Just in Time Learning
Implementing Principles
of Multimodal Processing
    and Learning for
        Education
Outline
 Introduction
 Animated Tutors
 Vocabulary Learning
   Direct Vocabulary Instruction
   Graded Word Informati...
Introduction

 To provid both a theoretical and empirical framework
  for addressing the important issue of the presentat...
Animated Tutors
 Baldi, a 3-D computer-animated talking head
 The goal in this paper is to review applications in langua...
Vocabulary Learning

 vocabulary knowledge is positively correlated with both
  listening and reading comprehension and p...
Direct Vocabulary Instruction

 some direct teaching of vocabulary is essential for
  appropriate language development
 ...
Graded Word Information

 Knowing a word is not an all-or-none proposition
 the dimension of vocabulary depth (as measur...
Need For Language Tutoring

 The need for language tutoring is pervasive in today’s world
 There are millions of element...
Effectiveness of Tutoring

 Several evaluation experiments with the Vocabulary
  Tutor have carried out with three differ...
Hard Of Hearing Children

 eight children with hearing loss, who needed help with
  their vocabulary building skills as s...
Hard Of Hearing Children (cont.)

 the results from one student in this study, because of the
  value of single-student a...
Hard Of Hearing Children (cont.)
Autistic Children

 evaluating vocabulary acquisition, retention and
  generalization in eight children diagnosed with au...
Autistic Children (cont.)

 a second investigation used the single subject multiple
  probe design
 Given training, all ...
English Language Learners

 Nine children ranging in age from 6-7 years were tested
  in the summer before first grade
 ...
Lesson Creator

 A new application, the Lesson Creator, adds flexibility
  and many new pedagogical features
 Teachers, ...
Errorless Learning

 A giraffe is an animal with a long neck
 An elephant is an animal with a long trunk
 With this typ...
Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator

 We know that educational instructors are overworked, and it
  is a challenge t...
Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator
Example Lesson
Evaluation

 First, although user feedback and testimonials have their
  limitations, they provide an initial source of t...
Think-Aloud Protocol
 Users are asked to say whatever they are looking at, thinking,
  doing, and feeling, as they go abo...
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Just In Time Learning Implementing Principles Of Multimodal Processing And Learning For Education

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Just In Time Learning Implementing Principles Of Multimodal Processing And Learning For Education

  1. 1. Just in Time Learning Implementing Principles of Multimodal Processing and Learning for Education
  2. 2. Outline  Introduction  Animated Tutors  Vocabulary Learning  Direct Vocabulary Instruction  Graded Word Information  Need For Language Tutoring  Effectiveness of Tutoring  Hard Of Hearing Children  Autistic Children  English Language Learners  Lesson Creator  Errorless Learning  Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator  Example Lesson  Evaluation
  3. 3. Introduction  To provid both a theoretical and empirical framework for addressing the important issue of the presentation of multimodal displays to the user  The major assumption is that multiple sensory influences are continuously combined during perception, categorization, and language processing  Results from a variety of experiments on speech, emotion, and gesture have supported this type of framework for language processing
  4. 4. Animated Tutors  Baldi, a 3-D computer-animated talking head  The goal in this paper is to review applications in language tutoring using this technology, propose a user-friendly Lesson Creator that can be used to implement research and tutoring applications, and suggest how it can be evaluated more formally  Several advantages of our technology and pedagogy  the popularity of interactive agents  instruction can be tailored exactly to the student’s need  the ability to seamlessly meld spoken and written language  provide a semblance of a game-playing experience while actually learning
  5. 5. Vocabulary Learning  vocabulary knowledge is positively correlated with both listening and reading comprehension and predicts overall success in school  Direct Vocabulary Instruction  Graded Word Information  Need For Language Tutoring
  6. 6. Direct Vocabulary Instruction  some direct teaching of vocabulary is essential for appropriate language development  Contrary to a common belief that learning vocabulary is a necessary outcome of reading in which new words are experienced in a meaningful context, context seldom disambiguates the meaning of a word completely
  7. 7. Graded Word Information  Knowing a word is not an all-or-none proposition  the dimension of vocabulary depth (as measured by synonymy, polysemy, and collocation) is as important as that of vocabulary size in predicting performance on academic reading  Thus, it is important to over-train vocabulary, and to present the items in a variety of contexts in order to develop rich representations
  8. 8. Need For Language Tutoring  The need for language tutoring is pervasive in today’s world  There are millions of elementary school children who face language and speech challenges  All of these groups have or are at high risk for language learning disabilities and require additional instruction in language learning.  there are not enough skilled teachers and professionals to give them the one-on- one attention that they need  Other available resources are not easily personalized to the students’ needs, lack the engaging capability of a teacher  we developed a Vocabulary Tutor to provide direct instruction in vocabulary learning (3)
  9. 9. Effectiveness of Tutoring  Several evaluation experiments with the Vocabulary Tutor have carried out with three different groups of children with language challenges: hard of hearing, autistic, and English learners  Hard Of Hearing Children  Autistic Children  English Language Learners
  10. 10. Hard Of Hearing Children  eight children with hearing loss, who needed help with their vocabulary building skills as suggested by their regular day teachers  The experimenter developed a set of lessons with a collection of vocabulary items that was individually composed for each student.  Each collection of items was comprised of 24 items, broken down into 3 categories of 8 items each.  Three lessons with 8 items each were made for each child
  11. 11. Hard Of Hearing Children (cont.)  the results from one student in this study, because of the value of single-student analyses and the fact that this student was representative of all of the students tested
  12. 12. Hard Of Hearing Children (cont.)
  13. 13. Autistic Children  evaluating vocabulary acquisition, retention and generalization in eight children diagnosed with autism, ranging in age from 7-11 years  The results indicated that the children learned many new words, grammatical constructions and concepts, proving that the application provided a valuable learning environment for these children.  In addition, a delayed test given more than 30 days after the learning sessions took place showed that the children retained over 85% of the words that they learned
  14. 14. Autistic Children (cont.)  a second investigation used the single subject multiple probe design  Given training, all of the students attained our criterion(accurately identify at least 5 out of 6 vocabulary items) for identification accuracy for each word set and were also able to generalize accurate identification to four instances of untrained images  These results show that our tutoring program is effective for autistic children, as well for hard of hearing children
  15. 15. English Language Learners  Nine children ranging in age from 6-7 years were tested in the summer before first grade  Three different lessons were tested, corresponding to the three sets of items used in the multiple baseline design  Each child was pretested in order to find vocabulary that was unknown to him or her  The test session: two select one, No feedback  A training session: error correct, Imitation
  16. 16. Lesson Creator  A new application, the Lesson Creator, adds flexibility and many new pedagogical features  Teachers, parents, and even students with minimal computer experience can build original lessons with personalized vocabulary and pictures  Errorless Learning  Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator  Example Lesson  Evaluation
  17. 17. Errorless Learning  A giraffe is an animal with a long neck  An elephant is an animal with a long trunk  With this type of supportive and corrective feedback, the student learns about both animals, and is encouraged to think about their differences
  18. 18. Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator  We know that educational instructors are overworked, and it is a challenge to ask teachers to create new lessons for their students rather than simply using existing content  Lesson Creator was developed to provide a highly flexible framework to include a variety of content while simultaneously providing a user-friendly interface to design, create, and pilot test the lesson  Each screen allows the coach to specify the greeting and instructions, the questions, and the feedback, or the coach can simply accept the general default dialog
  19. 19. Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator
  20. 20. Example Lesson
  21. 21. Evaluation  First, although user feedback and testimonials have their limitations, they provide an initial source of the application’s effectiveness  There appear to be two approaches to formal tests The first would be to use a think-aloud protocol to monitor both novice and experience users while they are composing lessons The second would be to ask teachers to think of a lesson that they would like to implement in an interactive tutoring situation
  22. 22. Think-Aloud Protocol  Users are asked to say whatever they are looking at, thinking, doing, and feeling, as they go about their task.  This enables observers to see first-hand the process of task completion (rather than only its final product).  Observers at such a test are asked to objectively take notes of everything that users say, without attempting to interpret their actions and words.  Test sessions are often audio and video taped so that developers can go back and refer to what participants did, and how they reacted.  The purpose of this method is to make explicit what is implicitly present in subjects who are able to perform a specific task

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