Objectives1. Definition of business analysis & business analyst profession2. Exploring the knowledge areas of business analysis3. Definition of requirements & its types4. Understand the difference between requirements elicitation & requirements gathering
4 In the Beginning...• Projects were like a battlefield
5A lot of work wasbeing done...But it wasnot alwaysproductive
A Little Later On…Organizations invested in ProjectManagement practices Plan Build Test Implement But it still doesn’t work “Typical” Project Life Cycle
Why it doesn’t work?• Only 16.2% of projects will be completed on time & on budget• About 40-56% of project conflicts can be traced to requirement errors• Finding and fixing requirement errors consumes 70-85% of project rework costs• The average project exceeds its planned time schedule by 120%• About 52.7% of projects will cost 189% of their original estimate• About 30% of projects are cancelled before completion.
ConclusionTypical project……expends least effort on requirements analysis……which is where most errors originate……and whose errors cost most to fix!
Now .. The Picture CompleteDescribe Define Plan Build Test ImplementBusiness Analysis Project Management
What Do These Words Mean, Anyway? • Systems Analyst • Systems Engineer • Architect • Business system analyst • Business Analyst • Analyst Programmer
What Has Changed?• International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA) established in 2003 as is an independent non- profit professional association, serving the growing field of business analysis. www.theiiba.org
IIBA defines a Business AnalysisThe set of tasks & techniques used to:1. work as a liaison among stakeholders2. To understand the structure, policies and operations of an organization3. and to recommend solutions that enable the organization to achieve its goals. Source: International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA®)
A Business Analyst“A business analyst worksas a liaison amongstakeholders in order toelicit, analyze,communicate, and validaterequirements for changesto business processes,policies, and informationsystems.”
Putting the Business Analyst in context Project ManagerOwner/sponsor BUSINESS ANALYST Solutions developers Subject Matter Experts/Users
Requirement: IIBA’s Definition• A Requirement is defined to be: 1. A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective; 2. A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed document. 3. A documented representation of a condition or capability as in (1) or (2).
Types of Requirements Business User SystemRequirements Requirements Requirements• higher-level • statements of • describe the statements of the needs of behavior and the goals, a particular information objectives, or stakeholder that the needs of the or class of solution will enterprise. stakeholders. manage.
Requirements 4 C’s• Requirements Should be : – Complete – Clear – Correct – Consistent.
Business Analysis Knowledge Areas Business Analysis Planning and MonitoringEnterprise Elicitation Requirements Solution Analysis Analysis Assessment & Validation Requirements Management and Communication Underlying Competencies
Enterprise Analysis• Feasibility Studies• High level Risk Assessments• Business Cases
Requirements Planning and Management • What methodology will be used on the project? • How will requirements be elicited?
Requirements Elicitation• Core BA activity!• Elicited, not “gathered”!• Get ALL the REAL requirements RIGHT
What is Elicitation?Defined… The definition of elicitation is1: 1. To draw forth or bring out (something latent or potential) 24
Requirements Elicitation• How Can We Elicit Requirements? – Interviews – Surveys – Meetings (Focus Groups) – Observation – Prototyping
Requirements Elicitation• Where Can We Go to Elicit Requirements? – Users – Managers – Executives – Programmers – Other BAs – Old System – The Web
Requirements Analysis & Documentation• Two tasks – big knowledge area• Modeling – ERD – Process Flow – Use Case• Documentation – Requirements Specifications – Design Document
Requirements Communication• Communicate requirements back to the stakeholders• Reviews mostly• Small knowledge area
Solution Assessment and Validation • Evaluate and select a solution • Assist with developers ,testing and QA • Assist with implementation • Post-Implementation Review