Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Global marketing Strategies (McDonald’s)

7,521 views

Published on

Global marketing Strategies (McDonald’s)

Published in: Education
  • I am so pleased that I found you! I have suffered from Sleep Apnea for years. I have tried everything to fix the problem but nothing has worked. For the last years I have been trying to use a CPAP machine on and off but it is very difficult to sleep with. It's noisy and very uncomfortable. I had no idea there was a natural way to help me. I am so pleased that I found you! ♥♥♥ http://ishbv.com/snoringno/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Want to preview some of our plans? You can get 50 Woodworking Plans and a 440-Page "The Art of Woodworking" Book... Absolutely FREE ●●● http://ishbv.com/tedsplans/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The Surprising Reason 11:11 Keeps Popping-Up: Free report reveals the Universe's secret "Sign Posts" that point the way to success, wealth and happiness. Claim your copy right now! ●●● http://t.cn/AiuvUMl2
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Free Miracle "Angel Music" Attract abundance, happiness, and miracles into your life by listening the sounds of the Angels. Go here to listen now! ■■■ https://tinyurl.com/y6pnne55
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Global marketing Strategies (McDonald’s)

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY Course Marketing Management Code (8511) Semester Spring, 2015 Level MBA Marketing (3½ Years) Tutor Sir Imran Inam Name waQas ilYas Roll # BA 582702 Assignment # 02 Topic = Global marketing Strategies
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All gratitude and thanks to almighty “ALLAH” the gracious, the most merciful and beneficent who gave me courage to undertake and complete this task. I am very much obliged to my ever caring and loving parents whose prayers have enabled to reach this stage. I am grateful to almighty ALLAH who made me able to complete the work presented in this report. It is due to HIS unending mercy that this work moved towards success. I am highly indebted to my course instructor for providing me an opportunity to learn about the “which is vital ingredient” of MBA program. I am very grateful to my teacher (Sir Imran Inam) for providing me guideline for the completion of this report. I feel great pride and pleasure on the accomplishment of this report.
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e ABSTRACT This report is the Practical part of the most vital practice of our MBA-Marketing program. The sole objective of my activity is to familiarize with the practical manipulation of business organization. This report has been written to know how big organizations like McDonald’s manage their teams to achieve their common goals. In the first phase of the report there is the general introduction about the company and then different terms have been explained, then the mission, values, different services and different strategies of the organization have been explained. In the next part, SWOT analysis of the firm have been done by the help of which it is identified that what are the strong areas of the company and where it lacks so that it can improve, and then in the end most important my experience while visiting in the McDonald’s.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e DEDICATION This report is dedicated to the greatest man in the world that shows us the right path. Who is the great patron of the mankind that is Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). I would also like to dedicate this small effort of extract to my Parents and Teachers. They have always been a shining star to look upon, to give light and to show me the directions whenever I am lost. May Allah give them more strength and long life to guide me forever. Ameen!
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e Table of Contents Introduction of Topic 06 Practical Review of Company 16 Vision Statement 18 Mission Statement 18 Application of Topic 19 SWOT Analysis 20 Conclusion 21 Recommendations 21 References 21
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e Introduction of Topic: Global Marketing Strategies A global marketingstrategy (GMS) is a strategy that encompasses countries from several different regions in the world and aims at coordinating a company’s marketingefforts in markets in these countries. A GMS does not necessarilycover all countries but it shouldapply across several regions. A typical regional breakdown is as follows: Africa, Asia, and the Pacific (includingAustralia) Europe andthe Middle East, Latin America, and North America. A ‘‘regional’’ marketingstrategy is one that coordinates the marketingeffort in one region. A GMS should not be confusedwith a global production strategy. Outsourcingand foreign manufacturingsubsidiaries,common features of a global production strategy, can be used with or without a GMS for the finishedproducts. GMSs can involve one or more of several activities. The coordination involvedin implementing a GMS unavoidablyleads to a certain level of uniformityof branding, of packaging, of promotional appeal, and so on (Zou and Cavusgil, 2002). This also means that a GMS, in some ways, goes counter to a true customer orientation (see MARKETING PLANNING). The product and marketing mix are not adapted to local preferences,as a customer orientation suggests. This is a potential weakness of GMSs, and leaves opportunities open for local products and brands. As the notion of integratedmarketing communications (seeINTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONSTRATEGY) suggests, the ensuing consistencycan have positive revenue benefits because of reinforcement of a unique message, spillovers between countries, and so on. But the
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e main drivingforce behind the adoption of a GMS is the scale and scope of cost advantages from such uniform marketing strategies. These cost advantages include elimination of unnecessaryduplication of effort, savings on multilingualand same-size packaging, use of the same promotional material, quantity discounts when buying media, and so on. The pros and cons of a GMS are given in Below: Components of a Global Marketing Strategy Identical brand names • Uniformpackaging • Standardizedproducts • Similar advertisingmessages • Coordinatedpricing • Synchronizedproductintroductions • Coordinatedsales campaigns General pros and cons of global marketing strategies Pros • Revenue side: Reinforcedmessage, unique idea Spillover of brand awareness Enhancedliking(mere exposure) • Cost side: Reduces duplication, waste Uniform product design, packaging, advertising Quantity discounts in media buy. Cons • Revenue side: Culturallyinsensitive, Anti global target, Vulnerable to gray trade • Cost side: Requires managerial time, Lowers morale in subsidiaries, agencies. THE ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e Firms typicallycontemplate adopting a more coordinatedGMS, once they have significant presence in several countries and regions. Since local markets will never be exactly the same, a proposed global strategy will generallynot be welcomed by the countrymanagers. The existing local operations will have to be convincedto adopt the new global strategy. Thus, a GMS is always top-down, not bottom-up, and it is easy for anti-globalizationsentiments to stir even within a multinational company. The typical solution to this problem is to allow country managers to be involved in the formulation of the GMS, and to form cross-national teams to participate in the implementation. It is also common to designate one countrythe ‘‘lead’’ market for the strategy, and use its current strategy as a starting point for the global strategy. This lead country is typicallyone of the larger markets and one where the firm has a strong market share. In multi brandfirms, it is also common to limit a global strategy to one or two brands, allowingthe local subsidiaries to keep control of some of their own brands. GLOBAL SEGMENTATION AND POSITIONING The firms most likelyto engage in GMSs are those present in global markets. Global markets are those where customer needs, wants and preferences are quite similar across the globe (see MARKET DEFINITION). Typical product categories are technologyproducts, includingconsumer electronics, cameras and computers, branded luxuryproducts, and also apparel, personal care, and entertainment categories where, for certain segments, globally standardizedproducts are desiredby all. By contrast, in multi domestic markets such as food and drink, where preferences are more culturallydetermined, global coordination is less common (see CUSTOMER ANALYSIS). Global Segmentation. The need to target similar segments in different countries is an attempt to minimize the drawbacks of a coordinated global strategy (see MARKET SEGMENTATIONAND TARGETING). A typical cross-nationalsegment targeted with a standardizedproductis the teenage and young adult segments, where preferences are allegedlyvery similar even for food and drink categories.
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e Coca Cola uses the same one-wordslogan ‘‘Always’’ aroundthe world. Nike is positioned with a rebellious image in many countries, even though the particular sports associatedwith Nike differ by country. Technologybrands such as the iPod have usually even more coordinated global strategies,with synchronizedrollouts of new models across countries. Global marketers might use a two-stage approach to market segmentation (see MARKET SEGMENTATIONAND TARGETING), first groupingcountries into similar regions to increase the chances of finding homogeneous subgroups within each region. Often the first step amounts to selecting a trade bloc, such as the European Union. As research has documented, many global strategies are, in fact, more regional than global (Rugman, 2005). A GMS can also be successful if the firm has managed to change local preferences. A new product enteringa local market will usually change preferences to some degree, whether by new features, promotion, or price. This is the basis for the extreme standardizationproposed by Levitt in his seminal 1983 HBR (Harvard Business Review) article, where he suggests that ‘‘everybody’’ likes the same products. Examples of this abound. IKEA, the Swedish furniture retailer, has changedthe market for furniture in many countries – it uses a very standardizedand coordinatedmarketing strategy, focusing around its simple and functional furniture, annual catalog, and warehouse stores. Starbucks, the American coffee chain, also has re- created and enlargeda mature market in several countries with its new coffee choices,novel store layouts, and wider menu. In other cases, changes in the environmenthave affectedpreferences so as to make standardizationpossible. ‘‘Green’’ products are naturally targetingglobal segments, as are the lighter beers, the bottled waters, and the shift to wines.Such global segments naturally induce companies to adopt GMSs. Global Positioning. The main issue in global positioning(see POSITIONING ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIES) is whether the product offering should be positionedthe same way everywhere or not. Complicatingthe issue is the fact that even with complete uniformityof the marketingmix, the arrived-atposition may still differ between countries.A classic example are Levi’s jeans, whose rugged outdoors image places it in mainstreamAmerican lifestyle segment, but becomes a stylish icon in other countries. Also, as this example illustrates, even if a brand wants to be seen as ‘‘global,’’ its position is typicallyaffected
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e positively or negativelyby its country of origin. A fundamental factor affectingtransferability of a position is the actual use of the product. A food product such as apples might be consumed as a healthy snack in the West (‘‘An apple a day keeps the doctor away’’ as the saying goes).But in Japan, apples are a favorite item in the gift-giving season, placinga premium on color, packaging, and price – hardlythe same positioning. Even without such dramatic usage differences, differences in economic development and cultural distance, in general, are main factors influencingthe potential for an identical position? AFord carmay be positionedas a functional value productin Europe, but might be a status symbol in a poor country. First-time buyers in emergingmarkets rarelyview products the same way as buyers in the more mature markets, where preferences are well established. For example, the successful Buicks offered to new customers in China offer quite different benefits from those offered Buick customers in the United States, even though the product is largelythe same. The strength of local competition (see COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS) is also likely to vary across countries,affectingthe positioning. Where domestic competitors are strong, a foreign brand that is a mainstreambrand at home will typically attempt to target a niche abroad. This applies to many European brands includingHeineken, Illycaffe, and Volvo. In other cases, a company with a niche position at home may target a more mainstreamposition in another market – an example is Japanese Honda in the US auto market. In global markets, where often the same global players compete in the major foreign markets, positioningis more likely to remain constant across the mature markets. Examples include automobiles, with the global players occupyingvery similar positions in most markets. This is less true for new product categories that are still in the growth stage in many countries and the brands are not equally well known everywhere. Cell phone makers Nokia, Samsung, and Sony-Ericssonoccupy quite differentpositions in each market. The stage of the life cycle (see STAGES OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE) is also likely to vary across countries, affectinghow well a particular position can be transferred. In the early stages, with preferences still in flux, a strategy based on the positioning in a lead countrymay not be very effective in a new country. Thus, the first automatic single-lens reflex camera was introduced by Canon as a mainstreamproduct in Japan, but a specialtyproduct for more
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e professional photographyoverseas. In emergingcountries with their pent-up demand, however, even new consumers aspire for the best products in the leadingmarkets. This is why some Western companies (such as Electrolux, the home appliance manufacturer)will position themselves at the top of the market even in a country like Russia. The typical strategic assumption is that a globallyuniformpositioning requires similarity of culture, of competition, and of life cycle stage. However, even in countries where one or more of these requirements are not met, a standardizedglobal positioningmay still work. THE GLOBAL MARKETING MIX Global products and services.Standardization of the product or service is usuallya major feature of a global MARKETING MIX. ‘‘Product Standardization’’means uniformityof product or service features, design, and styling. There are several advantages to such standardization. Advantages of Product Standardization.  Cost reduction  Improved quality  Enhanced customer preference Disadvantages of Product Standardization.  Off-target  Lack of uniqueness Global Brands
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e Keeping the same brandname everywhere has become the signature feature of a global marketer, and ‘‘global branding’’ has become an obsession among many multinationals. Global brands have receivedincreasedattention from top management in many multinationals because of the importance of brandequity as a financialasset (see PERCEPTIONOF BRAND EQUITY). Expandinginto new markets is an obvious way of building further financialequity, which is usuallycalculatedby simply aggregating projected revenues across country markets. Not surprisingly, most top brands in terms of financial equityare global. But a strong brand not only needs reach across countries, it also needs allegiance from local customers. As global brands have stretched further to build financial equity, local brands have been able to defend their turf by staying closer to their customer and building affinity, or what may be called soft equity (see CUSTOMER EQUITY). Recognizingthis, many global companies not only market their global brand in a country market but might also buy up a successful local brandand retain its brandname – and customers. The most clear-cutadvantages of global brands are the cost efficiencies from scale and scope. The typical benefits to global brands are several. The cost efficiencies tend to come from the ability to produce identical products and packaging in long series, and also because global brands can draw on uniformglobal promotions (more on this below). Demand spillover is a result of the increasedexposure to the same brand in many places,especiallyuseful when customers are global. The growth of internationaltourismhas been a strong driver of global brands. The status and esteem advantages have been shown by researchers, especially prominentin less-developedcountries. While some research has demonstrated a high quality perception for global brands, the more firmly establishedfinding is that global brands tend to have a more consistent qualitythan local brands. The disadvantages of global brands become advantages for local brands. Of course, none of these advantages come withouteffort and disciplined application by the firms, whether global or local. Benefits to Global Brands
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e  Scale and scope economies  Demand spill over  Global customers  High esteem, status  Consistent quality Advantages for Local Brands  Local brand affinity  Motivated local employees  Prodomestic (and Anti-globalization) sentiment Global Pricing and Distribution In GMSs, pricing, and distribution are more closely connectedthan at home. The reason is not that the costs involvedin distribution (transportation but also insurance andcustom duties) necessarilyraise the final price to the customer. Such straight ‘‘price escalation’’ does not usuallyoccur except in one-time transactions. Manymultinationals have strong home market ‘‘cash cows,’’ and when faced with more intense competition in foreign markets they reduce prices by loweringtransfer prices to their subsidiaries. Some firms also use foreign markets as an easy way out of overcapacity, applyingmarginal cost pricingprocedures (although these can run afoul of dumping laws). And the improved efficiencyof global transportation, thanks to global express carriers and consolidatedshipment procedures, means that geographic distance is no longer the trade barrier it once was. Transportation costs are typicallya small proportion of the total price paid (see MARKETING CHANNEL STRATEGY). The strong connection between pricingand distribution rests more directlyon another phenomenon. The ease of transportation, coupled with differinglocal prices and currency fluctuations, are what provide the margin that allows for arbitrage opportunities for customers to buy branded products cheaper abroad. This is an instance of so-called ‘‘Gray Trade’’ – the importation of brandedproducts through other than authorizedchannels (see MULTICHANNEL MARKETING). It is the rise of
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e gray trade that force multinationals to decide pricingand distribution strategies jointly – and even multinationals thatwouldotherwise not contemplate a global strategy, have to find a way to align prices to avoid such trade. Selected Drivers of ‘‘Gray Trade.’’  Transportation is global and efficient  Trade barriers are low  Products and brands are standardized  Communication is global Why Global Coordination of Prices is Difficult  Currency exchange rates fluctuate  Local distributors are independent  Import prices to subsidiaries have to consider tariffs, taxes.  Local competition varies across countries Global Marketing Communications Next to global brands, the most visible aspect of a GMS is perhaps global advertising. Global advertising can be defined as media advertisingthat is more or less uniformacross many countries, often, but not necessarily, in media vehicles with global reach. Although global appeals had been used previouslyin promotions. With increasing globalization andthe stress on global brands, the momentum behindglobal advertisinghas been sustaineddespite anti-globalizationand Prolocalization sentiments aroundthe globe. One contributingfactor has been the rise of the Internet and the availabilityof many commercials on sites such as YouTube, where even local advertisementcampaigns potentiallyhave
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e global reach. There are several forces behindthe need for integrated global communications (see INTEGRATEDMARKETING COMMUNICATIONSTRATEGY). One can distinguish between supply-side drivers and demand-side drivers. On the supply side, the emergence of consolidated global advertisementagencies has played a significantrole in generatingmore global advertising. Although in many ways, the agency globalization has been a response to the globalization of the clientfirms – global managers find it useful to deal with the same agency in differentparts of the world – once established, the global agencywill naturallywantto leverage its global capabilities. The global agencycan also claimsuperior production values with a global campaign, since more resources can be used for one television commercial that is going to be shown around the world. Major Drivers of Global Advertising Supply Side • Global ad agencies • Global media Demand Side • Global customers • Preference convergence Advantages of Integrated Global Communications  Consistency of brand communications  Media spill over  Cost savings  Improved production  Leveraging a great idea The Disadvantages of Integrated Global Communications  Images and symbols might not be locally acceptable
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e  Appropriate media might not be available  Product usage is not the same  Local creativity can be stifled Practical study McDonald’s The McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, servingaround68 million customers daily in 119 countries across 35,000 outlets. Headquarteredin the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald. In 1948, they reorganizedtheir business as a hamburger stand using production line principles. Businessman RayKroc joinedthe company as a franchise agent in 1955. He subsequently
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e purchasedthe chain from the McDonald brothers and oversaw its worldwide growth. A McDonald's restaurantis operated by a franchisee, an affiliate, or the actual corporation itself. The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties,and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operatedrestaurants. In 2012, the company had annual revenues of $27.5 billion and profits of $5.5 billion. Accordingto a 2012 BBC report, McDonald's is the world's second largestprivate employer behind Wal-Martwith 1.9 million employees, 1.5 million of whom work for franchises. McDonald's primarilysells hamburgers, cheeseburgers, chicken, French fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, and desserts. In response to changingconsumer tastes, the company has expandedits menu to include salads, fish, wraps, smoothies, fruit, and seasoned fries. Headquarters McDonald's Plaza, located in Oak Brook, Illinois is the headquarters of McDonald's The McDonald's headquarters complex, McDonald's Plaza, is located in Oak Brook, Illinois. It sits on the site of the former headquarters and stablingarea of Paul Butler, the founder of Oak Brook. McDonald's moved into the Oak Brook facilityfrom an office within the Chicago Loop in 1971. Board of directors As of November 2014, the Board of directors had the following members:  Andrew J. McKenna, Chairman  Susan E. Arnold, OperatingExecutive, Global Consumer & Retail Group of The Carlyle Group  Robert A. Eckert, OperatingPartner of Friedman Fleischer & Lowe  Enrique Hernandez, Jr., Presidentand CEO of Inter-Con Security
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e  Jeanne P. Jackson, President, Product and Merchandisingfor Nike, Inc.  RichardH. Lenny, Operating Partner of Friedman Fleischer & Lowe  Walter E. Massey, Presidentof the School of the Art Institute of Chicago  Cary D. McMillan, CEOof True Partners ConsultingLLC  Sheila A. Penrose, Non-executive Chairman of Jones Lang LaSalle  John W. Rogers, Jr, Chairman andCEO of Ariel Investments  Roger W. Stone, Chairman andCEO of KapStone Paper and Packaging  Donald Thompson, Presidentand CEO  Miles D. White, Chairman andCEOof Abbott Laboratories On March 1, 2015, after being chief brand officer of McDonald's and its former head in the UK and northern Europe, Steve Easterbrook became CEO, succeedingDon Thompson, who stepped down on January28, 2015. Vision of the Foundation McDonald's Brand vision is "To be the best quick service restaurant experience". Beingthe best means providingoutstandingquality, service, cleanliness, and value, so that we make every customer in every restaurantsmile. Mission of the Foundation “McDonald's brand mission is to be our customers' favorite place and way to eat and drink. Our worldwide operations are alignedarounda
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e global strategy calledthe Plan to Win, which center on an exceptional customer experience – People, Products, Place, Price and Promotion. We are committed to continuously improvingour operations and enhancing our customers' experience.” Review of theoretical and practical situation with respect to topic Why is McDonalds Successful in many countries around the world? We can point out followingpoints for McDonald’s Marketing Strategy around the world. ◦ Quality, Service, Cleanliness & Value (QSC&V). ◦ Innovative way of presentingitself among people. ◦ Welcomingall category’s people. ◦ Regional taste and menu. ◦ Various kinds of ventures in market. ◦ Increasingdemandof fast food over the world. ◦ Increase foreign capital inflows Example of Global Marking Strategy Whereas in Asia, the trend is different. The people in Asia want food as per their taste, which McDonalds served them. They preparedtheir menus, which includedregional taste of people. For
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e Example, In India McDonald does not serve beef as Hindu culture does not accept it. Whereas it serves chicken in India. SWOT Analysis Strength  Home DeliveryServices  Children Targeting  Heavy Advertising  Largest Customer Community Weaknesses  Local Competition Varies across countries  Negative Publicity  New Innovations
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e Threats  Lawsuits against McDonald’s  Trend towards Healthy Eating  Local fast food RestaurantChains Opportunities  IncreasingDemandfor fast food  Availabilityof Mass Media for Advertising is important.  Enhance the Global Transfer of Communications Conclusion GMSs have become increasinglyimportantwith the internationalization of business and globalization of markets. Even though they are characterizedby centralizedcoordinationand streamliningto achieve scale and scope economies, localization, and adaptation are becoming increasinglyimportantas emerging markets rapidly manifestculturallyandethnicallydifferentiated consumer demand. Global success depends cruciallyon striking the right balance between uniformityand local adaptation. This balance, as we have seen, involves both top-down leadershipand sensitivity to local markets – a true managerial challenge. Recommendations
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e  A comprehensive communicationpolicyand strategy shouldbe designed.  Company must exchange ideas regardingcommunication with consumers.  Internal communication policyand strategy must be modified accordingto the changes in business. References:  www.mcdonals.com.pk  www.facebook.com/McDonaldsPK  www.twitter.com/McDonalds  Personal observations  Wikipedia  Relevant text book of AIOU  Discussion by McDonald’s Branch Manager  Teacher discussion

×