White PaperLong-Term Evolution (LTE): The vision beyond 3GMobile networks have enabled dramatic        explosion in demand...
Mulitmedia services/interworking                 Application servers       Converged          SIP                         ...
The combined use of OFDM and                   deployed to extend the coverage of the       customers worldwide. Nortel co...
A typical LTE/SAE network will have         Convergence and                             Content-based charging, operator p...
SecurityThe security challenge with IP networksis one of the most significant factorsthat slows down the further adoption ...
In the United States:                         In Europe:Nortel                                        Nortel35 Davis Drive...
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Nortel lte the vision beyond 3 g


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Mobile networks have enabled dramatic advances and changes in telecommunications over the last two decades, and mobile operators have grown to dominate the industry, offering their sub - scrib ers a service set as rich as their
wireline competitors (i.e. mostly voice), plus mobility.

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Nortel lte the vision beyond 3 g

  1. 1. White PaperLong-Term Evolution (LTE): The vision beyond 3GMobile networks have enabled dramatic explosion in demand for connectivity LTE encompasses the pillars of next-advances and changes in telecommuni- from a new generation of consumer generation networks:cations over the last two decades, and devices tailored to those new mobile > Broadband wireless as the new accessmobile operators have grown to domi- applications. Competing technologies are reality — High-throughput, low-nate the industry, offering their sub- already emerging to address the growing latency mobile access based onscribers a service set as rich as their nomadic wireless broadband market space OFDM/MIMO, efficiently deliveringwireline competitors (i.e. mostly voice), and challenging the status quo. However, unicast, multicast and broadcastplus mobility. However, with the broad- mobile operators, thanks to their incum- media.band market success in cable, xDSL and bent position, have a unique opportunity > Convergence of technology andWi-Fi, the competitive landscape is to evolve their infrastructures to next- networks — A single applicationschanging. generation wireless networks and capi- domain serving customers across talize on this great opportunity to further multiple networks and devices.Although 3G technologies deliver signif- grow their dominant market share. Their > Intelligence at the services edge —icantly higher bit rates than 2G tech- decision on which technology and when Implementing policy enforcementnologies and contribute to ARPU growth to evolve to the higher performing next- and decisions at the network edge,for wireless data services, there is still generation networks will underpin their in an access-agnostic but access-awaremore opportunity for wireless operators framework. market success.to capitalize on the ever-increasingdemand for “wireless broadband”, evenlower latency and multi-megabitthroughput. Consequently, there is anexpanding revenue opportunity from agrowing pool of underserved consumersthat can only be satisfied with next-generation networks. The solution is“LTE” (3GPP Long Term Evolution),the next-generation network beyond 3G.In addition to enabling fixed to mobilemigrations of Internet applications suchas Voice over IP (VoIP), video streaming,music downloading, mobile TV andmany others, LTE networks will alsoprovide the capacity to support an
  2. 2. Mulitmedia services/interworking Application servers Converged SIP Non-IMS services services HSS CSCF Access systems PSTN CDMA Edge Services GSM/UMTS Aggregation LTE Optical IP/MPLS core Internet Broadband Edge services IPI nodes WiFi, WiMAX Other NGN Multiple, fast Service enablers access systems QoS, mobility, charging, security> Technology shift to all-IP — Specific technical requirements include: > Improved quality of experience Simplifying and streamlining the > Low latency and high throughput (QoE) — One of the benefits network, improving scalability and LTE/SAE will bring is a reduction in > Efficient always-on operation, with deployment flexibility, and enabling latency time, which will enhance the instantaneous access to network consistent access-aware policy behavior of time-sensitive applications, resources enforcement and billing. such as VoIP, thus improving the user > Support for real-time and experience. For example, the latency> Embedded security — A multi-layer, non-real-time applications time, expressed as the time for a 32- multi-vendor approach to security is critical to ensure that security is > Flexible spectrum allocations byte Ping, is expected to reach 20 ms endemic to the network and not just > Re-use of existing cell site (compared with 120 ms for a typical focused on point solutions. infrastructure 3G network). > High spectrum efficiency for unicast, Two key enabling technologies will helpThese key concepts also lead to a target multicast and broadcast data the industry meet and exceed the LTEarchitecture characterized by a flat all-IPbased multi-access core network, In addition to the requirements above, performance objectives:referred to as System Architecture there is a set of minimum performance > Orthogonal Frequency DivisionEvolution (SAE). requirements defined by the 3GPP Multiplexing (OFDM) is intrinsically Long-Term Evolution (LTE) studies. able to handle the most commonEvolved wireless access: LTE These objectives include: radio frequency (RF) distortions without the need for complex equal-The challenge for next-generation wire- > Increased spectral efficiency and ization techniques, and scales easily toless networks is to provide wireless capacity — LTE is expected to deliver fit different bandwidth requirements.broadband at a cost and performance three to five times greater capacity than the most advanced current 3G > Multiple Input/Multiple Outputbetter than that achievable with DSL networks. (MIMO) increases peak throughputtechnologies, while maintaining seam- by transmitting and receiving multipleless mobility, service control and maxi- > Lower cost per bit — Increased streams of information within themizing network capacity with limited spectral efficiency combined with same spectrum. MIMO exploits thespectrum resources. the operational benefits of an all-IP multi-path effects typical in wireless network will reduce the cost per bit environments. compared to 3G solutions.2
  3. 3. The combined use of OFDM and deployed to extend the coverage of the customers worldwide. Nortel continuesMIMO will improve the spectral effi- cell. MIMO processing also exploits to leverage its OFDM-MIMO invest-ciency and capacity of the wireless spatial multiplexing, allowing different ment and experience across 3GPP LTE,network, and will prove to be a very data streams to be transmitted simulta- 3GPP2 UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadbandvaluable asset in maximizing usage of neously from the different transmit - EVDO Rev C) and WiMAX toscarce spectrum typically controlled by antennas, to increase the end-user data achieve maximum synergies across theseregulatory bodies. rate and cell capacity. In addition, when advanced wireless network product lines. knowledge of the radio channel is avail-OFDM is already an extremely Other key enabling technologies which able at the transmitter (e.g. via feedbacksuccessful access technology currently Nortel is actively researching include information from the receiver), MIMOdeployed in a number of wireless and metamaterial antennas, cell-site cable can also implement beam-forming towireline applications. These applications reduction and high-efficiency linear further increase available data rates andinclude broadcast (Digital Audio power amplifier technologies, which will spectrum efficiency.Broadcast or DAB, and Digital Video all contribute to lowering the total cost ofBroadcast or DVB), wireless WLAN Nortel has shown that OFDM-MIMO ownership benefiting from the OFDM-(IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g), with beam-forming — or Spatial MIMO based LTE deployments.WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) and wireline Division Multiple Access (SDMA) —Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Loop can provide a higher order of magnitude Simplified architecture: SAE(ADSL/ADSL2+). OFDM is widely capacity on the downlink than current To meet the technical and performanceaccepted as the basis for the air-interface 3G deployments. Nortel has also shown requirements noted previously requiresnecessary to meet the requirements for how multiple antennas could be a reduction in the number of networknext-generation mobile networks. deployed on the user equipment, an nodes involved in data processing and especially challenging requirement with transport. A flatter network architectureMIMO employs multiple transmit and severe space constraints. leads to improved data latency (thereceive antennas to substantially transmission delay between the trans-enhance the air interface. It uses space- Nortel has been investing in OFDM mitter sending data and the receivertime coding of the same data stream and MIMO since 1998 in anticipation receiving it) and better support of delay-mapped onto multiple transmit of their adoption in mobility networks. sensitive, interactive and real-timeantennas, which is an improvement over Since then, the company has demon- communications.traditional reception diversity schemes strated OFDM-MIMO commercialwhere only a single transmit antenna is benefits and feasibility to more than 100 OFDM-MIMO eNodeB AGW Intranets IP eNodeB Internet IMS AGW PSTN eNodeB eNodeB 3
  4. 4. A typical LTE/SAE network will have Convergence and Content-based charging, operator policytwo types of network elements services edge control, QoS and roaming support aresupporting the user and control planes. Key requirements focus on user quality important concepts in order to sustain of experience, service innovation and the value of key strategic assets (e.g.> The first is the new enhanced base station, so called “Evolved NodeB network simplification and evolution. spectrum licenses, cell site infrastruc- (eNodeB)” per 3GPP standards. This Specifically, these include: ture, brand) over the long term, and enhanced BTS provides the LTE air under roaming scenarios. They also > Service-oriented architecture contribute to improving end-user interface and performs radio resource supporting diverse service classes quality of experience. management for the evolved access system. > Content-based charging> The second is the new Access > Operator policy control of services All-IP flat networks GateWay (AGW). The AGW provides and networks Using IP networking as the foundation termination of the LTE bearer. It also > End-to-end QoS for service delivery provides maximum acts as a mobility anchor point for the flexibility, decouples the user and > Service and network roaming support user plane. It implements key logical control planes to simplify the network functions including MME (Mobility > Technology co-existence and improve scalability, and allows the Management Entity) for the Control > Open interfaces wealth of existing IETF standards to be Plane and SAE PDN GW (System > Scalable, evolvable network elements leveraged. Specific requirements include: Architecture Evolution Packet Data Network GateWay) for the User > Optimal routing of traffic Adoption of a Service-oriented Plane. These functions may be split Architecture (SoA) is desirable in order > IP-based transport into separate physical nodes, to reduce the time spent from service > Seamless mobility (intra- and inter- depending on the vendor-specific creation (or development), to deploy- Radio Access Technologies) implementation. ment, to execution, and therefore > Simplification of the networkComparing the functional breakdown improve service innovation. SoA facili-with existing 3G architecture: tates cost-effectiveness and acceleration of the time to move from conception> Radio Network elements functions, to execution. such as Radio Network Controller (RNC), are distributed between the AGW and the enhanced BTS (eNodeB).> Core Network elements functions, such as SGSN and GGSN or PDSN (Packet Data Serving Node) and routers are distributed mostly towards the AGW.Standards are expected to be 100%finalized by end of 2008.4
  5. 5. SecurityThe security challenge with IP networksis one of the most significant factorsthat slows down the further adoption ofnetwork technologies. Operators andenterprises recognize the clear produc-tivity improvements and cost savings ofconverging their communication tech-nologies on a single infrastructure andenabling universal connectivity for users.However, they are hesitant to adopttechnologies that may compromise their publicly promoted the advantages of Nortel will be conducting LTE trialsprivacy, put their business at risk and OFDM-MIMO to 3GPP operators, with customers during 2008 and 2009,potentially cause significant financial loss. which accelerated its introduction into and is on track for delivery of commer-An end-to-end system approach to the 3GPP LTE standards. cial systems by end of 2009, in line withsecurity is required in next-generation the availability of initial commercial In 2006, Nortel delivered an OFDM-wireless networks, including: devices. MIMO prototype solution based on the> Platform hardening Collaborative MIMO technology and Nortel’s strategy includes early co-> User/operator authentication, achieved a connection speed in the development partnerships with mobile authorization and auditing uplink that was 15 times faster than chipset vendors and accelerated interop-> Secure protocols, communication today’s fastest mobile connectivity. erability testing with device manufac- and data storage Nortel’s original OFDM-MIMO labora- turers. This will ensure the availability> Software and configuration integrity tory prototype, demonstrated in 2004, of a complete LTE ecosystem in align- delivered 37 Mbps in the downlink in ment with Nortel’s network solution.> Secure network management, control the same bandwidth. In addition, Nortel places an emphasis and signalling on technology leadership and simplicity> End-point compliance At 3GSM World Congress and CTIA in in its LTE solution to achieve the lowest 2007, Nortel publicly demonstrated a> Network perimeter protection and total cost of ownership for operators. interior protection pre-standards LTE air interface supporting video streaming and file transfers to Nortel has also made significant invest-> Unsolicited traffic protection multiple devices. ments in autonomous network manage- ment systems based on Self OrganizingNortel is leading in More recently, at Mobile World Congress Networks, Touchless Installation andOFDM-MIMO and CTIA 2008, Nortel was again Autonomous RF Optimization to vastlyNortel is engaged in numerous activities demonstrating a LIVE air LTE system, simplify the way LTE networks will bedirected towards realization of next- with embedded advanced radio func- deployed and managed.generation wireless networks. tionalities to cope with the varying radioSpecifically: conditions, and showing examples of Nortel is a technology leader with a the hyperconnected lifestyle with multiple clear vision, a proven innovation track> Driving relevant initiatives across stan- dards bodies: 3GPP, 3GPP2, 802.16e devices running advanced multimedia record, and a commitment to best-in- applications like High Definition video class solutions. Nortel is in a unique> Partnerships for ecosystem streaming, Microsoft Unified Communi- position to provide a balanced vision development cations, Social Networking applications on the technological landscape and its> Terminal certification and Video Collaboration to name a few. evolution, leveraging its experience and> Open interfaces Nortel also announced in April 2008 leadership in major wireless technolo- that LTE calls at high vehicular speeds gies, as well as in the optical, IP, MPLSNortel views OFDM and MIMO as had been made, achieving download and VoIP markets.the fundamental building blocks for all speeds over 50 Mbps at 110 Kmph,future advanced wireless technologies. during customer visits to its centre ofAt 3G World Congress in 2005, Nortel excellence in Ottawa. 5
  6. 6. In the United States: In Europe:Nortel Nortel35 Davis Drive Maidenhead Office Park, Westacott WayResearch Triangle Park, NC 27709 USA Maidenhead Berkshire SL6 3QH UK Email: euroinfo@nortel.comIn Canada:Nortel In Asia:195 The West Mall NortelToronto, Ontario M9C 5K1 Canada United Square 101 Thomson RoadIn Caribbean and Latin America: Singapore 307591Nortel Phone: (65) 6287 28771500 Concorde TerraceSunrise, FL 33323 USANortel is a recognized leader in delivering communications capabilities that make thepromise of Business Made Simple a reality for our customers. Our next-generationtechnologies, for both service provider and enterprise networks, support multimediaand business-critical applications. Nortel’s technologies are designed to help eliminatetoday’s barriers to efficiency, speed and performance by simplifying networks andconnecting people to the information they need, when they need it. Nortel does busi-ness in more than 150 countries around the world. For more information, visit Nortelon the Web at www.nortel.com. For the latest Nortel news, visit www.nortel.com/news.For more information, contact your Nortel representative, or call 1-800-4 NORTELor 1-800-466-7835 from anywhere in North America.Nortel, the Nortel logo, Nortel Business Made Simple and the Globemark are trade-marks of Nortel Networks. All other trademarks are the property of their owners.Copyright © 2008 Nortel Networks. All rights reserved. Information in this documentis subject to change without notice. Nortel assumes no responsibility for any errorsthat may appear in this document.NN114882-072208 BUSINESS MADE SIMPLE