Learning objectives• At the end of this session you will able to:1. Shed light on PHC including Sudan situation2. Define health, health care and disease3. Describe dimension of health4. Describe spectrum of health and disease5. Illustrate health indicators6. Appraise health care and analyze its levels.7. To understand characteristics of health care.
The term ‘primary health care’ (PHC)gained widespread currency followingthe 1978.
The constitution of WHO and numerous HealthAssembly resolution have reaffirmed that health is:
“ Health is a state of complete Physical, mental & social well being & not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. (WHO) Recent definition: health is a dynamic state of complete physical, mental & social & spiritual well being & not merely the absence of disease & infirmity.(WHO) Hanss Definition- adaptation Maslows definition- satisfaction of physiological needs.
Includes perfect body functioning, physical fitness, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), a state in which every cell and every organ is functioning at optimum level, and in perfect harmony with the rest of the body.
Feeling as part of a greater spectrum of existence
Positive health Better healthFreedom from diseaseUnrecognized disease Mild disease Sever disease Death
Should be valid, i.e., they should actuallymeasure what they are supposed to measure.To be valid, it should be sensitive, i.e., theyshould be sensitive to changes in the situationconcerned and should be specific, i.e., theyshould reflect changes only in the situationconcerned.
Should be reliable or objective, i.e., the answers should be the same if measured by different people in similar circumstances;Should be feasible, i.e., they should have the ability to obtain data needed.Should be relevant, i.e., they should contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of interest.
Disease is the underlying defect ormalfunction within the organism.Dis (mal), and ease (comfortable, wellness)
Disease may occur without illness.Health and illness are mutually exclusive,but health and disease are not.. Sincehealth and disease may coexist, onecannot construct a continuum to showtheir relationship. (Terris, 1975)
1. Primary care level• the first level of contact of individuals, families, or communities with the national health system.• Provides essential health care.• Promotive, preventive, and curative care.
2. Secondary care level - The first referral level, deals with more complex problems. Which provides mainly curative and rehabilitative services. - Health facilities level includes hospitals and rehabilitative centers.
3. Tertiary care level•More specialized level such as teachinghospital and specialized hospital.
1. Kamalam.S.2005, Essentials in Community Health Nursing Practice, First edition, New Delhi: Jaypee Borther.2. Clement.I.2009, Basic Concepts of Community Health Nursing, Second edition, Bengalru: Jaypee Borther.3. Analysis of the concepts of eight essential elements of PHC. Final report of the international conference on PHC, Alma-Ata,1978. WHO, Geneva,1978.4. Spradley.B.W. 1996Community Health Nursing concepts and practice, 4th edition. USA:library of congress catologing.5. Stone.S.C.1998, Comperhensive Community Health Nursing, 5th edition, USA:Nancy. L.coon.6. Suzan.G.J. PHC Components.NEJM. Accessed on www.nejm.com.2011