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  1. 1. Neoclassicism & Romanticism By: Ansley Lawhead
  2. 2. Neoclassicism Beginnings • late 18th & early 19th century • In France, this “True Style” was a reaction against Rococo levity. • Style adopted by the leaders of the French Revolution. • Became most closely associated with the revolutionary movements of the period.
  3. 3. Neoclassicism Characteristics • Associations with heroic subject matter • Formal clarity • Impression of stability & solidity • References to Athenian democracy and Roman Republic.
  4. 4. Jacques-Louis David • Leading Neoclassical painter • Appealed to republican sentiments associated with Classical antiquity. • Famous Works: – Oath of the Horatii – Death of Marat
  5. 5. Jacques-Louis David Completed in 1784 Oil on Canvas 10’10” x 13’ 11” Louvre Completed in 1793 Oil on canvas 65” x 50 3/8” Royal Museum of Fine Arts Brussels
  6. 6. Napoleon and the Arts • Jean-Francois-Therese Chalgrin: - Arc de Triomphe - Place Charles de Gaulle in Paris - 164 ft high Charles Percier & Pierre F.L Fontaine -Place Vendome Column - 44 meters high - stone core encased in the bronze of 1250 cannons captured at the Battle of Austerliz. -Completed in 1810
  7. 7. Napoleon and the Arts II Antonio Canova: -Maria Paolina Borghese as Venus -1808 -White marble -Galleria Borghese, Rome Marie-Guillemine Benoist: -Portrait of a Negress -Oil on canvas -Louvre -31 in x 25 in
  8. 8. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres Napoleon Enthroned: -1806 -Musee de I’Armee Paris -Oil on canvas -8 ft. 8 in Grande Odalisque: -oil on canvas - Indicates Romantic shift -1814 -Louvre
  9. 9. Neoclassicism in America • Thomas Jefferson: American who most embodied Neoclassicism. Jefferson designed his own home, Monticello, himself. Jefferson was inspired by the Maison Carree at Nimes in southern France for the design of a new State capitol in Virginia. Rotunda, University of Virginia. Pride and joy of Jefferson who is deemed, “Father of the University.”
  10. 10. Romantic Era Beginnings • The term “Romantic” is derived from the Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, & Romanian) & from medieval tales of chivalry & adventure written in those languages. • The era is an artistic, literary, & intellectual movement that originated in the 2nd half of the 18th century in Western Europe. • Reaction to the Industrial Revolution. • Revolt against aristocratic social & political norms of the Age of Enlightenment. • Response against the scientific rationalization of nature.
  11. 11. Romanticism characteristics • Embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature. • Legitimized individual imagination as a critical authority---brought freedom from classical notions of form in art. • Nostalgic for the past & believes in idealistic participation in current events. • Strong emphasis placed on intuition, imagination, and feeling. • The mind = site of mysterious, unexplained, & possibly dangerous phenomena.
  12. 12. Romantic Visual Arts • Artists used their works for highlighting national identity & exoticism. • Most Romantic artists painted landscapes that usually showed nationalism or exoticism through adventure of far-away places. • Nature used to convey emotions.
  13. 13. Romantic Arts • Artists found the natural world less a model of perfection and more a source of mysterious powers. • Painters painted from many supernatural texts & stories. • Known as a time of surging emotions. For example, the supernatural represented love & fear was portrayed through demons.
  14. 14. Romantic Painters • William Blake: Engraver, painter, & poet. • Theodore Gericault: Committed to social justice & interested in human psychology. • Eugene Delacroix: Most prominent figure in French Romantic painting. • Francisco de Goya y Lucientes: Leading Spanish painter of the late 18th & early 19th centuries. Obvious support intellectual & political freedom.
  15. 15. Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa. -Oil on canvas -16 ft x 23 ft 6 in -Louvre -1819 Francisco de Goya y Lucientes The Witches Sabbath -1799 -Oil on canvas -Museo Lazaro Galdiano, Madrid Examples of Romantic Art
  16. 16. Blake: “God Creating the Universe” -British Museum -Relief etching finished in gold, Watercolor on paper - 9 1/4 x 6 5/8 in Delacroix: “Death of Sardanapalus” -oil on canvas -1827 -12’ 1” x 16’ 3” -Louvre Examples of Romantic Art
  17. 17. Romantic Painters • Caspar David Friedrich: Known for poetic landscapes. • John Constable & Joseph Mallord William Turner: In England, the 2 greatest Romantic landscape painters. • Thomas Cole: habit of journeying on foot through northeastern states whilst making pencil sketches of landscape.
  18. 18. Examples of Romantic Art Thomas Cole View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts after a Thunderstorm. -1836 -Oil on canvas -4 ft. 3.5 in x 6 ft 4 in. -Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY Caspar David Friedrich, Two Men Contemplating the Moon -1819 -Oil on canvas -13 ¾ x 17 ½ in -Germaldegalerie Neue Meister, Staaliche Kunstsammiungen, Dresden
  19. 19. Constable: “Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop’s Garden -1823 -87.6 cm x 111.8 cm -Victoria and Albert Museum Turner: “Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons” -1835 -oil on canvas -92 x 123 cm -Philadelphia Museum of Art