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  1. 1. Research<br />Leann Walsh<br />
  2. 2. Purpose of Music Videos<br />A Music Video is normally used to help sell/promote the song or artist. A Music Video is essentially a short film, which can also be used to invoke a reaction among the audience. Usually, the Music Video relates to the lyrics in the song, which all help to tell a story. Music Videos also make the song more understandable for the audience, as they get to visualise what is going on. Artists can use their Music Videos to express themselves and what they are into. Finally, a great Music Video can make the song.<br />
  3. 3. Development of Music Videos<br />In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks and Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances. This would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song.<br />Musical films were another important precursor to music video, and several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl" (directed by Mary Lambert)<br />Music videos originated in 1926, but came into prominence in the 1980’s, when MTV based their format around the medium. <br />
  4. 4. New technologies/ directions<br />There have been several new technologies and directions in Music Videos. One of which is how a large number of Music Videos are shot usinggreenscreen, this means that videos can be given a variety of different backgrounds, this is just one way music videos have improved over time.<br />Youtubeand other sites such as tumblr have made it much easier for any person to be viewed by a potential large audience. People can also make their own music videos, this means there are a large number of unprofessional Music Videos out.<br />Arcade Fire Interactive Music Video is one example of how music videos have improved by technology as combining with google maps and earth means that you can create a Music Video of your own neighbourhood. <br />
  5. 5. Conventions of Music Videos<br />Conventions of Music Videos vary depending on what genre of music it is for. Usually, Music Videos will feature the artist of the song in some form, whether they are playing the lead role of the video, or even the narrator. The tempo of the song itself is usually reflected by the movement and pace of the visual. Music Videos tend to contain various camera angles for example; close-ups, to focus on facial expressions; long shots, to show the background and location; and mid-shots, to show the artistand context.<br />
  6. 6. Issues surrounding representation<br />Representation refers to the construction in any medium (especially the mass media) of aspects of ‘reality’ such as people, places, objects, events, cultural identities and other abstract concepts. Such representations may be in speech or writing as well as still or moving pictures. <br />Stereotypes- the music video producers of today represent girls by ‘borrowing’ an old Stereotype from the Showgirls of the silent film era in the 1920s and Burlesque girls from even earlier.<br />
  7. 7. Issues… <br />The objectification of women and girls<br />Women and girls are disposable and interchangeable<br />Women’s own sexuality only exists in relation to men<br />Women and girls are passive and acted upon - there to be watched (The Male Gaze)<br />Women and girls only have ascribed meaning in relation to men (either directly or implied)<br />
  8. 8. Theory related to Music Videos<br />One of the key theorists concerning music videos is Andrew Goodwin. Andrew Goodwin has identified a number of conventions that  music videos follows:<br />-       There is a relationship between the lyrics and the visuals, with the visuals illustrating, amplifying or contradicting the lyrics.<br />-       There is a relationship between the music and the visuals, with the visuals illustrating, amplifying or contradicting the music.<br />-       Genres are complex and diverse in terms of music video style and iconography. <br />-        Record companies will demand a lot of close-ups of the main artist or vocalist<br />-       Voyeurism is present in many music videos, especially in the treatment of females, but also in terms of systems of looking. Some examples are screens within screens, cameras, mirrors, etc.<br />-       There are likely to be intertextual references, either to other music videos or to films and TV texts, these provide further gratification and pleasure for the viewers/fans.<br />
  9. 9. Contemporary issues surrounding Music Videos<br /><ul><li>As technology and access has increased the individuality of music videos has erupted. Instead of music videos being show, just on televisions and in cinemas; where they had to be able to reach a varied and vast audience, we are now able to create and watch videos which appeal to a niche market thanks to the internet, mobile phones and laptops we can access music on demand. This means that music videos have also been able to become unique, challenging and diverse they no longer have to appeal to everyone.</li>