THE REVOLT OF 1857 WAS A LARGE SCALE
REBELLION AGAINST BRITISH RULE THAT
SWEPT ACROSS NORTHERN AND CENTRAL
INDIA IN A SERIES OF VIOLENT UPRISINGS.IF
IT HAD SUCCEEDED IT WOULD HAVE
MARKED THE END OF COLONIAL RULE IN
INDIA.BUT AFTER BATTLING THE REBELS
FOR ALMOST TWO YEARS,THE BRITISH
MANAGED TO CRUSH THE REVOLT.THEY
WENT ON TO RULE INDIA FOR ANOTHER 90
YEARS.BUT THE REVOLT OF 1857 HAD
SUCH FAR REACHING CONSEQUENCES THAT
SOME HISTORIANS REFER TO IT AS THE
FIRST WAR OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE.
CAUSES FOR THE REVOLT OF 1857
1. The zamindari system was introduced by the british and
the pleasants were exploited by them.They were often
tortured or jailed when the peasants failed to pay the
2. The landlords also were insecured and lands were
confiscated when the taxes did not match the assigned
3. The interest of India were not the first priority of the
government.The british came in India for economic
profit,which was the main priority.No measures were taken to
improve the conditions of the peasants and the artisians.
4. The annexation of Indian states was followed by large
scale unemployment and economic distress as a large
number of court officials and other lost their means of
earning.All poets,artisians etc working under these rulers lost
1. Lord Dalhousie caused widespread resentment among the
Indian rulers and their subjects by aggressively expanding his
state and annexing native Indian states.
2. He annexed the states of satara nagpur and jhansi by
applying the doctrine of lapse.
3. Nana Sahib was denied a pension after his father’s
death.He was the son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.
4. Bahadur Shah’s successors was denied the right to live at
the Red Fort.
5. He annexed Awadh,accusing the government of
maladministration and shocking the nawab who was a
faithfully and the people of India.
6. The british did not obey the treaties sometimes and they
were broken according to the need of the british and the
nawabs at that time could not trust any treaty at all.
1. Social reforms by the britishers were hated by the Indians who
took it as a mark of british interference in the political
affairs of India.
2. The efforts of missionaries to convert people to cristianity
also angered the Indians.
3. The introduction of western education undetermined the
position of the traditional teachers and teaching methods in
4. The british judicial system introduced the principal of equality
which determined the presence of caste system in India.
5. The british looked down upon Indians and followed a policy of
racial discrimination and separated themselves as SUPERIORS
from the Indian society.Lord Wellesley described Indians as
vulgar,ignorant,rude,familiar and stupid.
1. The sepoys had helped the british to establish their
empire in India but were not awarded or promoted at
all.On the contrary,they were treated with contempt.
2. There was a discrimination between the Indian and the
3. An Indian soldier got much less salary as compared to a
4. The senior british officers did not pay any respect to
the Indian soldiers at all.
5. The Indian soldiers were much more in number as
compared to the british soldiers.In 1856 the number of
Indian troops was up to 5 times as compared to the
british troops.This also encouraged the sepoys to rise
against the british.
SPREAD OF REVOLT
The revolt spread to other parts of northern
and central India.The main centres were
Kanpur, Arrah, Lucknow, Bareilly, Jhansi, Gwalior
and Barrackpore. Revolts also took place in
parts of Bengal, Rajasthan, Assam, Madhya
Pradesh and Punjab.
The revolt in Kanpur was led by
Nana Sahib,the adopted son of the last
peshwa,Baji Rao II.With the help of of Nana
Sahib’s able commanders Tantia Tope and
Azimullah,he attacked the british.In Bihar ,
Kunwar Singh led the revolt.In Jhansi,the
revolt was led by Rani Lakshmibai.
REASONS FOR THE FAILURE OF THE
Lack of unity and cohension.
The rising was not widespread.
No common aims and ideals.
Lack of discipline, resources, and
RESULTS OF THE REVOLT
a) The English East India Company’s rule
came to an end.
b) The administration of India was
taken over by the british crown.
c) The board of directors and the
board of control were abolished.
d) The Indian army was thoroughly
e) The policy of ruthless conquests in
India was given up.