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Faculty of Economics Trisakti University - Problem Based Learning (7 Jump Step)


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Presented by Faculty Economics Trisakti University Senior Lecture : Wahyuningsih PhD.

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Faculty of Economics Trisakti University - Problem Based Learning (7 Jump Step)

  1. 1. Problem Based Learning TRAINING FE - Trisakti University – August 2006 Welcome to
  2. 2. Everything about Problem Based Learning Faculty of EconomicsFaculty of Economics Trisakti UniversityTrisakti University
  3. 3. Astra Rules Dimensions of Competency: • Conceptual Thinking • Planning and Organizing • Interpersonal Understanding • Leadership • Achievement Orientation • Integrity • Technical Expertise
  4. 4. Insanity is: “Continuing to do the Same Things and Expecting Different Results” Nadler & Hibino
  5. 5. PARADIGM SHIFT IN TEACHING Traditional Paradigm (Passive Learning Approach) New Paradigm (Active Learning Approach) Knowledge Transferred from faculty to students Jointly constructed by students and faculty Students Passive containers to be filled with faculty’s knowledge Active constructers, discoverers, transformers of own knowledge Faculty role Classify and sort students Develop students’ competencies and talents Relationship Impersonal relationships among students and between faculty and students Personal interactions among students and between faculty and students Types of activities Competitive and individualistic learning activities Mixture of individual and co- operative learning activities Assumption Any expert can teach Teaching is complex and requires considerable training
  6. 6. PBL Background: Origins • PBL began in the early 1970s at the medical school at McMaster University in Canada • In recent years the approach has been incorporated into the sciences and the humanities at universities throughout the world (Linda Dion, 1996)
  7. 7. Lectures vs Problem Based Learning
  8. 8. Lectures … the emphasis is on giving information rather than learning
  9. 9. … the real teaching challenge is: to ensure that most students are not lost in the process !
  10. 10. Problem Based Learning • PBL is an approach to structuring the curriculum which involves confronting students with problems from practice which provides a stimulus for learning (Boud & Felleti, 1991) • PBL is an approach of the educational learning process in which students tackle problems in a small groups (Schmidt, 1990)
  11. 11. Problem Based Learning • PBL is an instructional method that challenges students to “learn to learn”, working cooperatively in groups to seek solutions to real world problems. These problems are used to engage students’ curiosity and initiate learning the subject matter. PBL prepare students to think critically and analytically, and to find and use appropriate learning resources (Duch, 1995) • PBL is an instructional strategy that promotes active learning. PBL can be used as a framework for modules, courses, programs, or curricula (Samford, 1998)
  12. 12. Problem Based Learning Guess what? The students are in control of their own learning.
  13. 13. Problems/Tasks … are used as a tool to achieve both the required knowledge base and the skills to solve them (Barrows, 1986)
  14. 14. WHY USE PBL? • Encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning • Emphasizes critical thinking skills and learning how to learn (self-directed learning) • Develops in students the ability to define problems, research and evaluate information, and develop solutions to problems  improve decision making skill • Helps students achieve high levels of comprehension and retention • Develop in students strong reasoning, communication and team building, social, and management skills • Increases the transference of skills and knowledge from the classroom to work • Increases student motivation • Assesses learning in ways that demonstrate understanding and not mere acquisition Linda Dion, 1996
  15. 15. • Adaptation and participation in change • Application of problem solving in new and future situations • Creative and critical thought • Adoption of holistic approach to problems and situations • Appreciation of diverse viewpoints • Successful team collaboration • Identification of learning weaknesses and strengths • Promotion of self-directed learning • Effective communication skills • Augmentation of knowledge base • Leadership skills • Utilization of relevant and varied resources According to Barrows and Tamblyn (1980) and Engel (1997), PBL can enhance students’ achievement of:
  16. 16. (National Training Laboratories in Bethel, Maine /, 2000)
  17. 17. (Edgar Dale /, 2000)
  18. 18. PBL Process Problem Small-group discussion Learning goals Self-studyChecking the result
  19. 19. Monash University uses a three stage approach. This approach can also be utilized to explain the PBL problem process to students: 1. Understanding the Problems What do I know about this? What is the problem? How can we model this? What solutions are possible? What are the evaluative criteria? 2. Learning What do we need to know? Who will collect the information? Where will I find the information? Is the information useful/reliable? How can I teach my group? What can they teach me? 3. Solving How to apply my new knowledge? What documentation is needed? What similar problems can I solve?
  20. 20. Seven-jump Steps 1. Clarify the meaning of any terms or concepts in the text, determine what the main points are, determine method to use 2. Defining the problem 3. Analyzing the problem 4. Restructuring and inventorying 5. Formulate learning objectives 6. Gather information from outside the group 7. Synthesize and test the new information
  21. 21. Various methods of incorporating PBL into course (Deckard, 2002): • Problem, Problem, Problem • Specific Problem, Specific Problem, Comprehensive Problem • Level A Problem, Level B Problem, Level C Problem • Problem, Lecture, Problem, Lecture • Case Study, Problem
  22. 22. PBL Format: • Partial-format: interactive lectures + PBL sessions • Full-format: PBL sessions
  23. 23. PBL in KU FE Usakti: • Partial-format • Based on Maastricht University’s Model
  25. 25. Tutor You are a facilitator. By undestanding this, you are on your way to become a good tutor.
  26. 26. You & Tutoring As a tutor, your most responsibilities will be to facilitate the group processes, communicate clearly, enable individual learning objectives, and provide constructive feedback.
  27. 27. You & Tutoring It is within the tutorial process, that we, as tutors, must show our trust in students: in their abilities and efforts!
  28. 28. 3 aspects will influence your tutoring performance: • Guidance you provide to students • The amount of content knowledge input you have • The commitment you give to the group learning processes.
  29. 29. The Role of Tutor • 1st domain: have to play an active and stimulating role in the small group tutorial with respect to promoting the learning processes of students • 2nd domain: have to play an active and stimulating role in the small group tutorial with respect to the cooperation processes between students • 3rd domain: must act as an intermediary between school and students
  30. 30. Students Responsibilities in PBL • Respect • Communication • Responsibilities • Self-evaluation
  31. 31. The Role of Chairman • Guard learning process steps • Stimulate participation of other group members • Acts as timekeeper • Monitor relevance of the discussion • Makes appointments for the group • Take care of all formalities • etc.
  32. 32. The Role of the Secretary • Cooperates with chairman • Making minutes, reading and distributes minutes of the previous meeting • Participates in discussion • Structures brainstorming of the group • As chairman for the next PBL session
  33. 33. The Role of Group Member • Making notes for individual learning • Study minutes and reacts if necessary • Always be prepared for discussion, report, ask questions, and explanations • Helps with the stimulation of discussion • Gives opinion about the activities of other member • Observe rules of courtesy when interacting with tutor, chair, secretary and other member
  34. 34. Evaluation is the reflection process where by the group can look backwards at what they have done and how they have proceeded
  35. 35. • can give direction to learning as well as cooperation processes of the tutorial group, • provides possibilities to assess whether the goals of the group are being achieved, what to do to achieve them, or if there are other goals that seem to be more realistic, • the legal opportunities to speak up what is on everybody’s mind and heart, • gives the participants a sense of accmplishment, and as well an indication where improvements can be made.
  36. 36. • The educational outcome of the discussion • The discussion of the process itself • The working procedure • The role of the chairman • The communication pattern between the group • The role of the tutor • The interaction style of individual participants
  37. 37. Possibilities: • after each task • after two/three tasks • after the whole module
  38. 38. • Orally: by means of discussion, • In writing: by means of a post- meeting questionnaire • Visually: by means of video- recording of a previous session