Sustainable Design with Automated Parking

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Sustainable Design with Automated Parking

  1. 1. Achieving SustainableDesign with Automated Parking Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Case study illustrating construction cost comparison for automated parking vs. a ramp-access, underground parking structure. • LEED credits for an automated parking structure vs. a ramp-access parking structure. • Building code issues with automated parking facilities.2 Wali Memon
  3. 3. Site Plan 3 Wali Memon
  4. 4. Ramp-Access Design Isometric4 Wali Memon
  5. 5. Ramp-Access Design Level B15 Wali Memon
  6. 6. Ramp-Access Design Level B2 & B36 Wali Memon
  7. 7. Ramp-Access Design Level B47 Wali Memon
  8. 8. Ramp-Access Design Car & Floor Area Tabulation LEVEL STALLS AREA EFFICIENCY (SQ. FT.) (SF/STALL) B1 75 34,150 455 B2 96 37,150 387 B3 96 37,150 387 B4 79 30,318 384 TOTAL 346 138,768 4018 Wali Memon
  9. 9. Automated Parking – Level B1 Stairs & Elevators Retrieval Lane Waiting Area L1 L2 L3 L4 Entry & Exit Ramp L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 Retrieval Lane 9 Wali Memon 90 High Bay Spaces
  10. 10. Automated Parking Option - Level B2/B3 These spaces may need to be sacrificed depending on how the Retrieval Lane elevators and stairs can be supported above. Retrieval Lane 10 Wali Memon 168 Spaces Per Level
  11. 11. Automated Parking Car & Floor Area Tabulation LEVE STALL AREA EFFICIENC L S (SQ. FT.) Y (SF/STALL) B1 90 34,150 379 B2 168 37,150 221 B3 88 19,448 221 TOTA 346 90,748 262 LComments:• Added 80 stalls compared to ramp-access design (23% increase).• 11 Eliminated an entire basement level (30,318 sf less floor area or 22% decrease). Wali Memon• Parking efficiency improved 36%.
  12. 12. Automated Parking Section Required above lifts 1’ 6” Required in retrieval aisle System Height 12 Wali Memon Note: Depth below grade reduced by 13’-2”
  13. 13. Automated Parking Option 13 Wali Memon
  14. 14. Automated Parking Capacity and Height System Structure Vehicle Total Parking Level Depth Clearance Height Spaces 1 3’ 0” 7’ 0” 10’ 0” 90 2 9” 6’ 8” 7’ 5” 168 3 9” 5’ 6” 6’ 3” 168 Total 4’ 6” 19’ 2” 23’ 8” 426 14 Wali Memon
  15. 15. Construction Cost Comparison • Delete lowest basement level – 48,020 sf X $125 per sf = $6,002,500 • Automated Parking System Cost – $19,500 per space X 426 sp = $8,307,000 • Net Additional Cost = $2,304,50015 Wali Memon
  16. 16. Volume Comparison Ramp-Access Garage Automated GarageLeve Area Height Volume l FT Lev Area Heig Volume SF CF el SF ht FT CF B1 34,150 10 341,500 B1 34,15 10’ 0” 341,500 0 B2 37,150 10 371,500 B2 37,15 7’ 5” 275,529 0 B3 37,150 10 371,500 B3 19,44 6’ 3” 121,550 8 B4 30,318 10 303,180 B4 0 0 0Total 1,387,680 16 Wali Memon Tot 738,579 al (53%)
  17. 17. Automated Parking Energy Use Task Low High Average Loading .0169 .0169 .0169 Storage .1228 .4408 .2818 Retrieval .1228 .4408 .2818 Total .2625 .8984 .5804 Cost Per Car Parked ¢.028 ¢.098 ¢.064 @ ¢.11 cents/kWh 17 Wali Memon
  18. 18. Vehicle Emissions Comparison – CO218 Wali Memon Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
  19. 19. Vehicle Emissions Comparison – NO219 Wali MemonSource: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
  20. 20. Vehicle Emissions Comparison – CO –20 Wali MemonSource: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
  21. 21. Vehicle Emissions Comparison - VOC21 Wali Memon Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
  22. 22. Energy Consumption22 Wali Memon Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
  23. 23. LEED V2.2 Analysis – Sustainable SiteItem Description Points Automated Ramp Avail. Garage GaragePrereq 1 Construction Pollution Prevention 1 1 1Credit 1 Avoid building on or near protected land 1 1 1Credit 2 Two story development density 1 1 0Credit 3 Remediate and build on Brownfield site 1 0 0Credit 4.1 Public Transportation Access 1 1 1Credit 4.2 Bicycle storage/changing rooms (5%) 1 1 1Credit 4.3 Prefer. parking for fuel-efficient vehicles (5%) 1 1 1Credit 4.4 Minimize capacity/preferential carpool parking 1 1 1Credit 5.1 Protect or restore habitat 1 0 0Credit 5.2 Maximize open space > garage footprint 1 0 0Credit 6.1 Post stormwater ≤ Prior stormwater 1 1 1Credit 6.2 Capture and treat stormwater 1 1 1Credit 7.1 Cover 50% of parking spaces 1 1 1Credit 7.2 Roofing Solar Reflectance Index ≥ 78 1 1 123 8Wali Memon pollution reductionCredit Light 1 1 1 SubTotal 14 12 11
  24. 24. LEED V2.2 Analysis – Water EfficiencyItem Description Points Automated Ramp Avail. Garage GarageCredit 1.1 Reduce irrigation by 50% from baseline 1 1 1Credit 1.2 No potable water use or no irrigation for landscape 1 1 1Credit 2 Reduce building sewage effluent by 50% 1 0 0Credit 3.1 Reduce water use by 20% from baseline 1 0 0Credit 3.2 Reduce water use by 30% from baseline 1 0 0 SubTotal 5 2 2 24 Wali Memon
  25. 25. LEED V2.2 Analysis – Energy & AtmosphereItem Description Points Automated Ramp Avail. Garage GaragePrereq 1 Performance verification of building energy systems 1 1 1Prereq 2 Energy systems ≤ ASHRAE 90.1-2004 limits 1 1 1Prereq 3 Zero use of CFC-based refrigerants 1 1 1Credit 1 Optimize Energy Performance <<< ASHRAE 90.1 10 10 6Credit 2 On-site renewable energy (i.e. solar or wind) 3 3 3Credit 3 Enhanced commissioning of energy systems 1 1 1Credit 4 Minimize ozone depletion & global warming 1 1 1Credit 5 Measurement/verification plan to evaluating energy 1 1 1 system performanceCredit 6 Green Power (35% of electricity for 2 yrs) 1 1 1 SubTotal 20 20 16 25 Wali Memon
  26. 26. LEED V2.2 Analysis – Materials & ResourcesItem Description Points Automated Ramp Avail. Garage GaragePrereq 1 Storage & collection of recyclables 1 1 1Credit 1.1 75% existing building structure re-use 1 0 0Credit 1.2 100% of existing building structure re-use 1 0 0Credit 1.3 Maintain 50% of interior Non-structural elements 1 0 0Credit 2.1 Recycle or salvage 50% of demolition debris 1 1 1Credit 2.2 Recycle or salvage 75% of demolition debris 1 1 1Credit 3.1 Re-use 5% of material value with salvaged 1 0 0 demolition debrisCredit 3.2 Re-use 10% of material value with salvaged 1 0 0 demolition debrisCredit 4.1 Use recycled content ≥ 10% of material value 1 1 1Credit 4.2 Use recycled content ≥ 20% of material value 1 0 0Credit 5.1 Manufacture 10% of materials within 500 miles 1 1 1Credit 5.2 Manufacture 20% of materials within 500 miles 1 1 1Credit 6 Use 10% more materials than 5.1 extracted, 1 0 0 recovered or harvested within 500 miles 26Credit 7 Certified wood ≥ 2.5% of value of all materials Wali Memon 1 0 0 SubTotal 14 6 6
  27. 27. LEED V2.2 Analysis – Indoor EnvironmentItem Description Points Automated Ramp Avail. Garage GaragePrereq 1 Meet ASHRAE 62.1-2004 indoor air ventilation reqmts 1 0 0Prereq 2 Minimize environmental tobacco smoke exposure 1 1 1Credit 1 Monitor ventilation system performance 1 1 0Credit 2 Provide additional outdoor air ventilation 1 1 0Credit 3.1 Implement indoor air quality plan during construction 1 1 0Credit 3.2 Implement indoor air quality plan before occupancy 1 1 0Credit 4.1 All adhesives and sealants shall comply with SCAQMD 1 1 1Credit 4.2 Do not exceed VOC limits by SCAQMD for paint & coatinngs 1 1 1Credit 4.3 All carpet should be Carpet & Rug Institutes green label 1 0 0Credit 4.4 Wood products shall contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins 1 0 0Credit 5 Minimize exposure to hazardous particulates & chemicals 1 1 0Credit 6.1 Provide lighting system controllability by users 1 1 0Credit 6.2 Provide thermal comfort controllability by users 1 1 0Credit 7.1 HVAC systems & building envelope per ASHRAE 55-2004 1 1 0Credit 7.2 Implement a thermal comfort survey within 6 to 18 months 1 1 0Credit 8.1 Provide daylight & views to 75% of occupied areas 1 0 0 27Credit 8.2 Provide daylight & views to 90% of occupied areas Wali Memon 1 0 0 SubTotal 15 12 3
  28. 28. LEED V2.2 Analysis – Design InnovationItem Description Points Automated Ramp Avail. Garage GarageCredit 1.1 Low mercury lighting* 1 1 1Credit 1.2 Management plan for car pooling/bus transit* 1 0 1Credit 1.3 Hybrid Zipcar on site for employee use* 1 0 0Credit 1.4 Use non-hydraulic, energy-efficient elevators* 1 1 1Credit 1.x Install snow melting system/eliminate de-icers* 1 0 0Credit 2 Use LEED Accredited professional 1 1 1 SubTotal 6 3 4 Project Totals 69 55 42* - Previously accepted Innovation in Design Credits28 Wali Memon
  29. 29. LEED Certification Levels• Certified 26-32 points• Silver 33-38 points• Gold 39-51 points• Platinum 52-69 points• Conventional Garage = LEED Gold• Automated Garage = LEED Platinum Note: Stand-alone parking garages cannot be LEED29 certified, however, they can contribute points toward any occupied space on the same site. Wali Memon
  30. 30. Building Code Issues for Automated Parking Facilities • Use & Occupancy Classification • Access • Fire Protection • Ventilation30 Wali Memon
  31. 31. Use & Occupancy Classification • Group S-2 Occupancy Classification for low hazard (non-combustible) storage. • Section 406.2 of International Building Code (IBC) applies to storage of motor vehicles. Doesn’t adequately address the special case of automated rack storage of automobiles in an unoccupied storage vault. • Section 413 of IBC indicates high-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with Chapter 23 of the International Fire Code (IFC). • Storage of motor vehicles is classified as a Class I commodity.31 Wali Memon
  32. 32. Access • Section 406.3.8 of IBC indicates “Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall not be less than two 36-inch wide exit stairways”. • Chapter 23 of IFC requires a minimum of one access door in each 100 lineal feet of the exterior wall that faces the fire department access road. • 24-inch wide aisles required for fire department access (i.e. ladders and catwalks).32 Wali Memon
  33. 33. Fire Protection• High piled storage area greater than 2500 sf requires automatic fire extinguishing system.• Maximum pile dimension equals 100 feet (between aisles).• Maximum storage height equals 40 feet.• Maximum pile volume equals 400,000 cubic feet.• Type of construction:TABLE 503 (partial). ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREAS Type of Type 1A- Type 1B- Type IIA- Type IIB- Group Construction Three Hour Two Hour One Hour Non-rated Fire Rating S-2 Stories Unlimited 11 5 4 33 Wali Memon Allowable Area Unlimited 79,000 39,000 26,000
  34. 34. Ventilation • Smoke venting at ceiling required. • No ventilation of vehicle emissions required. • Ventilation rate of 0.05 cfm per sf of floor area required (1/15 of airflow required for dispersing vehicle emissions).34 Wali Memon
  35. 35. Summary • Automated Parking Garages provide equivalent capacity to a conventional, ramp-access garage in approximately half the volume. • Automated Parking Garages pollute far less than conventional, ramp-access garages. • Automated Parking Garages provide more LEED certification points than conventional, ramp-access garages. • Automated Parking Garages should be designed as high-piled, rack storage facilities in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 23 of the IFC for Class I commodities.35 Wali Memon

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