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Digital Therapeutics, XR, AI, Precision Medicine The Future of Sensor-Driven Health

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Walter Greenleaf, PhD

Virtual Human Interaction Lab | Stanford University

Although entertainment, social connection, and gaming will drive the initial adoption of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality technology, the deepest and most significant impact of the next generation of VR/AR technology will be to enhance clinical care and to improve personal health and wellness.

We know from decades of clinical research that VR/AR technology can provide breakthrough solutions that address the most difficult problems in healthcare - ranging from mood disorders such as Anxiety and Depression to PTSD, Addictions, Autism, Cognitive Aging, Stroke Recovery and Physical Rehabilitation, to name just a few.

VR technology also improved clinical measurements and assessments, can greatly improve medical training such as surgical skill training and procedure planning. Personal health and wellness will be improved by using VR to promote healthy lifestyles and to reduce stress and anxiety. As the cost of healthcare rises, VR technology can serve as an effective telemedicine platform to reduce costs of care delivery, and improve clinical efficiency.

This presentation will provide an overview of how VR technology will impact medicine, clinical care, and personal health and wellness, and how it will help to facilitate the shift of medicine to direct personal care.

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Digital Therapeutics, XR, AI, Precision Medicine The Future of Sensor-Driven Health

  1. 1. Digital Therapeutics, XR, AI, Precision Medicine The Future of Sensor-Driven Health Wearable Tech + Digital Health + Neurotech Conference February 11, 2020 - Sand Hill Road Walter Greenleaf PhD
  2. 2. Digital Therapeutics and Healthcare The Digital Health Revolution Emerging and Confluent Technologies Overall Landscape of XR Technologies Neuroscience – Why XR Has Impact History of VR - and Why it Matters Current Status – Where There is Traction Future Perspective and Predictions
  3. 3. The Stanford Laboratory for Brain Health Innovation and Entrepreneurship VR-IT Stanford Virtual Reality Immersive Technology Clinic Academic Affiliations
  4. 4. Healthcare Crisis: Aging Populations 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2015 2020 2025 Age 85+ Age 75-84 Age 65-74 Age 45-64 Age 5-44 Under Age 5
  5. 5. Transforming HealthCare with Technology
  6. 6. Ellipsis Health Joyance Partners TAKE Pause
  7. 7. Digital Health Revolution • Mobile Health / eHealth • Machine Learning • Wearable Sensors • Patient Centered • Leverages Internet: social, quantitative, collaborative
  8. 8. • Prevention and Wellness • Objective Assessments • Functional Training • Improved Interventions • Facilitate Adherence • Distributed Care Delivery Digital Health technology will significantly impact Medical Care
  9. 9. Wearable Tech + Digital Health + Neurotech Extreme Innovation in Healthcare
  10. 10. Every Medical Device Reinvented
  11. 11. Entering the Era of Medical Wearables
  12. 12. Digital systems are not just measuring the physical parameters of our health. New methods are being developed that will allow us to collect and analyze biomarkers that reflect our cognitive and emotional status. Here are four examples… Brain Health BioMarkers - Passive Data from Smart Phones Voice Analytics as a BioMarker of Depression Facial expressions in response to a VR Challenge Cognitive function assessment using AR and smartphone sensors
  13. 13. Digital Health Platforms deliver interventions to patients, and parse data for enhanced analysis and improved protocols
  14. 14. Prescription Digital Therapeutics Combination Therapy - Digital Health Platform App-based system designed to enhance medication efficacy Medication with clinical benefit Prescribed combination product with enhanced efficacy =+
  15. 15. Prescription Digital Therapeutics Create Value In Areas Of High Patient Need Combination Therapy PDTs can monitor toxicity and personalize treatment Can leverage sensor data. Dose Optimization PDTs can monitor and address comorbid conditions: insomnia, poor nutrition, anxiety, depression, activity levels, use of nicotine and alcohol, etc Address Comorbid Conditions Software-based therapies have been shown to be effective as stand-alone interventions – there is incremental effectiveness when PTDs are used in combination with standard treatment Facilitate Adherence Collect Utilization And Efficacy Data PDTs have several tools to facilitate adherence –provide key information, close the feedback loop, show progress, connect to the care team, leverage games and other motivational tools, provide reminders and sound alerts, etc PDTs collect de-identified utilization and efficacy data – combined with sensor data Advancing research, facilitating improved formulations, and allowing for personalized protocols based on large-scale studies.
  16. 16. The “digital layer” creates value - across all parts of the clinical care • Standardizes data collection for clinical studies • Tracks the supply chain to a pill-by-pill level via QR codes etc. • Collects real-world data supporting regulatory submissions • Enhances clinician touch-points via data-based dashboards • Enhances therapeutic adherence and efficacy • Provides real-world data to support reimbursement discussions Discovery and development Supply chain Regulatory approval Clinician detail Patient use Reimbursement
  17. 17. Enhanced outcomes - plus value for patients, clinicians, and payors • More convenient care, reducing transportation and wait times • Offers the better outcomes for for patients • Provides immediate care allowing patients to access therapeutic content when needed For patients For clinicians For payors • Enables data-driven care demonstrating efficacy and engagement • Leads to greater engagement, fewer drop-outs, and reduced no-shows • Extends the reach of the clinician – facilitating improved follow-up and reduced readmissions. • Collects data to measure and validate quality of care • Allows evidence-based treatment to be widely standardized • Reduces overall care costs for a large and expensive patient population
  18. 18. Intervention Key Components Example Targets Digital Adaption Possibilities Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) • Capture thoughts that arise in response to specific situations • Check those thoughts to determine if they are accurate or distorted • Change distorted thoughts by substituting them with more helpful thoughts. • Target: depressive thoughts • Identify thoughts that arise in response to situations. • Identify distortions in thinking. • Identify accurate, more helpful thoughts. Gamified exercises: • Catch it – identify automatic thoughts • Check it – evaluate it against list of common distortions • Change it – come up with more accurate interpretation of the event. Behavioral Activation (BA) • Identify life values and goals • Identify activities that are aligned with those values • Create a hierarchy of activities • Schedule these activities and track progress over time • Target: avoidant behavior • Value identification • Activity Scheduling • Tracking mood and activities Interactive feature with: • Values clarification • Identifying and scheduling activities to support those values • Tracking activities and mood Mindfulness Meditation • Progressive muscle relaxation • Guided imagery • Guided meditation • Target: • Relax the body • Relax the mind • Be fully present Guided meditation activities (e.g Headspace, Calm) Full meditation courses One Example- Depression: Intervention and Digital Adaption Possibilities
  19. 19. Emerging and Confluent Technologies
  20. 20. 5G connections will surpass one billion by 2023 Single-digit millisecond latencies with Edge Computing Cloud-Rendered AR and VR content Real-time Analytics for Machine Learning, Predictive Modeling
  21. 21. Machine Learning
  22. 22. Digital Twin Paradigm For Precision Healthcare
  23. 23. Sensors Are Evolving, Connecting, Promulgating Sensors 1.0 Sensors 3.0 Sensors 2.0 Measure and record Integration with web; Sharing and accessing data Passive data gathering; Aggregation and meaningful interpretation
  24. 24. Ready or not… The wearable tech, always on, always online world On the way - arriving soon.
  25. 25. Virtual Humans - Voice Recognition, Emotion Detection- Dynamic Response
  26. 26. Virtual Humans For Education, Training, Support “Smart Avatar” with a virtual voice, image and mannerisms via AI
  27. 27. VR + AR + MR = XR
  28. 28. THE LANDSCAPE
  29. 29. The Next Computer Platform Work Play Educate Socialize Shop Entertain Communicate Etc
  30. 30. Now is the time for VR & AR XR technology is now affordable, scalable and accessible Facebook - Oculus HP - Reverb Sony – PlayStation VR Microsoft - HoloLens HTC - Vive Apple - Varjo HMD - 60 PPD for 20/20 vision resolution
  31. 31. Why use XR? Uniquely Capable Extension of existing virtual capabilities Intuitive “spatial” language natural interactions streamlines engagement Deeply Personal Learning content made meaningful through user’s interaction & feedback Immersion enhances engagement, retention Making experiences “personal” drives motivation to learn & keep learning Highly Functional Experimenting with systems & concepts to better understand Applying learned concepts in practice Can do things are otherwise expensive or impossible -e.g. due to safety/cost
  32. 32. Fully immersed in an environment Virtual Reality
  33. 33. Digital objects and overlays in the real world Augmented Reality
  34. 34. The spectrum between AR & VR: From blending ourselves with digital environments to anchoring digital objects in the real world Mixed Reality
  35. 35. 1.3 Million Monthly-connected VR Headsets on Steam Steam is a video game digital distribution service Projected 2.75 million monthly-connected headsets by the end of 2020
  36. 36. VR and AR Technology is Evolving Exponentially
  37. 37. 11.3 16.9 27.3 41.5 56.2 68.0 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6Year 1 Within 3 years, VR will likely be adopted by 30 million users Within 6 years, XR will likely be adopted by 70 million users
  38. 38. Medical Applications of Virtual Reality & Augmented Reality (XR) Technology Digital Health Revolution
  39. 39. XR Technologies Currently Disrupting Education & Training Manufacturing Maintenance Product Design Process Design Healthcare Simulation & Modeling
  40. 40. • Prevention and Wellness • Objective Assessments • Functional Training • Improved Interventions • Facilitate Adherence • Distributed Care Delivery VR and AR Technology Impacts All Sectors of HealthCare
  41. 41. Acute Pain Addiction Medicine ADHD Anxiety Management Autism Spectrum Disorder Chronic Pain Cognitive Assessments Depression Disability Solutions Emergency Medicine Medical Education &Training Ophthalmology Orthopedics Palliative Care Patient Education Phobias PTSD Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Preventive Medicine Respiratory Medicine Senior Care Stroke & TBI Surgical Procedure Planning Surgical Skill Training Uncomfortable Procedure Mitigation More Than 200 Emerging Medical VR/AR Companies Targeting Multiple Clinical Sectors and Specific Indications
  42. 42. Significant Investment in XR for HealthCare The Medical VR / AR Market is projected to be $5.1 B in 2025
  43. 43. Medical XR Can Address Several Key Problems Annual cost of problems in the U.S. alone: WEIGHT LOSS $289B SMOKING CESSATION $528B ADDICTION $181B CHRONIC PAIN $635B POST TRAUMATIC STRESS $300B Stroke & TBI $86B Alcoholism $223B Autism $126B
  44. 44. Conferences and Industry Organizations Extreme Innovation in Healthcare
  45. 45. The Neuroscience of How VR Promotes Behavior Change VR can promote behavior change by taking advantage of the way our brain’s learning and reward systems function Activate neuroplastic change via reward systems Shorten the reward feedback loop – show progress Leverage mirror neuron systems VR systems can:
  46. 46. VR is More Effective than Imaginal or In Vivo Exposure Techniques VR exposure floods the visual thalamus and cortex, activating both subcortical, threat detection and response pathways as well as cortical, conscious pathways In this manner, VR exposure therapy is more effective than imaginal exposure therapy - it activates both exposure/cognitive processes and threat extinction processes. In vivo exposure is inconvenient, expensive, time- consuming, difficult to standardize, difficult to monitor, and imposable to provide in a graduated or controlled manner. Sensory Inputs Sensory thalamus -> amygdala path -> (non-conscious) Sensory cortex -> PFCvm -> amygdala path (conscious) HPA Axis
  47. 47. Ability to change attitudes and behavior after “being” one’s future self. Leveraging Mirror Neurons
  48. 48. Neuroscience Rationale Repetition is required It is critical to engage the brain's reward systems It is necessary to activate the associated brain system to enable neuroplasticity
  49. 49. Addition Mechanisms of Impact Active Involvement: XR systems provide users with immersive experiences that maximize cognitive engagement. Feedback: learning is reinforced by direct, immediate and relevant feedback that reinforces the experience and the lessons learned. Engaging and Motivating: the dynamic nature of VR/AR systems provides users with agency and can provide immediate rewards for progress. Team Training: Multiuser experiences can provide and leverage group skill building. Cost Effective: XR systems extend the reach and reduce the cost of face-to-face training. Novels Theater Film Games AR/VR
  50. 50. Wired for Narrative Stories Research shows that STORY: • Provides superior retention (memory and recall) • Provides improved understanding • Creates context and relevance • Creates empathy • Promotes engagement and participation • Enhances the creation of meaning and personal relevance
  51. 51. First general purpose and commercially available VR systems. VR Technology Has Evolved 1987
  52. 52. My 35 Year Journey…. 1984 – Stanford University
  53. 53. Mitigating Post Traumatic Stress With Virtual Reality 2008 Sichuan Earthquake 12 Years Ago
  54. 54. Academic research has indicated that Virtual Reality can effectively treat a wide variety of clinical problems – ranging from addictions, to stroke, to PTSD
  55. 55. Two Years Ago Mitigating Post Traumatic Stress With Virtual Reality 2017 Mexico City Earthquake
  56. 56. • Prevention and Wellness • Objective Assessments • Functional Training • Improved Interventions • Facilitate Adherence • Distributed Care Delivery VR and AR technology will significantly impact Medical Care
  57. 57. • Clinical Skill Training • Surgical Skill Training • Interpersonal Skill Training • Use of Equipment and Tools • Team Training - eg: Emergency Department, Surgical Team • Emergency Response Training and Rehearsal • Facilitate Empathy Medical Training
  58. 58. Surgical Procedure Training
  59. 59. Anatomy and Physiology Training • Response to the acute shortage of human cadavers • Allows for repetitive training and self-study • More detailed examination of micro- features of organs, tissue etc. • Integration of text, video and other media to further enhance learning
  60. 60. Virtual Patients for Clinical Skill Training
  61. 61. Preparation and Training for Difficult Situations
  62. 62. Empathy for the Patient Experience Clinical Training
  63. 63. Patient Education & Informed Consent
  64. 64. • Prevention and Wellness • Objective Assessments • Functional Training • Improved Interventions • Facilitate Adherence • Distributed Care Delivery VR and AR technology will significantly impact Medical Care
  65. 65. • Medical Image Review • Neuropsychological Assessments • Activities of Daily Living Assessments • Physical Medicine – OT / PT • Behavioral Medicine – psychology, psychiatry DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENTS
  66. 66. Standardized Environments for Neurocognitive Evaluation New Approaches for Cognitive Assessment Migrates traditional paper and subjective evaluations to a more sophisticated level. Provides robust assessments that can challenge cognitive skills in a more natural, standardized, objective and reproducible manner.
  67. 67. Cognitive function assessment at the primary care level – using AR and smartphone sensors 10 minute test Diagnostic accuracy of 94% FDA Class II Medical Device Continuous data of everyday functions 250 features assessed at 300Hz 3D trajectory neuromotor parameters
  68. 68. BioMarkers - Cognitive and Emotional State Collecting and analyzing emotional and physical responses in VR
  69. 69. Facial expressions reflect emotional status Collecting and analyzing emotional and physical responses in VR
  70. 70. Lea Williams
  71. 71. Standardized Environments for Neurocognitive Evaluation New Approaches for Cognitive Assessment
  72. 72. We use brain circuit biotypes to connect brain imaging with VR Neuroimaging measures 1. Scan brain at rest 2. Emotion regulation task 3. Cognitive control task Virtual Reality: 1. Relaxing scene 2. Emotion regulation task 3. Cognitive control game
  73. 73. We envision a precision health model using VR to elicit biotypes to help refine the intervention choices Cognitive training TMS Eliciting biotypes using normed environmentsHeterogeneous Disorder Quantify and refine biotypes Relaxation Negative Scene Positive Scene Cognitive Game 1st line Antidepressants Mindfulness-based. TMS Non-drug and new drug options Matching biotypes to the intervention “menu” Default Mode Negative Affect Positive Affect Cognitive Control
  74. 74. With corresponding ratings of arousal, emotional valence, and other measures A Public Database of VR Environments
  75. 75. • Prevention and Wellness • Objective Assessments • Functional Training • Improved Interventions • Facilitate Adherence • Distributed Care Delivery VR and AR technology will significantly impact Medical Care
  76. 76. Some Examples – VR and AR in Use Today
  77. 77. Preoperative Planning & Image Guided Surgery
  78. 78. Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury Physical / Occupational Therapy New Approaches to Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
  79. 79. New Approaches to Mental Health
  80. 80. VR for Pain Distraction Clinical Research and Validation Interactive virtual environments significantly reduce pain from as much as 44% during the most painful procedures (ex: burn wound treatment) Diverts patient attention away from perceiving and feeling pain; (selective attention theory) Decreases pain-related brain-activity Reduces need for anesthesia, opioid medication No pharmacological side effects
  81. 81. PTSD, Phobias, Anxiety Disorders • Exposure-based treatments can be conducted in the safety and comfort of an office setting • Effective tools for treating a variety of clinical problems, in particular anxiety and addictive disorders • Fully immersive environments, with include the use of a head mounted display, 3D sound, tactile stimulation via shaking platform, and olfactory stimulus are used for PTSD therapy
  82. 82. RISK AVOIDANCE TRAINING Refusal skill training, Situational Confidence
  83. 83. § Generalized Anxiety Disorder § Phobias § Obsessive Compulsive Disorder § Anger Management § Eating Disorders § Schizophrenia Virtual environments are used clinically to treat several important mental and behavioral health problems
  84. 84. • Social Anxiety Disorder • Depression • Mild Cognitive Impairment • Autism Spectrum Disorder • ADHD Virtual environments are used clinically to treat several important mental and behavioral health problems
  85. 85. Virtual Hospital Tours Used To Relieve Pre-procedure Anxiety
  86. 86. Senior Care
  87. 87. Palliative and Hospice Care
  88. 88. • Improve Cognitive Function • Promote Exercise & Weight Management • Stress Management • Mood and Resilience HEALTH AND WELLNESS • Disability Solutions • Addressing Isolation • Grief Counseling
  89. 89. Ability to change attitudes and behavior after “being” one’s future self. Have a Dialog With your Future Self
  90. 90. Portable Telemedicine Platform
  91. 91. What Are The Constraints? What are the gating-steps to adoption?
  92. 92. Body of literature is expanding with encouraging results, But remains insufficient Available research varies by condition treated Lack of randomized controlled trials Population-specific studies Obsolete platforms and equipment Small sample sizes Research Gaps
  93. 93. Perception of VR as a Gaming Platform
  94. 94. Full practices – no need to attract new patients Evidence-based treatments are already available Products need to be aligned with healthcare system needs What is the financial and time benefit? Does it interfere with the clinic workflow?
  95. 95. XR Technology Trends Impacting The Future
  96. 96. The Near-Future of XR Currently Deployed or Under Development Improved tracking: Tracking without dedicated external sensors will improve, greatly increasing portability & reducing setup Large-scale tracking: Beyond room-scale to significantly larger volumes, such as warehouse scale Wireless connectivity: Battery-operated headsets with wireless display/data link to a desktop computer or the Cloud New input methods: Controller interface hardware is highly iterative Mixed Reality: Seamlessly blending elements of VR with the real world, convergence of VR/AR
  97. 97. The Near-Future of XR All of this will affect development & deployments done in the near-term: Shorter generation cycle (~2-3 years) than other consumer tech Significant changes between generations e.g. not an iPhone 9/10 gen Old hardware may no longer be available (replacements/spares etc.
  98. 98. Increased Use of the Digital Twin and Future Self Paradigm
  99. 99. 50 learning modules to train 1M associates •17,000 Oculus headsets across nearly 4,700 U.S. stores 12 learning modules in 200 locations Adoption Deployment Pilot
  100. 100. Pediatric Resuscitation Training The CHLA residency program and hospital use VR as part of a required curriculum for interns - required prior to setting foot in the emergency department.
  101. 101. XR - A Key Component Combination Therapy - Digital Health Platform XR system designed to enhance medication efficacy Medication with clinical benefit Prescribed combination product with enhanced efficacy =+
  102. 102. Digital Health Platforms deliver interventions to patients, and parse data for enhanced analysis and improved protocols
  103. 103. Acute Pain Addiction Medicine ADHD Anxiety Management Autism Spectrum Disorder Chronic Pain Cognitive Assessments Depression Disability Solutions Emergency Medicine Medical Education &Training Ophthalmology Orthopedics Palliative Care Patient Education Phobias PTSD Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Preventive Medicine Respiratory Medicine Senior Care Stroke & TBI Surgical Procedure Planning Surgical Skill Training Uncomfortable Procedure Mitigation More Than 200 Emerging Medical VR/AR Companies Targeting Multiple Clinical Sectors and Specific Indications
  104. 104. Acute Pain Addiction Medicine ADHD Anxiety Management Autism Spectrum Disorder Chronic Pain Cognitive Assessments Depression Disability Solutions Emergency Medicine Medical Education &Training Ophthalmology Orthopedics Palliative Care Patient Education Phobias PTSD Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Preventive Medicine Respiratory Medicine Senior Care Stroke & TBI Surgical Procedure Planning Surgical Skill Training Uncomfortable Procedure Mitigation Considerable Activity
  105. 105. Acute Pain Addiction Medicine ADHD Anxiety Management Autism Spectrum Disorder Chronic Pain Cognitive Assessments Depression Disability Solutions Emergency Medicine Medical Education &Training Ophthalmology Orthopedics Palliative Care Patient Education Phobias PTSD Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Preventive Medicine Respiratory Medicine Senior Care Stroke & TBI Surgical Procedure Planning Surgical Skill Training Uncomfortable Procedure Mitigation Relatively Underdeveloped – Significant Opportunities
  106. 106. In Summary
  107. 107. Current technologies and concepts are founded on more than 30 years of research and development Recent changes in cost and access make digital health technology affordable Digital Therapeutics for Medicine After years of study and use by early adopters – validated systems are poised to move to the mainstream On the horizon - enhanced, ubiquitous, informative and integrated Digital Therapeutics are currently used for - prevention, evaluation, treatment, and chronic disease management
  108. 108. Digital Therapeutics for Medicine The Digital Health Revolution Emerging and Confluent Technologies Overall Landscape of XR Technologies Neuroscience – Why XR Has Impact History of VR - and Why it Matters Current Status – Where There is Traction Future Perspective and Predictions
  109. 109. Wearable Tech + Digital Health + Neurotech Extreme Innovation in Healthcare
  110. 110. Improved Assessments and Diagnostics Addressing Isolation and Loneliness Acute and Chronic Pain Depression and Anxiety Disorders Physical and NeuroRehabilitation Design for Disabilities Post-Discharge Follow-up Staff Training: not just procedures, but empathy Digital Therapeutics for Senior Care
  111. 111. Walter Greenleaf PhD Digital Therapeutics, XR, AI, Precision Medicine The Future of Sensor-Driven Health

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