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Biology - Chp 1 - The Science of Biology - Notes


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Biology - Chp 1 - The Science of Biology - Notes

  1. 1. Chapter 1 The Science of Biology
  2. 2. 1.1What is Science?Objectives• What are the goals of science?• What procedures are at the core of scientific methodology?The Science of Biology• People have always been curious about living things• The concepts, principles, and theories that allow people to understand the natural environment form the core of BiologyBiology - _______________________________________________________________What Science Is and Is Not• In this course you will learn a lot of facts and ideas about living things• But don’t think that biology or any science is just a collection of never changing facts• Scientific ideas are open to testing, discussion, and revision.• This means ___________________________________________________________Science as a Way of KnowingScience - ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________• In other words science is a _________________________________ not a thing.• The word science also refers to the body of knowledge that scientific studies have gathered over the yearsQ: How is science different from other human endeavors?1.) _____________________________________________________________________2.) _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3.) _____________________________________________________________________The Goals of Science 2
  3. 3. • The scientific way of knowing includes the view that the physical universe is a system composed of ____________________________________________________• From a scientific perspective, all objects and interactions in the universe are governed by __________________________________________________The Goals of Science are…1.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Science, Change, and Uncertainty• Over centuries, scientists have gathered an enormous amount of information about the natural worldEx.)• Yet, despite all we know, much of nature remains a mystery• Scientific discoveries often raise more questions than they answer• The constant change in science doesn’t mean that science has failed, it means that science continues to advance• Learning about science means more than just understanding what we know. It means understanding what we don’t knowScientific Methodology: The Heart of Science• Curiosity is often what motivates scientists to try to answer simple questions about everyday observations• The knowledge obtained when scientists answer questions provides better understanding of general principles or may lead to practical applications or even to new questions• Scientists approach to research is not much different to the way you usually solve problems. Everyone goes about it a little differently, but there is a general style of investigation called scientific methodology 3
  4. 4. Q: What are the steps of scientific methodology? and Asking Questions• Scientific investigations begin with observationObservation - ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4
  5. 5. Inferring and Forming a Hypothesis• After posing questions, scientists use further observations to make inferencesInference - ______________________________________________________________• Inference, combined with a creative imagination, can lead to a hypothesisHypothesis - _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Designing Controlled Experiments• Testing a scientific hypothesis often involves designing an experiment that keeps track of various factors that can change• These factors are called ______________________________• Whenever possible, a hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed. All other variables should be kept unchanged, or ________________________• This type of experiment is called a ________________________________________Q: Why is it important to control variables?A: 5
  6. 6. Independent variable - _____________________________________________________Dependent variable - ______________________________________________________Example graphing independent and dependent variablesControl and Experimental Groups• Typically, an experiment is divided into control and experimental groupsControl group - ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6
  7. 7. Collecting and Analyzing DataData - __________________________________________________________________• There are two main types of data1.2.Research Tools• Scientists choose appropriate tools for collecting an analyzing dataEx.)Sources of Error• No experiment is without some error 7
  8. 8. • Researchers must be careful to avoid errors in data collection and analysisQ: What is the most common way to reduce error and validate results in experiments?A:Drawing Conclusions• Scientists use experimental data as evidence to support, refute, or revise the hypothesis being tested, and to draw a valid conclusion.Q: What would be a valid conclusion based on this experimental data?A:Revising hypotheses• During the course of an investigation, hypotheses may need to be revised and experiments redone several times 8
  9. 9. When Experiments Are Not Possible• It is not always possible to test a hypothesis with an experimentEx.) 9
  10. 10. Name _________________________________ Date ____________________ Per _____ 1.1Section Review1. What is science?2. What are the goals of science?3. What kinds of understandings does science contribute to the natural world?4. Draw a flow chart for scientific methodology5. Why is a hypothesis important to controlled experiments?6. Regents Question: 10
  11. 11. 1.2Science in ContextObjectives:• What scientific attitudes help generate new ideas• Why is peer review important?• What is a scientific theory?• What is the relationship between science and society?Exploration and Discovery: Where Ideas Come From• The observations and questions that always begin the scientific methodology are often inspired by scientific attitudes, practical problems, and new technologyScientific Attitudes1.2.3.4.Practical Problems• Sometimes, ideas for scientific investigations arise from practical problemsEx.) 11
  12. 12. The Role of Technology• Technology, science and society are closely linked• Discoveries in science can lead to new technologies and vice versaCommunicating Results: Reviewing and Sharing Ideas• Communication and sharing of ideas are vital to modern sciencePeer Review• Scientists share their findings with the scientific community by publishing articles that have undergone peer review• In peer review, scientific papers are reviewed by anonymous, independent expertsQ: Why is peer review important?A:Sharing Knowledge and New Ideas• Once research has been published, it enters the dynamic marketplace of scientific ideas where often the result is more questions that can be investigatedScientific Theories• Evidence from many scientific studies may support several related hypotheses in a way that inspires researchers to propose a scientific ______________________ that ties those hypothesis together• A theory in everyday language is much different than a theory in scienceTheory - ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Science and Society 12
  13. 13. • Many of the questions that involve science cannot be answered by science alone• Using science involves understanding its context in society and its limitations• Science can sometimes explain why or how something happens but it does not and should not include ethical or moral viewpointsAvoiding Bias• The way that science is applied can be affected by biasBias - __________________________________________________________________• Science aims to be objective, but scientists are human, too• They have likes, dislikes, and occasional biases• It shouldn’t surprise you that scientific data can be misinterpreted or misapplied by scientists who want to prove a particular point• But if enough of us understand science, we can help make certain that science is applied in ways that benefit humanityUnderstanding and Using Science• Science will keep changing as long as humans keep wondering about nature• Don’t just try to memorize the scientific facts and ideas you learn in class o Try to understand how scientists developed those ideas o Try to see the thinking behind the experiments we describe o Try to pose the types of questions scientists ask• Understanding science will help you make complex decisions• Furthermore, understanding biology will help you realize that we humans can predict the consequences of our actions and take an active role in directing our future and that of our planet• In our society, scientists make recommendations about big policy decisions but they don’t make the decisions•Q: Who does make the decisions?A: 13
  14. 14. Name ________________________________ Date _________________ Per _______ 1-2 Section Review 1. List the attitudes that lead scientists to explore and discover. 2. Which of your answers to question 1 do you think would lead you to explore and discover if you were a scientist? 3. What does it mean to describe a scientist as skeptical? Why is skepticism an important quality in a scientist? 4. What is peer review? Why is it important? 5. How does the use of the word theory differ in science and in daily life? 14
  15. 15. 6. How is science influenced by society and how does society influence science? 7. What are some of the limitations of science? 8. A study shows that a new pesticide is safe for use on crops. The researcher who conducted the study works for the pesticide company. What potential biases may have affected the study? 9. Explain in your own words why science is considered a “way of knowing” 1.3Studying LifeObjectives:• What characteristics do all living things share?• What are the central themes of biology?• How do different fields of biology differ in their approach to studying life?• How is the metric system important to science?Think about it…• Of all the important and exciting news stories that you hear everyday, many of these involve biology BiologyBiology - ______________________________________________________Q: What is life?A: 15
  16. 16. The Characteristics of Living Things1. Living things __________________________________________________________2. Living things __________________________________________________________3. Living things __________________________________________________________Metabolism - ____________________________________________________________4. Living things __________________________________________________________5. Living things _________________________________Asexual reproduction - _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Sexual reproduction - ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. Living things __________________________________________________________Stimulus - _______________________________________________________________Ex.)7. Living things __________________________________________________________Homeostasis - ____________________________________________________________Ex.)8. Living things - _________________________________________________________Big Ideas in Biology• The study of biology revolves around several interlocking big ideas or central themes: 1. Cellular Basis of Life 2. Information and Heredity 3. Matter and Energy 4. Growth, Development and Reproduction 5. Homeostasis 16
  17. 17. 6. Evolution 7. Structure and Function 8. Unity and Diversity of Life 9. Interdependence in Nature 10. Science as a Way of KnowingFields of Biology• Biology includes many overlapping fields that use different tools to study life from the level of molecules to the entire planetQ: What are some fields of biology and what do they study?A:Performing Biological Investigations• Because researchers need to replicate one another’s experiments, and because many experiments involve quantitative data, scientists need a common system of measurement• Most scientists use the ___________________________________ when collecting data and performing experiments• This system is based on multiples of 10 so its easier to use than other measurement systemsQ: Why is it important that all scientific measurements be done in the same way?A:• In biology, the metric units you will encounter most often are• ________________________ (length)• ________________________ (mass)• ________________________ (volume) 17
  18. 18. • ________________________ (time)• ________________________ (temperature)Safety• Scientific investigations can sometimes be dangerous, therefore safety is always an important factor to consider in our experiments• Always follow safe practices in the lab and understand any safety precautions that you should be taking• The most important safety rule is __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Name __________________________________ Date ___________________ Per _____ 1-3 Section Review 1. List the characteristics that define life. 2. Suppose you feel hungry, so you reach for a plum you see in a fruit bowl. Explain how both external and internal stimuli are involved in your action. 18
  19. 19. 3. Which central theme of biology do you think interests you the most? Why?4. Suppose you discover a new organism. What would you expect to see if you studied it under the microscope?5. What is the difference between a cellular biologist and an ecologist? What is similar about those two professions?6. Suppose two scientists are trying to perform an experiment that involves dangerous chemicals. How might their safety be affected by not using a common system of measurement. 19