what is atmosphere by mehrabudin wakman


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what is atmosphere by mehrabudin wakman

  1. 1. Prepared by {mehrabudin wakman} Contact me [email_address] Afghanistan helmand
  2. 2. <ul><li>Objectives of this presentation </li></ul><ul><li>1.Atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Layers of Atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Composition of the Atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Solid and liquid in Atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Composition and pressure of AIR. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Atmosphere Atmosphere
  4. 4. <ul><li>thin layer of gases enveloping Earth </li></ul><ul><li>no well-defined upper boundary – just fewer and fewer atoms </li></ul>What is the Atmosphere? View of the atmosphere
  5. 5. <ul><li>Is a mixture of different gasses. High above the planet it becomes thinner until it becomes reaches space. It is divided into five layers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Layers of the atmosphere <ul><li>There are 4 layers in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>They are the troposphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and stratosphere </li></ul>
  7. 7. Temperature Layers from Earth’s surface <ul><ul><li>Troposphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermosphere </li></ul></ul>Not shown here – The Exosphere! Let’s learn a little about each layer!
  8. 9. Explanation of the Atmosphere Layers
  9. 10. Troposphere <ul><li>This is the layer that is closest to the surface of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>It’s elevation ranges from 0 to 10 km </li></ul>
  10. 11. Troposphere <ul><li>It is the first layer of Earths atmosphere, it is where all weather takes place and most clouds form. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><ul><li>lowest layer; temperature decreases with altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thinnest layer (8-16 km, avg. 11 km) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where weather occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primarily heated by Earth’s surface </li></ul></ul>Troposphere
  12. 14. Stratosphere <ul><li>This layer sits on top of the troposphere </li></ul><ul><li>It’s elevation ranges from 10 km to around 25 km </li></ul><ul><li>This layer contains the ozone layer, which protects us from harmful sunlight </li></ul>
  13. 15. Stratosphere <ul><li>The second layer of the atmosphere. Absorbs the ultraviolet rays and solar radiation by use of the Ozone Layer. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Tropopause <ul><li>Between the troposphere and stratosphere. </li></ul>
  15. 18. Mesosphere <ul><li>This layer is above the stratosphere </li></ul><ul><li>It’s elevation ranges from 25 to 100 km </li></ul>
  16. 19. Mesosphere <ul><ul><li>above the stratosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature decreases with altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorites and space dust burns up in this layer </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Mesosphere <ul><li>The third layer of the atmosphere. Is the coldest of the atmospheres and is were most meteors are burned up in. </li></ul>
  18. 22. Thermosphere <ul><li>This is the highest layer of the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>It’s height ranges from 100 to 400 km </li></ul><ul><li>This is where most small meteorites burn up and is also the location in the atmosphere that the northern lights occur (aurora borealis) </li></ul>
  19. 23. Stratosphere <ul><ul><li>found above the troposphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature rises with elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone Layer located here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>upper stratosphere temperature increases with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>altitude due to absorption of UV (ultraviolet) radiation in the ozone layer </li></ul></ul>Without the ozone layer protecting us, we could not live on the surface of the Earth!
  20. 24. Thermosphere <ul><ul><li>above the mesosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature increases with altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains a special part called the ionosphere </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. Composition of Atmosphere
  22. 27. <ul><li>atmosphere is a mixture of </li></ul><ul><li>gases, solid particles, water droplets </li></ul><ul><li>Small changes are always happening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical processes (volcanoes), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biological (plants and animals – transpiration and respiration), </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>major gases: N 2 and O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>lesser amounts of noble gases </li></ul><ul><li>(Ar, Ne, Kr, Xe) </li></ul><ul><li>plus Hydrogen (H) and Helium (He) </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>78% volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>O 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21% volume </li></ul></ul>Permanent Gases
  24. 29. <ul><li>Water vapor (H 2 0) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone (O 3 ) </li></ul>Variable Gases
  25. 30. <ul><li>source of this gas: evaporation from Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>water cycle – moves water between oceans, land and atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>75% Earth’s surface covered by some form of water ground water </li></ul><ul><li>extremely important: clouds, absorb energy </li></ul>Water Vapor This satellite image shows the relative amounts of water vapor: Dark – low water, white – high water vapor
  26. 31. <ul><li>sources: respiration, organic decay, volcanoes, natural and man-made caused fires </li></ul><ul><li>important Greenhouse gas </li></ul><ul><li>More Carbon dioxide means more heating of the Earth </li></ul>Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Very emotional issue for Americans - Are we having a bad effect on the atmosphere of the Earth???
  27. 32. Ozone (O 3 ) <ul><li>consists of 3 O atoms (O 2 + O = O 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>highest concentration in stratosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shields surface from UV radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV radiation splits O 3 molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>also contributor to smog  effects people and vegetation </li></ul>
  28. 33. Ozone Layer <ul><li>Is in the stratosphere, protects earth from harmful solar radiation. </li></ul>
  29. 34. Solids and liquids in the atmosphere <ul><li>small solid particles and liquid droplets </li></ul><ul><li>associated with human and natural processes </li></ul><ul><li>larger particulate matter – dust, volcanoes, sea spray and combustion </li></ul><ul><li>major component of urban smog </li></ul>
  30. 35. Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere <ul><li>no clearly defined upper boundary </li></ul><ul><li>density decreases with elevation </li></ul><ul><li>We divide the atmosphere into layers based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in temperature </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Density <ul><li>Gravity pulls the atmosphere downward </li></ul><ul><li>atmosphere made up of gases which can be compressed </li></ul><ul><li>lower atmosphere greater density </li></ul>
  32. 37. Ionosphere <ul><ul><li>defined based on electrical characteristics within the thermosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absorbs cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some UV rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains ions: charged electrical particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visible light is emitted when ions are bombarded by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cosmic radiation  produce aurora borealis, aurora australis </li></ul></ul>
  33. 38. Composition of Air <ul><li>There are many different types of gasses in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>They include nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and other noble gasses </li></ul><ul><li>The gas that is most abundant is nitrogen </li></ul>
  34. 41. Air Pressure
  35. 42. <ul><li>atmosphere– exerts pressure </li></ul><ul><li>the pressure is from the mass of the atoms </li></ul><ul><li>gravity – compresses air near surface (increase density) </li></ul><ul><li>felt by any surface in contact with air </li></ul><ul><li>sea level pressure = 15 lb/in 2 </li></ul>
  36. 43. Air Pressure