Managing people

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Managing people

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Theories of Managing People
  2. 2. Objectives Describe seven theories of management and their “ideal” manager Explain the competing values framework and what constitutes a master manager Explain why it’s important to identify your personal theories about management and organizational behavior 2 -1Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  3. 3. …Objectives Describe your personal theory of management Identify the managerial skills you need in today’s global business environment 2 -2Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  4. 4. Scientific Management 2 -3 Small standardized jobs Matched to the capabilities of trained workers who received wage incentives Efficient division of labor Taylor Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  5. 5. Administrative Theory 2 -4 Plan Control Organize Command Basic Functions of Managers Fayol Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  6. 6. Administrative Theory Bureaucracy as a solution to nepotism, favoritism and unprofessional behavior Weber 2 -5Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  7. 7. Human Relations School 2 -6  Acknowledged the effect of the informal social system with its norms and individual attitudes and feelings on organizational functioning  Underlined the importance of employee morale and participation Hawthorne Studies Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  8. 8. Assumptions about Human Nature 2 -7 Theory X Inherently lazy Dislike responsibility Prefer to be led Theory Y Responsible Motivated to work hard Capable of self-direction Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  9. 9. Decision-Making School  Described organizations as social systems based on individual decisions  Contributed the idea of bounded rationality  Managers could control employee behavior by controlling the premises of decision making 2 -8 March & Simon Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  10. 10. Contingency Approach There is no one best way to manage in every situation Managers must find the appropriate method to match a given situation 2 -9 “It depends” Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  11. 11. Successful Organizations 2 -10 Shared Values Systems Structure Style Skills Staff Strategy FIT Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  12. 12. Open Systems Theory  Organizations and all subdivisions take in and transform resources into a service / product which is purchased / utilized by a larger system  All parts are interdependent (including the larger environment in which the organization is embedded) 2 -11Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  13. 13. Competing Values Framework  Master managers balance the competing values of four different models based on the situation  Too much emphasis on any one model will lead to failure 2 -12 Human Relations Model Open Systems Model Internal Process Model Rational Goal Model Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  14. 14. …Competing Values Framework 2 -13Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner Rational Goal Internal Process Human Relations Open Systems Criteria of effectiveness Productivity, profit Stability, continuity Commitment, cohesion, morale Adaptability, external support Means – end theory Clear direction leads to productive outcomes Routinization leads to stability Involvement results in commitment Continual adaptation, lead to innovation acquiring, maintaining external resources Emphasis Goal clarification, rational analysis, action taking Defining responsibility, measurement, documentation Participation, conflict resolution, consensus building Political adaptation, creative problem solving, innovation Climate Rational economic Hierarchical Team oriented Innovative, flexible Role of manager Director and producer Monitor and coordinator Mentor and facilitator Innovator and broker
  15. 15. The Positive and Negative Zones Human Relations Internal Process Internal Process Open Systems
  16. 16. Mental Maps  The first step in managing the paradoxes of organizational effectiveness is understanding one’s own theories of management  Our theories or mental maps determine what we see when we look at situations and determine the roles we perform 2 -15Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  17. 17. What Do Great Managers Do?  Select for talent  Not just for experience, intelligence and determination  Define outcomes when setting expectations  Not the steps to get to the goals 2 -16 Buckingham & Coffman Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  18. 18. …What Do Great Managers Do? Focus on strengths when motivating Not on fixing weaknesses Find the right job that fits the individual Not just the next rung on the promotion ladder 2 -17Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  19. 19. What Do Managers Do? 2 -18 Networking: Socializing, dealing with outsiders, hand- ling organizational politics Traditional Management: Planning, budgeting, decision making Human Resource Development: Motivating, reinforcing, training, developing employees Communication: Paperwork, passing on information Luthans et al. Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  20. 20. What Constitutes an Effective Manager? Depends on the measure of effectiveness used and the outcomes to be achieved 2 -19 Networking Traditional Management Human Resource Development Communication Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  21. 21. Effectiveness Criteria: Most Rapidly and Most Often Promoted How Do They Spend Their Time? 2 -20 Networking Traditional Management Human Resource Development Communication 28% 13% 11% 48% Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  22. 22. Effectiveness Criteria: Highest Performers (Results and Satisfied, Committed Employees) How Do They Spend Their Time? 2 -21 Networking Traditional Management Human Resource Development Communication 45% 15% 27% 12% Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  23. 23. Criteria of Effectiveness: Both Promotions and Performance How Do They Spend Their Time? 2 -22 Networking Traditional Management Human Resource Development Communication Balanced use of time Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
  24. 24. Lessons for Today’s Managers  Learn to analyze complex situations using a variety of models or theories because no one theory is sufficient  Develop a broad repertoire of behaviors and knowledge about when to use them  Develop the self-control and self-discipline to go beyond your natural style and adapt to a rapidly changing environment 2 -23Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

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