Solid Waste Management


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Solid Waste Management

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Solid Waste Management

  1. 1. Solid Waste Management and Disposal1 Wali Memon Wali Memon
  2. 2. Kinds of Solid WasteSolid Waste is generally made of objects or particlesthat accumulate on the site where they are produced. Typically categorized by the sector of the economy responsible for producing them.Mining Wastes Waste Material Left on Surface Milling Tailings Waste or Tailings DrainageAgricultural Waste Includes waste from raising animals as well as crop and tree harvesting. 90% is used as fertilizer or other forms of soil enhancement.2 Wali Memon
  3. 3. Kinds of Solid Waste Industrial Solid Waste - Solid waste other than mining. Estimated 180-540 million tons annually. Demolition Waste Sludge Combustion Ash Municipal Solid Waste All the materials people in a region no longer want. 230 million tons annually. In modern society, many products are discarded when they are broken or worn out, while others only have a temporary use. Those that have only temporary uses make up the majority of solid waste. Unites States produces about 230 million tons of municipal solid waste annually. Equates to 2 kg of trash person / day.3 Per capita waste has increased 70% since 1960. Wali Memon
  4. 4. Municipal Solid Waste In modern society, many products are discarded when they are broken or worn out, while others only have a temporary use. Those that have only temporary uses make up the majority of solid waste. Unites States produces about 230 million tons of municipal solid waste annually.4 Equates to 2 kg of trash person / day. Wali Memon Per capita waste has increased 70% since 1960.
  5. 5. Waste Generation and LifestyleNations with a higher standard of living tend to produce more municipal solid•waste per person than less-developed countries. –Large metropolitan areas have the greatest difficulty dealing with solid waste.Wali Memon 5 Traditional Methods (dumping and burning) no longer accepted.
  6. 6. Methods of Waste DisposalLandfills Municipal solid waste landfill typically a depression in impermeable clay layer, lined with impermeable membrane. Each day’s deposit of fresh garbage is covered with a layer of soil to prevent it from blowing around and to discourage animal scavengers. Traditionally been primary method of waste disposal. Cheap and Convenient6 Wali Memon
  7. 7. LandfillsNew landfills have complex bottom layers to trap contaminant-ladenleachate. Monitoring systems are necessary to detect methane gas production and groundwater contamination. In some cases, methane collected and used to generate electricity.Currently cost up to $1 million per hectare to prepare.7 Wali Memon
  8. 8. Modern Landfill8 Wali Memon
  9. 9. LandfillsNumber of landfills is declining. Many small landfills not meeting regulations. Capacity has been reached.New landfills often resisted due to public concerns over groundwatercontamination, odors, and truck traffic. Politicians are often unwilling to take strong positions that might alienate constituents.9 Wali Memon
  10. 10. Reducing the Number of Landfills10 Wali Memon
  11. 11. IncinerationCurrently, about 15% of U.S. municipal solid waste is incinerated. Production of electricity partially offsets disposal costs. Most incinerators burn unprocessed municipal solid waste. Mass Burn 11
  12. 12. IncinerationIncinerators drastically reduce the amount of municipalwaste. Up to 90% by volume and 75% by weight.Primary risks of incineration involve air quality problemsand toxicity and disposal of ash.Even with modern pollution controls, small amounts ofpollutants still released into environmentCost of land and construction for new incinerators are alsomajor concerns facing many communities. Construction costs in North America in 2000 ranged from $45 - $350 million.U.S. EPA has not looked favorably on construction of newwaste-to-energy facilities. Encouraged recycling and source reduction as more 12 effective solutions to deal with solid waste. Wali Memon
  13. 13. Producing Mulch and Compost Mulch is organic material used to protect areas where the soil is disturbed, or to control growth of unwanted vegetation. Organic material chopped or shredded into smaller pieces. Composting is using natural decomposition to transform organic material into compost (humus- like product). With proper management of air and water, composting can transform large quantities over a short period of time. About 3,800 composting facilities currently in use in the United States.13 Wali Memon
  14. 14. Diverting Waste Through Composting14 Wali Memon
  15. 15. Source Reduction Simplest way to reduce waste is to prevent it from ever becoming waste in the first place. Source reduction is the practice of designing, manufacturing, purchasing, using and reusing materials so that the amount of waste or its toxicity is reduced. Design Changes Since 2-liter soft drink bottle introduced in 1977, weight has been reduced by 25%. Manufacturing Processes Reduce waste, increase efficiency. Purchasing Decisions Choose reduced packaging and plan quantities accordingly. Reusing Items Delay or prevent entry of items into waste collection stream.15 Wali Memon
  16. 16. RecyclingIn the United States, recycling (including composting) diverted about30% of solid waste stream from landfills and incinerators in 2001. Benefits Resource Conservation Pollution Reduction Energy Savings Job Creation Less Need for Landfills and Incinerators16 Wali Memon
  17. 17. Recycling17 Wali Memon
  18. 18. Recycling ProgramsContainer Laws Required deposit on all reusable beverage containers. National bottle bill would reduce litter, save energy and money, create jobs, and help conserve natural resources.Mandatory Recycling Laws Provide statutory incentive to recycle.18 Wali Memon
  19. 19. Recycling ProgramsCurbside Recycling 1990 - 1,000 U.S. cities had curbside recycling programs. Grown to 9,000 cities by 2000. Cities with curbside recycling tend to have higher recycling rates than cities that lack such programs.19 Wali Memon
  20. 20. Recycling Concerns Plastics are recyclable, but technology differs from plastic to plastic. Milk Container High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Egg Container Polystyrene (PS) Soft-Drink Bottle Poly-Ethylene Terephthalate (PET) Wali Memon
  21. 21. Increasing Amounts of Plastic in Trash21 Wali Memon
  22. 22. 22 Wali Memon