The Pledge of Allegiance was written by Francis Julius Bellamy, born in Mount Morris, New York on May 18, 1855 and died in Tampa, Florida in August on the 28th in 1931. He was an author , editor, an American Baptist minister, and a Christian Socialist. Bellamy attended Rome Free Academy in Rome, New York , the University of Rochester (1872- 1876, and the Rochester Theological Seminary (1876-1880).
Christian Socialist: Any theory or system that aims tocombine the teachings of Christ with the teachings ofsocialism in their applications to life; Christianizedsocialism; esp., the principles of this nature advocated byF. D. Maurice, Charles Kingsley, and others in Englandabout 1850.Christian socialism is a socialist ideology that regardscapitalism as a faith or ideology to be rooted in themortal sin of avarice and claim it is a form of mammonworship. Christian socialists identify the cause ofinequality to be associated with greed that they associatewith capitalism.Christian socialism became a major movement in theUnited Kingdom beginning in the 1960s through theChristian Socialist Movement.
The original “Pledge ofAllegiance” was publishedin the September 8 issueof a children’s magazinecalled, The Youth’sCompanion as part theNational Public-SchoolCelebration of ColumbusDay .
The original pledge read:“I pledge allegiance to my Flag and theRepublic for which it stands, one nationindivisible, with liberty and justice for all”
Bellamy designed the pledge to be recited in 15Seconds. Because of his position as a Socialist, heConsidered using the words equality andFraternity, but decided against it because thestate superintendents of educations on hiscommittee were against equality of women andAfrican Americans.
Francis Bellamy and James B. Upham, a marketerfor the “Youth’s Companion”, convinced theNational Education Association to support the“Youth’s Companion” as a sponsor of the ColumbusDay celebration along with the use of the AmericanFlag. By June 29, 1892, Bellamy and Upham hadarranged for Congress and President BenjaminHarrison to announce a proclamation making thepublic school flag ceremony the center ofColumbus Day celebration.
The Pledge was first used in the classroom onOctober 12, 1892 during Columbus Day observanceThat followed the opening of the World’sColumbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois.
In 1940, the Supreme Court in the MinersvilleSchool District ruled that students in public school,including Jehovah’s Witnesses could be compelledto swear to the Pledge. In 1943, the Supreme Courtreversed its decision because the ruling violated thethe First Amendment.
One objections states that a democratic republicbuilt on freedom should not require its citizens topledge allegiance to it. Also, the fact that thepeople who are most likely to recite the Pledgeevery day, small children in schools, cannot reallygive their consent and nor do they understand whatthe Pledge means.
Louis A. Bowman, an author from Rock Island,Illinois, was the first to initiate the addition of“under God” to the pledge and the National Societyof the Daughters of the American Revolution gavehim an Award of Merit for the idea. Bowman statedthat the words came from Lincoln’s GettysburgAddress and at a meeting on February 12, 1948,Bowman led the Society in swearing the Pledgewith the two words added.Daughters of the AmericanRevolution
Critics say that a government requiring andpromoting the phrase “under God” violatesprotection against the establishment of religionguaranteed in the Establishment Clause of the FirstAmendment.
In 1923, the National Flag Conference called forthe words “my Flag” to be changed to “the Flag ofThe United States”, so that new immigrants wouldnot confuse loyalties between their countries andThe United States. A year later the words “ofAmerica” were added.
The United States Congress officially recognizedthe Pledge for the first time in on June 22, 1942 aswritten as,“I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United Statesof America, and to the republic for which it stands,one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice forall”
The phrase “under God” was incorporated into thePledge of Allegiance June 14, 1954, by a JointResolution of Congress. The decision to do so waspushed by George MacPherson Docherty, thePastor of New York Avenue Presbyterian Church.Pastor Docherty delivered a sermon based on theGettysburg Address in which he cited Lincoln’swords “under God” as defining words that set theUnited States apart from all other nations.
The Bellamy Salute was adopted in 1892, andremoved in December 22, 1942. The Bellamy salutestarted with an outstretched hand toward the flagwith palm down, and ended with the palm up.Because the Bellamy Salute resembled the Nazi Salute, President Franklin D. Roosevelt instituted the hand over the heart gesture.