Glasgow school & vienna school


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Glasgow school & vienna school

  1. 1. Glasgow School & Vienna School
  2. 2. GLASGOW SCHOOL • The pioneers of Glasgow school were the “Glasgow Four”. Charles Mackintosh, Herbert Macnair, Margret Macdonald and Frances Macdonald. • Charles Mackintosh was the leading person • These four evolved an integrated vocabulary of decorative forms and an overall look that was uniquely their own. • They achieved a pared down version of Art Nouveau that paved the way for Modernist Minimalism • A Scottish spirit was infused by means of heathery colors and mystical Celtic symbols • The Glasgow four absorbed many influences in an entirely personalized way to create their own Art Nouveau language. • Most of the participants were from Glasgow or trained here and had strong bond.
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENTS IN GLASGOW SCHOOL • Architecture, interior designing and painting were the three forms of art that rapidly grow and nourish in Glasgow and around since the beginning of 1890’s. • Macdonald sisters were considered as the pioneers of the graphical and abstract paintings in Glasgow and with collaboration of Mackintosh and Macnair, these four made a remarkable contribution in the advancement of art in Glasgow.
  4. 4. • DEVELOPMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE• In the beginning the two main buildings that came forward were the “Glasgow Herald Building” and “Martyr’s Building”. • “Herald” was built with a dazzling surface of sandstone having a towering structure on its one side giving the influence of Scottish architecture.
  5. 5. • In 1896, Mackintosh won the competition for Glasgow school of art. • This building is a living example of Mackintosh’s own Art Nouveau. • In this building he used the local gray granite brick, which gives influence of Scottish architecture, but this version is quite amalgam version on which he mixed some elements of Japanese architecture and also some other motifs.
  6. 6. • DEVELOPMENT IN PAINTINGS • Their paintings usually follow the principles of: Figures tend to be more emaciated and anguished. An interest in symbolism, mythology and fairy subjects. • Initially the paintings were quite graphical and also sometimes matching with the space scenario example of O Ye, All Ye Who Walk in Willowood which was made for a Willow tea room. • Mostly paintings we see in this period are of dark colors especially yellow and its tints are quite obvious. • They often chose to work outdoors. Working outdoors allowed them to produce paintings that were as true to nature as possible and it allowed them to paint realistic objects in their natural environment.
  7. 7. O YE, ALL YE WHO WALK IN THE WILLOWOOD Artist: Mackintosh, Margaret Macdonald (1864-1933, English) Associated Date: 1903 Associated Place: Scotland, Glasgow, Willow Tearooms (place associated) Material(s): pencil and oil painted gesso on board, glass and enameled glass beads Size/ Weight: overall: 1.91 ft. x 5.4 ft./54000 g
  8. 8. Embroidered panel Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh 1902s GSA Design for stenciled mural decoration. Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms. Charles Renee Mackintosh. Hunterian Art Gallery.
  9. 9. VIENNA SCHOOL • Many artists in Vienna introduced it; mainly it was originated in rebellion of Vienna’s official art. • The Vienna Secession was the name given to the group of artists, architects and designers that broke away from the main establishment of Viennese artists to form their own group. Formed in 1897, its radical period was brief yet its impact on the cultural life of Vienna and beyond was immense and enduring.
  10. 10. DEVELOPMENTS IN VIENNA SCHOOL • As the movement initiated against of Viennese official art academy soon the people associated with movement started efforts to make the movement significant and vibrant. The developments in Vienna school can be categorized in three secessions. I. The erection of secession building II. The creation of VERSACRUM III. The production of Wiener Werkstatte
  11. 11. • The Secession Building The idea was to make an own exhibition space where the secessionists can exhibit there artwork free from all restrictions. For this purpose they initially hired a 30 year old architect “Josef Maria Olbrich” to design the building. Many exhibition were held in this building and this proves to be one of the superlative secessions of the era.
  12. 12. • THE VERSACRUM • The second achievement we see in the Vienna school is that of the creation of their art journal the “Versacrum” which was considered one of the best art magazines in Vienna. • Published from January 1898 to October 1903 • Contained articles on art theories and practical examples and contribution by both domestic and foreign authors.
  13. 13. • The Wiener Werkstatte • “Wiener Werkstatte” derived from German word meaning “Vienna workshop”. • It was an Austrian art company registered on 19th May 1903, founded by the secessionists. • The main purpose of this workshop was to provide an outlet for young art graduates of Vienna. The aim of the workshop artists was to bring good art into every part of people’s lives. They also wanted to break with the past and bring new style to everything they produce, chiefly they emphasized on stunning and exclusive craftsmanship. SIGNIFICANCE OF WORKSHOP The workshop was involved in jewelry making, production of fabrics for dressmaking, the construction of furniture, ceramics and other art forms, which could be incorporated in daily life.
  14. 14. EXAMPLES OF CRAFTSMANSHIP OF WIENER WERKSTATTE One of the first known examples of perforated design. A table designed by Josef Hoffman from Wiener Werkstatte.
  15. 15. Who valued handmade craftsmanship any longer? Machine technology opened up endless possibilities; Hoffmann wanted Viennese craftsmen to use machinery to make identical chair parts cheaply, fast and with a lovely finish. In the end we can say that while Hoffmann used the principles of the Morris chair, his designs and manufacturing techniques were from a totally different country and in a totally different era.
  16. 16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLASGOW vs. VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART GLASGOW SCHOOL • It was the movement introduce and spread by the “Glasgow Four” that is only four artist are involved in making a movement remarkable; it was not the rebellion movement. • The Architecture produced in Glasgow was very plain with less ornamentation. • Some Japanese and Scottish influences were taken to carry out an amalgam form of style. • Painting were generating in this period a lot with special style of watercolors. • Many artist in “Vienna” introduced it; mainly it was introduced in rebellion of vienna’s official art. • The Architecture produced in Viennese was very ornamented although they were designing for poor as well as rich. • The influence were carried from jedengstil movement. ( German art nouveau) • Mosaic murals and relief were more generated in this period. GLASGOW SCHOOL VIENNA SCHOOL
  17. 17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLASGOW vs. VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART • Painting’s subject were taking from some superficial aspects like fairy tales. • The use of organics element and graphical forms in painting were extensive. Especially botanical forms of different kind were originating. • The art journal that was very famous in this period was “THE STUDIO“ edited by Gleeson White. • The “GLASGOW FOUR” transferred their artwork by arranging little art classes in other art school of Glasgow • There subject were taken from general and common topics/issues. • The use of graphical form and organic elements were there but they lack in botanical forms. • The only art journal that was very popular was “VERSACRUM” which was originated by the Viennese secessionists themselves. • They were transferring their artwork through an artwork shop “THE WEINER werkstatte” created by the artists. GLASGOW SCHOOL VIENNA SCHOOL