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A++ mission 6 notes part ii 2012

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A++ mission 6 notes part II minerals 2012

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A++ mission 6 notes part ii 2012

  1. 1. Mission 6 Part II Minerals
  2. 2. Minerals (ch. 3-1)A. Five characteristics of minerals1. Formed by natural processes2. Inorganic
  3. 3. 3. All solids4. Every mineral has a chemical composition unique to that mineral5. Atoms in a mineral are arranged in a pattern repeated over and over
  4. 4. B. Structure of Minerals1. Crystal: solid in which the atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern2. 6 major crystal systems – Cubic, Orthorhombic, Tetragonal, Triclinic, Hexagonal, Monoclinic
  5. 5. C. How minerals form1. Cooling of hot melted rock called magma a. As magma cools atoms lose energy b. This causes them to move closer together
  6. 6. c. atoms combine to form compounds d. molecules of different compounds arrange themselves in repeating patterns
  7. 7. e. type and amount of elements present in magma determine which elements will form magma cools quickly = small crystals form magma cools slowly = large crystals form
  8. 8. 2. crystals can form from minerals dissolved in liquid (crystals from solution) a. liquid evaporates, atoms in mineral stay behind and form crystals
  9. 9. D. Mineral composition and groups 1. 90 elements occur naturally in earth’s crust 2. 98% of the crust is made up of only 8 elements
  10. 10. 3. Silicates a. minerals that contain silicone & oxygen & one or more other minerals b. silicon & oxygen are two most abundant elements in the earth’s crust
  11. 11. Review• What five conditions must be meet for a substance to be a mineral?1. Formed by natural processes2. Inorganic3. All solids4. Every mineral has a chemical composition unique to that mineral5. Atoms in a mineral are arranged in a pattern repeated over and over
  12. 12. II. Mineral Identification (Ch. 3-2)1. Physical properties: those that do not affect how it will react with other elements or compounds
  13. 13. 1. Hardness a. how easily a mineral can be scratched b. diamond = hardest; talc = softest
  14. 14. a. Mohs scale of hardness i. Used to compare the hardness of minerals ii. lists the hardness of 10 minerals
  15. 15. 2. Luster describes how light is reflected from a minerals surface a. luster defined as metallic i. always shines like metal ii. very shiny
  16. 16. a. luster defined as nonmetallic i. dull, glassy, pearly, silky
  17. 17. 3. Color - a visual attribute of things that results from the light they emit or transmit or reflect; "a white color is made up of many different wavelengths of light"
  18. 18. 4. Streak a. color of the mineral when its broken up and powdered b. strike plate (unglazed porcelain) mineral rubbed across & streak is powdered mineral
  19. 19. c. only works when mineral is softer than the strike plate i. mineral graphite used in pencils because it leaves a streak on paper
  20. 20. 5. Cleavage a. minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces i. Example - mica
  21. 21. Mica
  22. 22. 6. Fracture a. minerals that break with rough, ragged edges i. Example - quartz
  23. 23. Quartz
  24. 24. 7. Other properties a. magnetism b. light (translucent)
  25. 25. Review• What’s the difference between a mineral that has cleavage and one that has fracture?Fracture - minerals that break with rough, ragged edgesCleavage -minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces
  26. 26. III. Uses of Minerals (Ch. 3-3)A. Gems: highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautiful
  27. 27. 1. the difference between a gem and the common form of the same mineral can be slight i. Example – amethyst is a gem form of quartz
  28. 28. amethyst
  29. 29. B. Ores: mineral that contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profit 1. aluminum taken from bauxite and made into useful products
  30. 30. 2. most ores contain unwanted material along with valuable material i. this waste must be removed ii. if this process is more costly than the value of the desired material, it will no longer be classified an ore
  31. 31. Review• Why couldn’t a company stay in business if the mineral it was mining were no longer an ore?
  32. 32. IV. Uses of Titanium (Ch.3-4)A. Titanium is a durable, lightweight metal derived from minerals such as ilmenite or rutile
  33. 33. B. Used in things such as aircraft and cars
  34. 34. Review• Which two minerals are ores of titanium?IlmeniteRutile

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