Required Labs ReviewLab 1 Diffusion Through A MembraneConcepts You Must Knowa) The dialysis bag is the "cell"b) Diffusion moves material from high to low concentration..spending noenergyc) Only small molecules will go through the membrane(selective permeable)...(starch can not)d) Benedicts solution tests for sugar...heat it and it turns red (positive forglucose)e) Iodine tests for starch...turns blue / black in starchf) Water is used as a control for the indicatorsg) The diffusion of water is osmosisProcedurea) Make dialysis tube "cell"....tube represents cell membraneb) Pour glucose solution and starch solution into the tube...seal the endsc) Place "cell" in beaker of pure water until "cell" is coveredd) Add Iodine (starch indicator) to water in beaker (outside the cell)e) After 20 minute the "cell" should turn blue/black indicating that the iodinediffused into the "cell" and detected the presence of starch inside the "cellf) Test the water outside the "cell" for glucose...Benedicts will turn orange/redafter heating if it detects the presence of glucose outside the "cell.(Did glucose diffused out of the "cell" after 20 minutes ?)
g) Starch WILL NOT diffuse out of the cell because it is too big and notpermeableObservations and QuestionsWHY MUST WE DIGEST STARCH BEFORE WE CAN USE IT FORENERGY ?WHY DO YOU THINK THEY SERVE FREE SALTY PRETZELS IN ABAR ?DESCRIBE THE MOVEMENT OF ALL 4 SOLUTIONS IN THISEXPERIMENT:1) WHERE DID THE IODINE GO?2) WHERE DID THE STARCH GO?3) WHERE DID THE BENEDICTS SOLUTION GO?4) WHERE DID THE GLUCOSE GO?WHY ARE INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS ISOTONIC ?WHAT HAPPENS TO A CELL IN A HYPERTONIC SOLUTION (SALTY) ?(note the shrinkage)WHAT HAPPENS TO A CELL IN A HYPOTONIC SOLUTION (WATERY)?5) WHAT TYPE OF WATER IS MORE DAMAGING TO THE CELLS INTHE LUNGS ? ..SALT OR FRESH...WHY?Lab 2 BiodiversityConcepts You Must Know:a) Organisms with similar structural or molecular similarities may be related.b) In order for a species to be successful and survive it must contain variety(diversity)
c) Proteins and enzymes are produced as a result of an organisms genetic codesequence.The DNA code is transmitted from DNA-------> mRNA -------->tRNAd) Base pair codes are as follows: A---- DNA "always tired" T C---- "constantly G grumpy" m and t A----- "always ugly" RNA U C----- "constantly G grumpy"e) Amino acids are the building blocks of proteinsf) Molecular similarities are the most important evidence of closely relatedorganisms.g) Organisms evolve much like the branches growing on a treeh) Biodiversity ensures genetic variation.i) Biodiversity increases stability in an ecosystem.j) Endangered species hold medicinal, agricultural. ecological, commercial andaesthetic value.k) They must be protected for future generations.1) WHAT ACTIVITIES BY HUMAN COULD ENDANGER PLANTS ?2) WHY IS Botana curus SO IMPORTANT ? HOW CAN IT BE SAVED ?3) WHY WOULD YOU NOT WANT TO SAVE Botana curus FROMEXTINCTION ?
Lab 3 Making ConnectionsConcepts You Must Know:a) Resting pulse rates vary with individuals.b) By collecting data scientists can help to answer questions they haveproposed.c) Pulse rate increases under physical or emotional stress.d) Increase in activity produces muscle fatigue.e) Increase in circulation decreases muscle fatiguef) Increase in activity/circulation causes an increase in respirationg) Use the Scientific Method to solve a problem that you have postulated.Lab 4 Darwins Finches Adaptive RadiationConcepts You Must Know:a) Certain adaptations give some organisms an advantage to survive.b) The environment "naturally selects" which organisms are best suited (fittest)to survive and reproduce.In this lab the type of seed was the selecting agent in the island environment.c) Those organisms that survive and reproduce pass these favorable traits on tothe next generation. This gives their offspring an advantage to survive.d) Competition for resources (food, water, mates and territory) stimulates thestruggle for survival.1) WHAT OTHER TRAITS WILL HELP FINCHES SURVIVE BESIDESTHE SHAPE OF THEIR BEAKS ?
2) WHAT TYPE OF BEAK WILL BE A FAVORABLE ADAPTATION TOCATCH MICE ON THE ISLAND ?3) DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMSVARIATION, COMPETITION, STRUGGLE FORSURVIVAL,ADAPTATION, ENVIRONMENT AND SELECTING AGENT