN R&D project eration the social JGN2 JGN2+ JGN-X and economical FI arch R&D projects (MOFI, DTN, CCN, etc.) aspects when realiz- Korea Smart internet ing the architecture. FI testbed projects (FiRST, K-GENI, etc.) ITU-T SG13 Q21 ITU-T SG13 ITU-T FG FN Y.3001 Y.3011 FN-related Y.3021 recommendations Y.3031 IRTF VNRG Other SDOs IRTF ICNRG IETF NO3 ETSI NVF ONF 2000 2005 2010 Figure 4. Standardization and research activities regarding FNs. ing. The right to have access to a global network bandwidth and delay, but also power consump- will be fundamental in the future, and should tion, mobility, delay tolerance, security, and so not be limited based on the location of an indi- on. A service-aware network is a rich landscape vidual user. of network services, which can be discovered, It is also necessary for the network to evolve negotiated, and contracted by higher-level ser- in a sound and consistent manner. Public net- vices at the application level. These services works such as telephony networks have been need to be discoverable and describable by invested in and operated mainly by government- attributes such as capacity, throughput, QoS, owned companies, and have supported and fos- latency, protocol support, availability, and securi- tered the national industry. Recently, private ty in a consistent format. They need to express investment has become active, and a capital mar- cost and availability, scalability, and potentially ket has been introduced in investment in and elasticity and support for usage variations. They operation of network infrastructure. At the same need to be supported by a negotiation service, time, the relationship between the investment which can implement contracts with consumers. model and the profit distribution model has FNs are necessary to accommodate these diverse been distorted, and it is becoming obstructive for services without a drastic increase in costs of appropriate development of the market. deployment and operation. One method is to FNs should explicitly take into consideration enable network operators to control their net- lowering the barriers for stakeholders to enter works in a unified and programmable manner, the market and providing a sustainable competi- and realize multiple isolated and flexible net- tive environment. works in order to support a broad range of net- work services that do not interfere with each other. From this viewpoint, promising technolo- RECOMMENDATIONS IN EACH AREA gies include network virtualization [10], SDN RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO [14], and cloud networking [13] technologies. ITU-T has successfully developed and pub- SERVICE AWARENESS lished ITU-T Recommendation Y.3011, “Frame- The number of network services is continuously work of Network Virtualization for FNs” [2], increasing, and they are becoming even more which is the first Recommendation regarding diverse not only in traditional properties such as service awareness in FNs from the perspective of IEEE Communications Magazine • March 2013 115C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND®
  5. 5. C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® ITU-T. Network virtualization is a method that framework that will be helpful for intrinsic The essence of DAN allows multiple virtual networks, called logically mobility support and optimal data access. It isolated network partitions (LINPs), to coexist in specifies the identification framework, after giv- lies in the name- a single physical network. In Y.3011, the follow- ing an analysis of identifiers being used in cur- based routing in ing eight design principles for realizing network rent networks and their limitations. It mentions which the data or virtualization are investigated and presented: the overloaded semantics of an IP address as an • Isolation: separation among the LINPs (e.g., identifier, a locator, and a forwarding tag, and the request for the from security and performance aspects) consequent hindrances to mobility and multi- data is routed inside • Network abstraction: hiding the underlying homing services. characteristics of network resources and The identification framework is horizontally the network not by establishing simplified interfaces for access- positioned between the communication objects its location but by its ing the network resources (e.g., user, device, data, and service) and physi- name or ID (i.e., • Topology awareness and quick reconfigura- cal networks forwarding data from one place to bility: update of an LINP’s capability needs another. The framework consists of four compo- routing and forward- to be done dynamically and without inter- nents: ID discovery service, ID space, ID map- ing is based on data rupting the operation of the current LINP ping registry, and ID mapping service. The ID • Performance: avoidance of the performance discovery service discovers various types of IDs ID). It captures many degradation caused by the virtualization related to communication objects. The ID space aspects of ongoing layer or adaptation layer defines and manages various kinds of IDs (e.g. research works. • Programmability: programmable control user IDs, data or content IDs, service IDs, node plane and data plane so that users can use IDs, and location IDs). The ID mapping registry customized protocols, forwarding, or rout- maintains mapping relationships between various ing functions in the LINP types of IDs. The ID mapping service performs • Management: independent management mappings of IDs of one type with the IDs of functions for each LINP other types. The ID mapping service utilizes the • Mobility: movement support of virtual ID mappings obtained from the ID mapping reg- resources including users and services istry to achieve seamless services over heteroge- • Wireless: wireless characteristics support neous physical networks, such as IPv6, IP IPv4, such as limited resource usage and signal or non-IP networks, that may use different pro- interference tocols and media for forwarding data. As the next step of Y.3011, more detailed ITU-T is currently working on Y.FNDAN, requirements in realizing network virtualization “Framework of Data Aware Networking for are being envisaged in a separate ITU-T Draft Future Networks,” which gives an overview of Recommendation Y.FNvirtreq, “Requirements data aware networks (DANs). DAN is a technol- of Network Virtualization for Future Networks,” ogy that optimizes handling of enormous amount which focuses on virtual resource management, of data in a distributed environment, and enables service mobility, wireless virtualization, and can- users to access desired data safely, easily, quick- didate protocols and existing requirements for ly, and accurately regardless of their location. In network virtualization. addition, due to the awareness feature of this In addition, SDN technologies are emerging technology, it enables networks to understand and intensively discussed as one of solutions users’ requests and to react accordingly in order regarding network virtualization within telecom to support adaptive data dissemination. networks including mobile, data centers, and The essence of DAN lies in the name-based enterprise networks. ITU-T Draft Recommenda- routing in which the data or the request for the tion Y.FNsdn, “Framework of Telecom Soft- data is routed inside the network not by its loca- ware-Defined Networking (SDN),” specifies tion but by its name or ID (i.e., routing and for- requirements and use cases for SDN in telecom warding is based on data ID). It captures many networks. SDN is defined as a new networking aspects of ongoing research work such as con- technology that enables network operators to tent-centric networking (CCN) [5] and informa- directly control and manage their networks and tion-centric networking (ICN) [8]. Y.FNDAN resources to best serve their customers’ needs by will provide general properties and high-level writing simple programs, where controls and requirements of DAN such as naming, routing, data forwarding are decoupled. Its properties in-network caching, in-network processing, and include programmable controls, data forwarding data security. abstraction, and virtualization support of the underlying networks’ infrastructure and RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO resources. ITU-T is planning to collaborate on ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS this topic with other SDOs such as the Open Networking Foundation (ONF) and Internet There are many standardization activities that Engineering Task Force (IETF). contribute to realizing the environmental objec- tive of Y.3001. Within ITU-T activities there are RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO Recommendations that define a power charger DATA AWARENESS specification for mobile terminals to reduce e- waste, an assessment methodology for the envi- ITU-T Recommendation Y.3031, “Identification ronmental impact of ICT, and so on. Many of framework in future networks [4] is the fourth in them are applicable to FNs. the series of FN-related Recommendations ITU-T Recommendation Y.3021, “Frame- developed in ITU-T SG13. It complements the work of Energy Saving for Future Networks” [5], FN objectives and design goals specified in ITU- reviews various energy saving technologies and T Y.3001 by developing a new identification categorizes them into two according to the basic 116 IEEE Communications Magazine • March 2013C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND®
  6. 6. C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® strategy. One is to reduce network capacity by tures, higher automation and autonomicity capa- reducing traffic (e.g., by caching) or peak load bilities, easier use of management tools, and The three groups in shift. The other is improvement of energy effi- empowering the network with inbuilt cognition ciency by dynamic control (e.g., clock gating, and intelligence. Additional benefits include ITU-T SG 13 are far sleep mode control) or less power (e.g., large- reduction and optimization in the amount of from enough to scale integrated fabrication, thermal design) external management interactions, which is key cover all these Then it describes a feedback loop among mea- to the minimization of manual interaction and surement, control, and management as the the sustaining of manageability of large net- aspects of FNs. And framework of energy saving. worked systems and moving from a managed there are many Also, each ITU-T Recommendation related object paradigm to one of management by objec- to FNs has an environmental consideration sec- tives. existing and ongoing tion that assesses the environmental impact of The three groups in ITU-T SG 13 are far projects in other the technology. This is inspired by the security from enough to cover all these aspects of FNs. ITU-T Study Groups consideration section commonly addressed in And there are many existing and ongoing pro- ICT standards. jects in other ITU-T Study Groups and SDOs. and SDOs. Collaboration with them considering the tech- Collaboration with RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO nology research and market needs is essential for realizing FNs. them considering the SOCIO-ECONOMIC AWARENESS technology research Network architecture indirectly but certainly and market needs affects society and business by providing the RELATED STANDARDIZATION AND playing field for social activity and business. is essential for ITU-T Y.3001 thus emphasizes that FNs should RESEARCH ACTIVITIES realizing FNs. consider social and economic issues such as the Figure 4 shows a chronology of FN related barrier to enter the market or the life cycle cost research and development activity along with for deployment and sustainability, although ITU-T standardization activities for FNs. The Y.3001 focuses on technical aspects. This is an NewArch project initiated in 2000 by several interdisciplinary issue between technology and U.S. universities and institutes is the ancestor of policy, which should not be decided by stan- Future Internet architecture design projects dards, but by the market through competition. advocating for the “clean slate” design approach. ITU-T therefore started a socio-economic It was founded by the Defense Advanced discussion from a framework called ITU-T Draft Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which was Recommendation Y.FNsocioeconomic, “Socio- the funding body supporting the initial design of Economic Aware Design of Future Network the Internet. The objective of this project was to Technology.” The current draft provides a define a network architecture as “advanced framework to anticipate the socio-economic design principles for making use of protocols impact of the technology during its design. When and algorithms.” The 100x100 Clean Slate Pro- a candidate FN technology is provided, it recom- ject (2000–2005) was a National Science Foun- mends taking into account the relevant set of dation (NSF) supported collaborative project stakeholders, tussles emerging among them, and launched and its slogan was “100 Mb/s connec- the range of available choices, to anticipate tivity to 100 million homes” with new technolo- either a stable and incentives-compatible or an gy. Future Internet Design (FIND) and Future unstable outcome resulting from deploying the Internet Architecture (FIA) are also funded by technology, to identify potential spillover NSF. FIND was a long-term initiative of the (unwanted) effects from the technology’s prima- NSF NeTS research program and also focused ry functionality to another functionality, and to on the clean slate design approach. More than help design a technology for FNs that is in line 40 projects were established, and four large pro- with the respective socio-economic design goals jects (FIA projects) have been generated as the and objectives. result of FIND. For testing brand new network architecture design through the above projects, Global Environment for Network Innovations FUTURE PLAN (GENI) was initiated in 2005 by NSF. Standardization activities of FNs are gaining In the European Union, more than 150 pro- momentum. For example, SDN, which is closely jects clustered as the EU Future Internet Assem- related to the service awareness objective, is bly (FIA) [6, 9] are developing networking becoming a hot topic in the ICT industry. ITU-T systems for the future Internet. SG 13 therefore decided to divide the group The Japanese government announced the involved in standardization of FNs into three Ubiquitous Network Society (UNS) strategy pro- groups: the first group for service awareness gram in 2005, and the AKARI project was initi- including SDN, the second group for data aware- ated in 2006 to design a new generation network ness, and the third group for environment and (NWGN) architecture by NICT. It is continuing socio-economic awareness and short-term real- as one project in the NWGN R&D Project. The ization of FNs. FNs are a huge target, and vari- NWGN testbed, JGN-X, is now under operating ous areas need to be discussed for future with network virtualization technology. standardization apart from the Draft Recom- In Korea, FIArch projects such as Mobile mendations mentioned in the previous sections. Oriented Future Internet (MOFI), Delay Toler- One of the most important areas is unified man- ant Networking (DTN), and CCN were launched agement of FNs, which includes in-network in 2007. Future Internet Research for Sustain- autonomic management [7, 11, 12]. The benefits able Testbed (FiRST) and international federa- are inherent support for self-management fea- tion projects such as K-GENI were initiated in IEEE Communications Magazine • March 2013 117C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND®
  7. 7. C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® 2008. The Korean government has also [13] B. Rochwerger et al., “The RESERVOIR Model and Architecture for Open Federated Cloud Computing,” As the standardiza- announced Smart Internet as a first deployment IBM System J., Special Edition on Internet Scale Data model of the future Internet in 2011. Centers, vol. 53, no. 4, 2009. tion work pro- [14] J. Rubio-Loyola et al., “Scalable Service Deployment on gressed, ITU-T was Software Defined Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. CONCLUDING REMARKS 49, no. 12, Dec. 2011, pp 84–93. able to capture and [15] http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=503867 (visit- ITU-T has developed and published during ed on 14 Dec. 2012). identify the key char- 2009–2012 four important Recommendations: acteristics and impor- Y.3001, Y.3011, Y.3021, and Y.3031, represent- BIOGRAPHIES ing the first standard descriptions of future net- tant aspects of FNs works. In addition to connectivity services, FNs D AISUKE M ATSUBARA (daisuke.matsubara.pj@hitachi.com) ____________________ received B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering and specify them in are characterized by four objectives and 12 from Kyoto University, Japan, in 1996 and 1998, respec- these documents. design goals. These design goals are advanced tively. In 1998, he joined Hitachi, Ltd., where he was capabilities, features, and new network services involved in research such as ATM/STM exchange units, QoS We believe that path control using MPLS/DiffServ, P2P network systems, that are needed together in the realization of resource control for NGN, network virtualization, and data- these Recommenda- FNs. When ITU-T started the discussion on FNs oriented networks. He is co-editor of ITU-T Recommenda- in 2009, the research was still in its initial stage. tion Y.3001. tions will provide As the standardization work progressed through TAKASHI EGAWA joined NEC Corporation in 1991, and stud- sound foundation discussions with various experts in this field, ied topics such as the reliability of networks and active net- and appropriate ITU-T was able to capture and identify the key works. In 2005 he shifted his effort to standardization, in characteristics and important aspects of FNs, particular in ITU-T. He edited NGN security (Y.2701), NGN guidance for subse- and specify them in these documents. We believe identity management (Y.2720), and other ITU-T Recom- mendations. He chaired the Focus Group on Future Net- quent FNs realiza- that these Recommendations will provide a works, and is now a Rapporteur of ITU-T SG13 Question 21 sound foundation and appropriate guidance for (Future Networks). tion, standardization, subsequent FNs’ realization, standardization, research and devel- research, and development. NOZOMU NISHINAGA received his B.S. and M.S. in electronics engineering and his Ph. D in information engineering from opment. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Nagoya University, Japan, in 1994, 1996, and 1998, respec- tively. From November 1998 to March 1999 he was a The authors would like to thank Sangjin Jeong, research assistant at the Information Media Education Cen- Hideki Otsuki, Toshihiko Kurita, Martin Wald- ter, Nagoya University. From 1999 to the present, he has been a researcher with the National Institute of Informa- burger, Alojz Hudobivnik, Naotaka Morita, tion and Communications Technology (formerly, Communi- Hyoung-Jun Kim, and Chaesub Lee for their cations Research Laboratory). Since April 2011, he has work and contributions to the ITU-T FN activi- been director of the New Generation Network Laboratory, ties. This article was partially supported by the Network Research Headquarters. His current research inter- ests include Internet architecture and wireless communica- European Union UniverSELF project, the tions. National Institute of Information and Communi- cations Technology (NICT), and the ICT Stan- M YUNG -K I S HIN is currently a principal researcher at ETRI, dardization program of the Korea Korea. He is a technical leader of the future network stan- dardization project in ETRI. He has been working on Inter- Communications Commission (KCC). net protocols since 1994. He is an author of several IETF RFCs (RFC 3338, RFC 4038, RFC 4489, RFC 5181, etc.). He is REFERENCES a Rapporteur of Q21 (Future Networks)/SG13 in ITU-T. His research interests include future Internet, IPv6, mobility, [1] ITU-T Rec. Y.3001, “Future Network Vision — Objectives network virtualization, and software-defined networking and Design Goals,” 2011. technologies. He was also a guest researcher at NIST, Unit- [2] ITU-T Rec. Y.3011, “Framework of Network Virtualiza- ed States, in 2004–2005. He received a Ph.D. degree in tion for Future Networks,” 2012. computer engineering from Chungnam National University [3] ITU-T Rec. Y.3021, “Framework of Energy Saving for for research on IPv6 multicast and mobility in 2003. Future Networks,” 2012. [4] ITU-T Rec. Y.3031, “Identification Framework in Future VED P. KAFLE [M’04] (kafle@nict.go.jp) is a senior researcher ________ Networks,” 2012. at NICT. He has been involved in the design, implementa- [5] V. Jacobson et al., “Networking Named Content,” tion, evaluation, and optimization of algorithms, protocols, CoNEXT 2009, Rome, Italy, Dec. 2009. and architectures of new generation networks or future [6] F. A. Álvarez et al., “Future Internet — From Promises to networks. In particular, his research interests include nam- Reality,” LNCS, vol. 7281, Springer, Apr. 2012, pp. 12–52. ing and addressing, ID/locator split, name resolution, inte- [7] S. Clayman et al., “Monitoring, Aggregation and Filter- gration of IPv4, IPv6, and new protocols, content-centric ing for Efficient Management of Virtual Networks,” networking, distributed mobility management, privacy, IEEE Int’l. Conf. Network and Service Mgmt., Oct. 2011. security, and trust. He has served as a co-editor of several [8] D. Kutscher et al., “Information-Centric Networking,” Future Network and NGN related ITU-T Recommendations. Dagstuhl Seminar, 2010. He was awarded the ITU Association of Japan Award in [9] J. Domingue et al., “The Future Internet — Future Inter- 2009 and the Best Paper Award (second prize) at the ITU-T net Assembly 2011: Achievements and Technological Kaleidoscope conference in 2009. Promises,” LNCS, vol. 6656, no. 465, Springer, May 2011, pp. 1–465. ALEX GALIS is a professor in networked and service systems [10] A. Galis et al., Ed., Programmable Networks for IP at the University College London Department of Electronic Service Deployment, Artech House, June 2004, pp. and Electrical Engineering, United Kingdom. He has pub- 1–450. lished eight books and more than 175 journal and confer- [11] R. G. Clegg et al., “On the Selection of Management ence papers in future Internet areas. He has served on and Monitoring Nodes in Dynamic Networks,” IEEE several program committees, and organized several IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. PP, no. 99, Mar. 2012, pp. 1–15. conferences and workshops. He has served also as Principal [12] L. Ciavaglia et al., “Realizing Autonomics for Future Investigator in three EU projects and he has contributed to Networks,” Future Network and Mobile Summit, June another 10 research EU projects. He also served as vice- 2011, Warsaw, Poland. chair of the ITU-T FG on Future Networks. 118 IEEE Communications Magazine • March 2013C qM IEEE M ommunications q qM Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page MqM q Qmags THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND®

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