ART OF THE MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURES OF
   SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES




   © DR. MAUDE SOUTHWELL WAHLMAN 2010


           ...
• Paleo-Indian (14,000?) - 8000 BC
• Archaic      8000 - 1000 BC
• Woodland     1000 BC - 800 AD
     (Adena, Hopewell)

•...
Mississippian Centers
         CAHOKIA




                   A Typical Hamlet
                                      2
MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURES
NATIVE AMERICANS 500-1000 A.D.
     Populations grew and permanent settlements increased, while
reg...
CAHOKIA
CAHOKIA




             4
NATIVE AMERICANS 1000-1400 A.D.

      Populations grew with political centralization in the Eastern
Woodlands and the Sou...
1.




2.                               4.

                                 3.




     MAJOR MISSISSIPPIAN SITES
CAHOKIA, IL




              7
CAHOKIA ALONG THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER   8
CAHOKIA, IL: AN ARTIST’S RECONSTRUCTION   9
On the Illinois side of the Mississippi River within sight of St. Louis and
its famous arch, is the largest mound complex ...
CAHOKIA MOUNDS, IL   11
The city of Cahokia was inhabited
from 700 AD. to 1400 AD.
    From 1100 AD. to 1200 the city
covered almost six miles, wi...
CAHOKIA TODAY   13
CAHOKIA: ORIENTED NORTH AND SOUTH, AND EAST   14
                 AND WEST.
CAHOKIA
 PLANS




          15
EUROPEAN DRAWING OF A
                   MISSISSIPPIAN
                   ELITE MALE




ARTISTS VIEW OF THE KING OF CAHOK...
BURIAL
OF
A
KING
OF
CAHOKIA,
WITH
SHELLS




           17
MONK’S MOUND 1892, NE VIEW




                       By 1050, The four-terraced
                       Monks Mound, the l...
CAHOKIA: 1936 VIEW OF MONK’S MOUND
                                     19
CAHOKIA: STAGES OF BUILDING MONK’S MOUND   20
MODEL of TERRACES ON MONK’S MOUND,
             CAHOKIA                 21
CAHOKIA: MONKS MOUND TODAY           950-1300 AD
LARGEST EARTH MOUND IN THE AMERICAS, AND THE LARGEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI
 ...
MONKS MOUND, CAHOKIA
                       23
CAHOKIA RECONSTRUCTED
                        24
Temple/Palace on Monks Mound




                           25
GAMES AT CAHOKIA
                   26
CAHOKIA: TWIN
MOUNDS
FOX MOUND (LEFT)
                       27
CAHOKIA: ONE OF THE TWIN MOUNDS

                                  28
LIFE AT CAHOKIA



                  29
HOUSE CONSTRUCTION AT
       CAHOKIA
                        30
CAHOKIA
  RECONSTRUCTED,
INSIDE THE VISITORS
      CENTER
                      31
DOMESTIC LIFE AT
   CAHOKIA

                   32
CAHOKIA VILLAGE LIFE
                       33
WARM
CLOTHING




           34
CORN
AGRICULTURE




          35
TRADING AT CAHOKIA



                     36
In the 12th century Cahokia was as large as London. It was the largest city
in America until Philadelphia grew larger in 1...
PALISADE
                                                   (PROTECTIV
                                                   ...
FACING WEST, WOODHENGE, MARKET, CAHOKIA, IL
                                              39
WOODHENGE, AN ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY AT CAHOKIA   40
RECONSTRUCTED WOODHENGE   41
SUNRISE AT CAHOKIA,
 FROM WOODHENGE


                      42
MISSISSIPPIAN SIGNS
                      43
SPIDER GORGET, 1200-1500 A.D.
PILEATED WOODPECKER GORGET
Incised Shell c. 1200 A.D.

1.Worn at the throat of a chief/pries...
POTTERY MAKING AT CAHOKIA   45
46
CADDO POT   CAHOKIA: CERAMICS
CAHOKIAN PAINTED CERAMICS




                            47
BEAVER CLAY POT,    CAHOKIA, IL
     C. 1200 A.D.   11.75”        48
FACE POTS, CAHOKIA


                     49
50
CAHOKIA: CERAMIC FEMALE FIGURES
COPPER BREAST PENDANT
                        51
STONE SCULPTURES
    OF CHIEFS      52
CAHOKIA MATERNAL
   SCULPTURE




                   53
CAHOKIA: STONE FEMALE FIGURES   54
CAHOKIA WEB SITE:
http://cahokiamounds.org




                       55
CAHOKIA
        SANDSTONE
         TABLETS

THE BIRDMAN TABLET WAS
FOUND IN MONKS MOUND IN 1971




                      ...
CAHOKIA STONE BIRDMAN TABLET
                               57
SPIRO,
OK




         58
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Cakohia.10

  1. 1. ART OF THE MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURES OF SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES © DR. MAUDE SOUTHWELL WAHLMAN 2010 0
  2. 2. • Paleo-Indian (14,000?) - 8000 BC • Archaic 8000 - 1000 BC • Woodland 1000 BC - 800 AD (Adena, Hopewell) • Mississippian 800 - 1500 AD • Early Mississippian 800 - 1150 AD • Middle Mississippian 1150 - 1350 AD • Late Mississippian 1350 -1500 AD 1
  3. 3. Mississippian Centers CAHOKIA A Typical Hamlet 2
  4. 4. MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURES NATIVE AMERICANS 500-1000 A.D. Populations grew and permanent settlements increased, while regional adaptations to environmental conditions and specialized lifestyles evolved. In the Eastern Woodlands, mound groups included residential areas and were located adjacent to major rivers, and the cultural pattern subsequently known as Mississippian began, influenced by trade with Mexico. By 750 AD, corn was increasingly grown in Midwest and Southeast river valleys. By 800 AD, in the central Mississippi region known as the American bottom, mound centers—some with structures placed around community plazas—become politically dominant. By 1000 AD, Mississippian cultural patterns were well established in the Midwest and Southeast, with population growth, and economic stability made possible by Maize agriculture and long- distance trade. 3
  5. 5. CAHOKIA CAHOKIA 4
  6. 6. NATIVE AMERICANS 1000-1400 A.D. Populations grew with political centralization in the Eastern Woodlands and the Southwest. The success of food crops, such as maize and beans, allowed for concentrations of peoples. Settlements enlarged, with individual centers assuming regional dominance. Important Mississippian sites in the Southeast such as Cahokia, IL, Spiro, OK, Moundville, AL, and Etowah, GA, showed clear evidence of high-ranking inhabitants with many precious objects in their burials. Cahokia on the Mississippi River floodplain of Illinois expanded, and over 100 earthen mounds were built for varying purposes. 5
  7. 7. 1. 2. 4. 3. MAJOR MISSISSIPPIAN SITES
  8. 8. CAHOKIA, IL 7
  9. 9. CAHOKIA ALONG THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 8
  10. 10. CAHOKIA, IL: AN ARTIST’S RECONSTRUCTION 9
  11. 11. On the Illinois side of the Mississippi River within sight of St. Louis and its famous arch, is the largest mound complex in the United States. Called "Cahokia," this enormous site has more than one hundred mounds and covers nearly 3,700 acres. Many of the mounds at Cahokia are gigantic and as large as almost any mound in Ohio. But Cahokia is dominated by the largest earthen mound in North America, Monks Mound. It measures 1037 feet from north to south and 790 feet from east to west. It consists of several terraces and ramps which take it to a height of 100 feet. The base covers 15 acres. The focal point of this sprawling Mississippian village, Monks Mound, had several buildings on top 800 years ago. These buildings housed the elite of the village and from its summit, the chief or king could survey his realm which covered nearly 6 square miles.
 Directly in front of Monks mound was a plaza or court surrounded by the houses of lesser dignitaries, and around this complex, a stockade of logs kept out commoners. Cahokia was the largest prehistoric settlement in North America. 10
  12. 12. CAHOKIA MOUNDS, IL 11
  13. 13. The city of Cahokia was inhabited from 700 AD. to 1400 AD. From 1100 AD. to 1200 the city covered almost six miles, with about 100,000-200,000 people. The mound builders at Cahokia Mounds were some of the first intensive farmers of North America. The people of Cahokia had political systems and alliances, and many things to trade: luxury goods, copper, alligator teeth, mica, and conch shells, all objects acquired by hunting and trading. By the 1400's the city of Cahokia was abandoned, due to climate, war, or disease. 12
  14. 14. CAHOKIA TODAY 13
  15. 15. CAHOKIA: ORIENTED NORTH AND SOUTH, AND EAST 14 AND WEST.
  16. 16. CAHOKIA PLANS 15
  17. 17. EUROPEAN DRAWING OF A MISSISSIPPIAN ELITE MALE ARTISTS VIEW OF THE KING OF CAHOKIA GREETING THE SUN ON JUNE 21 16 AT THE TOP OF MONK’S MOUND
  18. 18. BURIAL OF A KING OF CAHOKIA, WITH SHELLS 17
  19. 19. MONK’S MOUND 1892, NE VIEW By 1050, The four-terraced Monks Mound, the largest earthen structure in the United States, was under construction at Cahokia. By 1200, Beans were a staple in the Eastern Woodlands and VIEW FROM THE WEST are grown together with maize. 18
  20. 20. CAHOKIA: 1936 VIEW OF MONK’S MOUND 19
  21. 21. CAHOKIA: STAGES OF BUILDING MONK’S MOUND 20
  22. 22. MODEL of TERRACES ON MONK’S MOUND, CAHOKIA 21
  23. 23. CAHOKIA: MONKS MOUND TODAY 950-1300 AD LARGEST EARTH MOUND IN THE AMERICAS, AND THE LARGEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI EARTHWORKS, MONK'S MOUND AT CAHOKIA, ILLINOIS, MEASURES 1,000 FEET IN LENGTH, MORE THAN 700 FEET IN WIDTH, AND IS STILL 100 FEET IN HEIGHT.; ALIGNED WITH THE SUN AT THE EQUINOXES. SEE BERLO, P. 81. 22
  24. 24. MONKS MOUND, CAHOKIA 23
  25. 25. CAHOKIA RECONSTRUCTED 24
  26. 26. Temple/Palace on Monks Mound 25
  27. 27. GAMES AT CAHOKIA 26
  28. 28. CAHOKIA: TWIN MOUNDS FOX MOUND (LEFT) 27
  29. 29. CAHOKIA: ONE OF THE TWIN MOUNDS 28
  30. 30. LIFE AT CAHOKIA 29
  31. 31. HOUSE CONSTRUCTION AT CAHOKIA 30
  32. 32. CAHOKIA RECONSTRUCTED, INSIDE THE VISITORS CENTER 31
  33. 33. DOMESTIC LIFE AT CAHOKIA 32
  34. 34. CAHOKIA VILLAGE LIFE 33
  35. 35. WARM CLOTHING 34
  36. 36. CORN AGRICULTURE 35
  37. 37. TRADING AT CAHOKIA 36
  38. 38. In the 12th century Cahokia was as large as London. It was the largest city in America until Philadelphia grew larger in 1800. It was thriving 800 years ago in the heartland of our country. At its center was Monk's Mound, towering as high as a 10-story building. 37
  39. 39. PALISADE (PROTECTIV E WALL) AROUND 1300 A.D., THE POPULATION OF CAHOKIA DECLINED; A DEFENSIVE WALL WAS BUILT AT THE SITE'S CENTER. BY 1350 THE SOUTHERN CULT REACHED ITS PEAK OF INFLUENCE. SIMILARITIES IN RELIGIOUS PRACTICES AND ART PROLIFERATED ACROSS THE EASTERN WOODLANDS; WARRIOR, BIRD-MAN, AND SERPENT IMAGERY WERE AMONG THE VISUAL THEMES. 38
  40. 40. FACING WEST, WOODHENGE, MARKET, CAHOKIA, IL 39
  41. 41. WOODHENGE, AN ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY AT CAHOKIA 40
  42. 42. RECONSTRUCTED WOODHENGE 41
  43. 43. SUNRISE AT CAHOKIA, FROM WOODHENGE 42
  44. 44. MISSISSIPPIAN SIGNS 43
  45. 45. SPIDER GORGET, 1200-1500 A.D. PILEATED WOODPECKER GORGET Incised Shell c. 1200 A.D. 1.Worn at the throat of a chief/priest as a CAHOKIA SHELL status symbol; PENDANTS 2. buried with him/her; 44 3. The cross is a directional symbol.
  46. 46. POTTERY MAKING AT CAHOKIA 45
  47. 47. 46 CADDO POT CAHOKIA: CERAMICS
  48. 48. CAHOKIAN PAINTED CERAMICS 47
  49. 49. BEAVER CLAY POT, CAHOKIA, IL C. 1200 A.D. 11.75” 48
  50. 50. FACE POTS, CAHOKIA 49
  51. 51. 50 CAHOKIA: CERAMIC FEMALE FIGURES
  52. 52. COPPER BREAST PENDANT 51
  53. 53. STONE SCULPTURES OF CHIEFS 52
  54. 54. CAHOKIA MATERNAL SCULPTURE 53
  55. 55. CAHOKIA: STONE FEMALE FIGURES 54
  56. 56. CAHOKIA WEB SITE: http://cahokiamounds.org 55
  57. 57. CAHOKIA SANDSTONE TABLETS THE BIRDMAN TABLET WAS FOUND IN MONKS MOUND IN 1971 56
  58. 58. CAHOKIA STONE BIRDMAN TABLET 57
  59. 59. SPIRO, OK 58

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