Human Rights Cooperation in ASEAN (Yuyun Wahyuningrum, 2013)


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Human Rights Cooperation in ASEAN (Yuyun Wahyuningrum, 2013)

  1. 1. Cooperation among Human Rights Mechanisms in the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights Ms. Yuyun Wahyuningrum, Senior Advisor on ASEAN and Human Rights, HRWGIndonesia, Seminar on Human Rights Mechanisms in ASEAN: Challenges and Ways Forward, 10-11 June
  2. 2. “AICHR review offers hope for human rights progress”, Yuyun Wahyuningrum Published: 22 Feb 2013, Bangkok Post, Review Indicators based on the 2009’s Hua-Hin Declaration: #1 - whether AICHR has provided a forward-looking strategy to strengthen regional cooperation on human rights. #2 whether AICHR has served as a vehicle for progressive social development and justice, the full realisation of human dignity and the attainment of a higher quality of life for ASEAN people. #3 whether AICHR has received the full support and provision of adequate resources by ASEAN member states. #4 whether AICHR has acknowledged the contribution of stakeholders in the promotion and protection of human rights in ASEAN, and encouraged their continuing engagement and dialogue. #5 whether ASEAN has achieved cooperation on human rights to support the evolution of the body as an overarching institution The Declaration stipulated that the review should strengthen the mandate and functions of AICHR to develop mechanisms to protect and promote human rights
  3. 3. What TOR say about Human Rights Cooperation? AICHR ACWC Art. 1.5 To enhance regional cooperation with a view to complementing national and international efforts on the promotion and protection of human rights. Art. 2.4 To enhance regional and international cooperation with a view to complementing national and international efforts on the promotion and protection of the rights of women and children. Art. 4.2 AHRD as a framework for human rights cooperation through various ASEAN conventions and other instruments dealing with human rights Art. 2.6 To promote stability and harmony in the region, friendship and cooperation among ASEAN Member States
  4. 4. AICHR & ACWC in the last four years The creation of AICHR/ACWC is a step towards cooperation on human rights. It demonstrates that ASEAN integration is not always about economic cooperation. Generate human rights debates in ASEAN Generate civil society movement on human rights in ASEAN, both thematic-based or general issues Generate interests from other neighbor subregion to establish similar mechanisms Generate cooperation and dialogue on human rights between ASEAN and its dialogue partners
  5. 5. Human Rights Cooperation: Forward Looking Strategy & Evolution of AICHR The necessity for cooperation on human rights may be driven by the idea of making ASEAN a strong and cohesive community by 2015 Member States cooperation on human rights Institutions: Internal (with ASEAN organs) vs External (with non ASEAN organs) Formal vs Informal: depending on the degree of necessity for the cooperation, coordination and joint efforts – creates room to manoeuver based on the degree of comfort and trust that the concerned bodies have reached. Multiple level human rights mechanisms: national, regional international, culture-based regional mechanism (OIC) ASEAN Centrality
  6. 6. Standard and Principles Source: Outcome Document of the Expert meeting on Effective Alignment among Human Rights Institutions and Mechanisms, 2010 Uphold the principle that all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. Based on the premise of equality among human rights bodies regardless of the nature of their mandates being general or specific to particular rights or groups. Complementarity and mutuality Complementarity, especially in the common areas of concern and the unique roles and authorities of the respective bodies. Non-duplication, i.e. petition submission IACHR and International HR systems Mutuality: mutual respect and support of each body’s mandates and functions, and mutual reinforcement of each body’s roles Participation or representation, particularly with regard to vulnerable and marginalized groups, as a key ingredient for effective cooperation in any human rights system, i.e. ACHPR, IACHR
  7. 7. Level of Cooperation Source: Outcome Document of the Expert meeting on Effective Alignment among Human Rights Institutions and Mechanisms, 2010 According to the need Semi-Intensive Intensive could involve consultations and/or sharing of information while decision making is carried out separately and independently; regular meetings for coordination and development of informal guidelines for cooperation; and/or, formal requests for inputs or submissions of independent reports could involve the development of common procedures, and/or the designation of a person or commissioner in charge of maintaining relationships with other relevant bodies could involve the establishment of joint visits, joint thematic task forces, special joint projects and/or joint monitoring efforts. i.e. Indonesia’s NHRIs’ cooperation: (1) a working group to develop a joint monitoring of prisons and detention centers across the country and (2) a yearly national human rights summit
  8. 8. Forms of Cooperation Source: Outcome Document of the Expert meeting on Effective Alignment among Human Rights Institutions and Mechanisms, 2010 Substantive Procedural Administrative focuses on the substance of the work and the raison d’etre of human rights bodies and institutions: strategies, work plan, activities. i.e. development of informal guidelines, the issuance of joint press releases, engagement with human rights treaty bodies or under UPR, coordinated HR recommendations to Member States on fulfillment of their legal obligations; or, establishment of complementary priority assumes that the human rights bodies have collectively formulated and adopted the rules of procedures or operating guidelines. common working space among staff, sharing technical support, making optimal use of information technology, allocating adequate budget and other resources for coordinated activities, and adopting streamlined financial procedures. • can bring about additional benefits of financial savings and increased efficiency
  9. 9. Modes of Cooperation Source: Outcome Document of the Expert meeting on Effective Alignment among Human Rights Institutions and Mechanisms, 2010 Informal informal mechanism to discuss mutual expectations and develop informal guidelines for synchronizing of their respective work. Formal Institutionalized cooperation • have the advantages of greater consistency, predictability and accountability to the stakeholders and constituencies within a human i.e. Regular meetings held at least rights system. three times a year between the • But not always easy Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) and the Inter-American Human Rights Court, for example, has enacted new rules of procedures in 2010.
  10. 10. Scope of Cooperation 1. A system-wide approach rather than narrow scope of cooperation which involve carrying out assessment of decisions, policies, agreements and programs for their impact on human rights protection and promotion at the regional and domestic contexts; recommending human rights integration strategies; and, developing appropriate tools to assist the relevant bodies in integrating human rights standards in their work.
  11. 11. Scope of Cooperation 2. Cooperation to effectively addressing cross-cutting issues. Issue-based approaches allow for dynamic exploration of human rights obligations as they create opportunities for input from a diversity of experts, constituency groups within civil society, and related mandate holders at the national, regional and international levels. i.e. Anti-Trafficking. SOM TC is now developing the ASEAN Convention on anti trafficking, ACWC has anti-trafficking in its work plan, AICHR has anti trafficking as one of its priority issues, ACMW is drafting the instrument on migrant workers, NHRI has the issue as one of its thematic priorities. Based on the most accepted recommendation in UPR (cycle 1)
  12. 12. UPR Recommendation to ASEAN countries: the most accepted and rejected Most accepted Most Rejected Rights of Person with Disabilities Corruption Death Penalty Freedom of expression HRE Right to food Asylum seekers Freedom of opinion Emergency decree Freedom of association Recruitment of children in armed conflict Asylum seekersrefugees Right to Education National plan of action on human rights Right to Health Child’s right Right to housing Truth and reconciliation Poverty Rome Statue Trafficking LGBT Women’s rights Special Procedure on counterterrorism
  13. 13. Post-Charter Cooperation with Dialogue Partners Area of Cooperation Plan of Action to Implement the Joint Declaration on ASEAN-China Strategic Partnership for Peace and Prosperity (2011-2015) 1.6.1 Collaborate on human rights through regional dialogues, seminars and workshops, education and awareness raising activities, as well as exchanges of best practices and other capacity building initiatives aimed at enhancing the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. This includes supporting the work of the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR), which is the first regional mechanism and overarching institution for the promotion and protection of human rights in ASEAN. ASEAN-European Union: READI ASEAN human rights related mechanisms: AICHR, ACWC, ACMW, ACW ASEAN-US ACWC
  14. 14. Challenges in Cooperation Would non-interference policy be the stumbling block for further cooperation in human rights? -- A scholar argues that non-interference policy contributes but not sufficient for the cause of problems in cooperation (Nehginpo Kipgen (2012): Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Cooperation Problems on Human Rights, Strategic Analysis, 36:1, 100-111) The absence of political will is. Given the nature of the different regime types, human rights is not a priority all member states The absence of specific mechanism in ASEAN to bring all mechanisms together While the more democratic states attempt to strengthen ASEAN’s international credibility by improving human rights conditions and AICHR/ACWC profile, they do not push to the extent of jeopardizing the existing relationship between states
  15. 15. Thank You! Terima Kasih!