Solid and Hazardous             Waste                 Wali Memon1   nomeM ilaW
Key Concepts      Types and amounts of wastes      Preventing waste      Methods of dealing with wastes      Hazardous was...
Wasting Resources                               US waste: 11 billion                                 metric tons/year     ...
US Solid Waste since 19604   nomeM ilaW
Waste Disposal Methods5   nomeM ilaW
What’s in our trash?6    nomeM ilaW
US consumers toss every year:    aluminum cans to rebuild commercial    airline fleet 4 times    e-waste by the millions  ...
nomeM ilaW   8
Producing Less Waste      Waste management        • high waste approach        • Burying, burning, shipping      Waste pre...
Dealing with Material Use and Wastes  10   nomeM ilaW
Solutions: Cleaner Production       Ecoindustrial revolution       Resource exchange webs         • waste from one industr...
Industrial Ecosystem in     Denmark12   nomeM ilaW
Solutions: Selling Services     Instead of Things       Service-flow economy         • Dow Chemical - solvents       Uses ...
Reuse       Extends resource supplies       Saves energy and money       Reduces pollution       Creates jobs       Reusab...
nomeM ilaW   15
Recycling Primary (closed-loop) Secondary (open loop) Pre-consumer waste Post-consumer waste16   nomeM ilaW
Characteristics of Recyclable     Materials       Easily isolated from other waste       Available in large quantities    ...
Benefits of Recycling18   nomeM ilaW
Case Studies: Wastepaper and     Plastics       49% of wastepaper recycled in US       Chlorine-based compound in paper pr...
Burning Wastes Mass burn incineration Air pollution Waste to energy20   nomeM ilaW
nomeM ilaW   21
Burying Wastes       Landfills most common method of waste disposal - cheap and       convenient.       Open pits no longe...
Sanitary Landfill23   nomeM ilaW
Sanitary Landfills: Trade-offs24    nomeM ilaW
The Love Canal Story Love Canal was a waterway built in the 1800s next to Niagara Falls, NY. Hooker Chemical Company purch...
The Love Canal Story Of remaining families, miscarriage rate 50% higher than normal. Of 17 pregnancies in 1979, 2 normal, ...
Hazardous Waste Regulation in     the United States       Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)       Comprehensiv...
Hazardous Wastes: Types       Contains at least one toxic compound       Catches fire easily       Reactive or explosive  ...
Not Hazardous Wastes under     RCRA       Radioactive wastes       Household wastes       Mining wastes       Oil and gas ...
Dealing with Hazardous     Wastes30   nomeM ilaW
What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home?                   What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home?       Cleaning        ...
Detoxifying and Removing     Wastes       Physical methods       Chemical methods       Bioremediation       Phytoremediat...
Deep-well Disposal  33   nomeM ilaW
Hazardous Waste Landfill34   nomeM ilaW
Surface Impoundments: Trade-     offs35   nomeM ilaW
Some common hazardous chemicalsLead     paint, gasoline, pipes, accumulates in soil and water     neurological damage, slo...
Some common hazardous chemicals  Arsenic       treated wood, industrial processes, contaminated soil and water       impai...
ASARCO of Tacoma       Commencement Bay home to smelting, shipbuilding, sawmills,       refineries       Lead and Copper s...
Hanford Nuclear Reservation : a               complicated cleanup 1377 waste sites: trenches, pits, tanks, ponds, undergro...
Solutions: Achieving a Low-     Waste Society       Local grassroots action       International ban on 12 persistent organ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Solid and Hazardous Waste

560 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
560
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Solid and Hazardous Waste

  1. 1. Solid and Hazardous Waste Wali Memon1 nomeM ilaW
  2. 2. Key Concepts Types and amounts of wastes Preventing waste Methods of dealing with wastes Hazardous waste regulation in the US2 nomeM ilaW
  3. 3. Wasting Resources US waste: 11 billion metric tons/year Mining waste Agricultural waste Industrial waste Municipal solid waste (MSW) Sewage sludge nomeM aW nomeM aW nomeM iiiillllaW nomeM aW 3
  4. 4. US Solid Waste since 19604 nomeM ilaW
  5. 5. Waste Disposal Methods5 nomeM ilaW
  6. 6. What’s in our trash?6 nomeM ilaW
  7. 7. US consumers toss every year: aluminum cans to rebuild commercial airline fleet 4 times e-waste by the millions tires to circle planet 3x diapers to moon and back 7x carpet to cover Delaware 670,000 metric tons of food and much, much more…7 nomeM ilaW
  8. 8. nomeM ilaW 8
  9. 9. Producing Less Waste Waste management • high waste approach • Burying, burning, shipping Waste prevention • low waste approach Reduce, reuse, recycle9 nomeM ilaW
  10. 10. Dealing with Material Use and Wastes 10 nomeM ilaW
  11. 11. Solutions: Cleaner Production Ecoindustrial revolution Resource exchange webs • waste from one industry is raw material for another – see figure Biomimicry (mimic nature) • no waste in nature Service-flow economy • more in a moment11 nomeM ilaW
  12. 12. Industrial Ecosystem in Denmark12 nomeM ilaW
  13. 13. Solutions: Selling Services Instead of Things Service-flow economy • Dow Chemical - solvents Uses a minimum amount of material • Xerox copy services Products last longer Products are easier to maintain, repair, and recycle • Carpet tiles Eco-leasing13 nomeM ilaW
  14. 14. Reuse Extends resource supplies Saves energy and money Reduces pollution Creates jobs Reusable products14 nomeM ilaW
  15. 15. nomeM ilaW 15
  16. 16. Recycling Primary (closed-loop) Secondary (open loop) Pre-consumer waste Post-consumer waste16 nomeM ilaW
  17. 17. Characteristics of Recyclable Materials Easily isolated from other waste Available in large quantities Valuable17 nomeM ilaW
  18. 18. Benefits of Recycling18 nomeM ilaW
  19. 19. Case Studies: Wastepaper and Plastics 49% of wastepaper recycled in US Chlorine-based compound in paper production 10% or less of plastic recycled in US Plastics can be very difficult to recycle19 nomeM ilaW
  20. 20. Burning Wastes Mass burn incineration Air pollution Waste to energy20 nomeM ilaW
  21. 21. nomeM ilaW 21
  22. 22. Burying Wastes Landfills most common method of waste disposal - cheap and convenient. Open pits no longer acceptable. Complex impermeable bottom layers to trap contaminants Daily deposits are covered by layer of dirt. Methane gas and leachate monitoring wells22 nomeM ilaW
  23. 23. Sanitary Landfill23 nomeM ilaW
  24. 24. Sanitary Landfills: Trade-offs24 nomeM ilaW
  25. 25. The Love Canal Story Love Canal was a waterway built in the 1800s next to Niagara Falls, NY. Hooker Chemical Company purchased the site and used it for a chemical dump 1942-53. Site was sold to local gov’t for $1. A housing development and school were constructed on the site in the 70s. Chemicals began seeping into basements. Housewife and resident Lois Gibbs brought problems to national attention in 1977. Some families moved right away, some cleanup done.25 nomeM ilaW
  26. 26. The Love Canal Story Of remaining families, miscarriage rate 50% higher than normal. Of 17 pregnancies in 1979, 2 normal, 9 had birth defects, 2 still born, 4 miscarriages. In adults tested, nerve impulses slower, 30% had broken chromosomes. 1980, gov’t relocated everybody, started massive cleanup. 1990 cleanup done, new development called Black Creek Village opened. Houses cheap.26 nomeM ilaW
  27. 27. Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) National Priority List Polluter-pays principle27 nomeM ilaW
  28. 28. Hazardous Wastes: Types Contains at least one toxic compound Catches fire easily Reactive or explosive Corrodes metal containers28 nomeM ilaW
  29. 29. Not Hazardous Wastes under RCRA Radioactive wastes Household wastes Mining wastes Oil and gas drilling wastes Liquids containing organic hydrocarbons Cement kiln dust <100 kg (220 lb) per month29 nomeM ilaW
  30. 30. Dealing with Hazardous Wastes30 nomeM ilaW
  31. 31. What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home? What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home? Cleaning Gardening • Disinfectants • Pesticides • Drain, toilet, and • Weed killers window cleaners • Ant and rodent killers • Spot removers • Flea powders • Septic tank, cleaners Paint • Latex and oil-based paints • Paint thinners, solvents, and strippers • Stains, varnishes, Automotive and lacquers • Wood preservatives • Gasoline • Artist paints and inks • Used motor oil • Antifreeze • Battery acid General • Solvents • Brake and transmission • Dry cell batteries31 fluid (mercury and cadmium) nomeM ilaW • Rust inhibitor and • Glues and cements rust remover
  32. 32. Detoxifying and Removing Wastes Physical methods Chemical methods Bioremediation Phytoremediation Plasma incineration32 nomeM ilaW
  33. 33. Deep-well Disposal 33 nomeM ilaW
  34. 34. Hazardous Waste Landfill34 nomeM ilaW
  35. 35. Surface Impoundments: Trade- offs35 nomeM ilaW
  36. 36. Some common hazardous chemicalsLead paint, gasoline, pipes, accumulates in soil and water neurological damage, slows brain development, kidney disorders; children especially vulnerableMercury paint, batteries, old thermometers, industrial processes, combustion of coal, dental fillings, contaminated historical mining sites damages brain, kidneys, developing fetus, learning disabilities, death with high doses36 nomeM ilaW
  37. 37. Some common hazardous chemicals Arsenic treated wood, industrial processes, contaminated soil and water impairs organ, heart, and blood functions; damages nervous system PCBs (Ploycholorinated biphenyls) industrial chemical (used in fire retartands, lubricants, insulation for electrical transformers, some printing inks) carcinogenic, birth defects, lower IQ, learning disabilities, impairs neurological development 37 nomeM ilaW
  38. 38. ASARCO of Tacoma Commencement Bay home to smelting, shipbuilding, sawmills, refineries Lead and Copper smelter Operated 1890-1986 Released arsenic and lead into atmosphere Now contaminated soil present throughout Puget Sound region Largest Superfund site in Washington38 nomeM ilaW
  39. 39. Hanford Nuclear Reservation : a complicated cleanup 1377 waste sites: trenches, pits, tanks, ponds, underground cribs Both radioactive and toxic materials present Example: Two pools store 100,000 spent fuel rods. Radioactive uranium, plutonium, cesium, and strontium released into water. The pools leak and soil and groundwater have become contaminated. The Columbia River is threatened. Tanks of toxic and/or radioactive liquids have boiled for years by their own reactivity. Crusts of hazardous material forms on outside of tanks.39 nomeM ilaW
  40. 40. Solutions: Achieving a Low- Waste Society Local grassroots action International ban on 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) • (the dirty dozen) Precautionary Principle40 nomeM ilaW

×