Term Paper On Enterprise 2 0 The Next Leap For Indian It Services Industry
VINOD GUPTA SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT IIT KHARAGPUR Term paper on Enterprise 2.0: The next giant leap for Indian IT servicesSubmitted to: Submitted by:Dr Prithwis Mukherjee Harsh Vyas (10BM60030)Abstract:Web 2.0 gave us a totally new vision of internet. One that is not static and one way, but a networkwhich is ever evolving, dynamic, creative, more free, collaborative and interactive. If the terms likeFacebook, YouTube, Digg, LinkedIn etc. resemble the icons that made it possible for the internet of2000 to take the gigantic leap and become what it is today, the concept of Enterprise 2.0 is going totake the organizational structures and organizational hierarchy to another such gigantic leap. Theenterprise of future will be more flexible, more collaborative, more non-hierarchical, more efficient andmore productive. Like the internet of 2000, the existing stable of enterprise software will be going for atransformation very soon. And the software companies will be at the fore-front of that change. Thispaper, takes the liberty in collaborating on ideas that are available in public domain to project a pictureof what Enterprise 2.0 is going to be like. Along with that it takes a special case analysis of how IndianIT software service companies are going to benefit from this emerging new paradigm.Introduction: 1Not so much long ago, 2006 to be precise, Harvard Business School Professor, Andrew McAfee ,coined a new term ―Enterprise 2.0‖, which he predicted will revolutionize the way enterprise dobusiness, or in general, how they behave. If I take the liberty of using the exact words and I quote―There is a new wave of business communication tools, including blogs, wikis, and group messaging1 http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/product/SMR200-PDF-ENG
software (which the author collectively calls "Enterprise 2.0") that allow for more spontaneous,knowledge-based collaboration. These new tools, the author contends, may well supplant othercommunication and knowledge management systems with their superior ability to capture tacitknowledge, best practices, and relevant experiences from throughout a company and make themreadily available to more users.‖ This paradigm shift in how business interacts from within and tooutside, forms a major part of this paper. At the same time this paper will explore the impact of thisemerging world of Enterprise 2.0 specifically in the Indian IT services industry‘s context. The paradigm offered by this new term Enterprise 2.0 highlights the salient characteristics ofa new technological wave defined by social media and user generated content itself abbreviated asweb 2.0. The Wikipedia (itself a web 2.0 stalwart) says that "Enterprise 2.0 is the use of ‗Web 2.0‘technologies within an organization to enable or streamline business processes while enhancingcollaboration - connecting people through the use of social-media tools. Enterprise 2.0 aims to helpemployees, customers and suppliers collaborate, share, and organize information the use ofemergent social software platforms within companies, or between companies and their partners orcustomers". Post Enterprise 2.0 the resulting organizational communication patterns can lead to highly productiveand highly collaborative environments by making both the practices of knowledge work and its outputsmore visible. Even when implanted and implemented well, these new technologies will certainly bringwith them a totally new set of challenges. Eventually, as is the very definition of Web 2.0, these newtools may well reduce managements ability to exert unilateral control over the enterprise. It is for thetime to tell whether a companys leaders really want this to happen and will be able to resist thetemptation to silence the impending collaboration and organized chaos is an open question. Leaderswill have to play a delicate role if they want Enterprise 2.0 technologies to succeed.
Graphic Source: Dion Hinchliffe, ZDNet http://blogs.zdnet.com/Hinchcliffe/?p=143Why Enterprise 2.0 is gaining pace now:Traditionally a lot of the bigger American and European companies had tremendous success whenthey outsourced back office operations to India. This outsourcing based model helped those largeoutsourced accounts keep their customer pricing competitive compared to their small and mediumbusiness SMB) competitors because of low IT costs. Now not only a lot of the SMB‘s but almost everycompany worth its salt, big or small, from all over the world is turning to outsourcing. This new wave ofsmaller companies outsourcing operations have made lower IT costs the de facto standard and notnecessarily a strategic advantage. Furthermore the advent of SaaS or Software as a Service modeland cloud computing based service delivery models where the need to own an IT infrastructure isminimal and lower fee plus periodical payment, based on quality of service received, is going to bethe norm, only price as a differentiating factor is not going to turn things around for Indian IT servicescompanies.With lower costs already in place, many customers are looking for other differentiators to outdo theircompetitors. This new phenomenon has created more pressure to Indian outsourcing vendors todeliver services or products better, faster, cheaper while putting a lot of emphasis on innovation indelivery. In this new demanding environment, Indian tech companies are looking for creative ways todeliver services to their customers while adding value and keeping the costs down. One such waywould be to leverage different components of web 2.0. Blogs, wikis, and RSS have been brewing since the 1990s, and folksonomies and AJAX sincethe early years of this decade, and have only now come of age completely. Technologists andentrepreneurs did need a bit of time to absorb all of elements and combine them into useful tools. Theother major fundamental reasons that will be promoting a rapid acceptance of Enterprise 2.0 are asfollows: a.) Need for simple, free platforms for self-expression and collaboration in an organization: Rather than being bound to the confines of rules, human creativity and productivity blooms only when allowed to flourish in complete freedom. Enterprises often come out to be big silos/compartments of information with the sharing of that information for a more productive outcome a very difficult proposition. b.) Emergent Structures, Rather than Imposed Ones: Any Enterprise 2.0 based system will be inherently self-propagating. Thus giving organization a scope of continuously and quite automatically moving towards their goals. This is being understood by most business leaders today. c.) Web 2.0 based organizations are will win the war against over-information –tools that will help them filter, sort, prioritize, and generally stay on top of the flood of new information generated every second.
An Insight into Enterprise 2.0:There can be no doubt that one of the hottest spaces in enterprise software today is collaboration. It‘sno surprise collaboration is getting a lot of interest. The old metaphors for capturing, authoring andsharing information are stale and inefficient. As such, there is a lot of room for achieving productivityimprovements through improved user experience. This has been true for all software, but especiallyso in the enterprise software space where collaboration is essential to daily operation and whereevery ounce of productivity translates into big dollars.While most pundits think ―Web 2.0‖ has been about making the Web participatory, enabling socialconnectedness and conversations these are but side effects of the improved ease of use andincreased stickiness (fun of use) software has experienced. As mentioned, the innovation in the consumer space is now seeping into business andenterprise software. To date, this has largely translated into a repurposing of consumer applicationsfor the enterprise in an almost direct mapping. That is to say, not a lot of innovation is happeningthere. Enterprise social networking start-ups are trying their damndest to convince companies theyneed Facebook in the enterprise. Social bookmarking, video sharing, blogging, microblogging, mind-mapping, etc. are all attempting to re-imagine how people work. Alas, individually these applicationsdon‘t deliver for the enterprise in a meaningful way without the network effect of their consumercounterparts. Here enters the Enterprise 2.0 suites. Just think about this a moment. Any modern companyhas a multiplicity of disconnected data and application silos. Email, databases, files, file servers,Intranet, CRM, ERP and a growing cloud of useful web-services. It‘s clear the enterprise desperatelyneeds a new kind of tool to connect all these systems and services and enable easy collaborationacross all of them. Now consider some of the classic scenarios that happen almost everyday intoday‘s so called IT savvy industries: The business requires a report to compile various parameters ofsales, revenues, costs, consumer behaviour etc. This is a typical requirement of every business. Now,even though a business has the most sophisticated IT tools installed to dig into companies data andgenerate an actionable report, when, and if, you get access to requisite data from CRM, databases,web services, etc…massaging these pieces into actionable information is again painful and timeconsuming. When successful, what fruits do your labors yield? A static (dead) document or filethat is likely trapped in email, a network file server, Microsoft Office SharePoint Server or your localcomputer. In short, this is yet another disconnected silo/ compartmentalized block of information thatwe are so fearful about. Never to be seen again or reused. The next time you need similar actionable information you repeat the process anew and it isjust as time consuming and painful. This is fundamentally broken and it‘s killing the productivity ofevery company. Now let‘s look at how Enterprise 2.0 is solving this problem for the future enterprises. Theinterface of any Web 2.0 based application is so user friendly, that even a less technical person (notnecessarily programmers) can connect disconnected enterprise systems, databases, Web 2.0 apps,web-services with pre-built Enterprise 2.0 based adapters. This can be done securely and with ITgovernance, but it‘s even easy for business units to do this on their own. Then anyone (of anytechnical aptitude) can access information from these disconnected silos, mash it up, make itactionable, create dynamic documents that are updated (effectively) real-time from multiple datasource and web-services. In other words or should I say in lay man‘s terms just imagine a Microsoft-Word-like documentin your web browser that allows you real-time access to information in CRM, your legacy intranet,
Microsoft Access (and other databases), LinkedIn, Twitter, Google or other APIs and more. All in aneasy to edit Word Processor like experience that is easily shared with others, versioned andsearchable with a powerful enterprise search engine. This will be the power and simplicity of anEnterprise 2.0 based organization.Inherent flaws with the current generation of EnterpriseSoftware:(The below description of the flaws of Enterprise software is taken from a very anecdotal blog which 2the author usually follows. The same has been done to retain the underlying humour. ) The"enterprises" use a lot of software, but most of that software doesnt get sold to the "enterprise" itself;if it gets sold at all, it gets sold to one of the employees of the "enterprise" (usually a manager), whohas the authority to spend $400 or whatever to get the software they personally use to do their job.Thats not "enterprise" software, because its sold to an individual, not a so-called enterprise. "Enterprise software" is software that has to be sold to an "enterprise", where someone whodoesnt use the software (typically a manager) must be persuaded to use his purchasing authority tobuy the software. Its different in a variety of ways from other software, but none of these ways arestrictly technical. First, "enterprise software" costs more. If software doesnt cost a lot, individuals can generallybuy it themselves without managerial buy-in, although other factors may interfere; for example,everyone has to use the same bug-tracking system for it to work. Second, "enterprise software" doesnt necessarily work, although sufficient effort can usuallymake it work. An up-front $50,000 price-tag makes it seem more reasonable to spend $1000 or$10000 to customize it to your needs before you can use it. In extreme cases, keeping the softwareoperational requires a team of expensive, specialized full-time employees. The nontechnical background of many managers, in addition to the perverse incentives inmany managerial structures, often allow enterprise software to sell well even if it does not work at all,no matter how much effort is applied.2 http://lists.canonical.org/pipermail/kragen-tol/2005-April/000772.html
Third, "enterprise software" is surrounded by consultants who will sell you the service ofmaking it work, as explained above. In some cases, these ecosystems of consultants are competentand highly skilled. In other cases, many of them are spectacularly incompetent; This results directlyfrom the sales process for "enterprise software," in which expert persuaders gull technicallyincompetent managers into adopting the software. Managers who arent technically well-informedenough to select the software in the first place will also not be well-informed enough to distinguishbetween competent consultants and incompetent consultants.Possible drawbacks of adopting Enterprise 2.0:Enterprise 2.0 companies like Yammer (which calls itself Twitter for business) and Jive Software(which calls itself Facebook for the enterprise) are undoubtedly already knocking at your door. Theyoffer powerful collaboration tools: friending, messaging, networking, and the other sorts of thingsFacebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter do.It‘s a fair question. Your company has data to protect, and it has specific procedures in place forsharing and distributing that data. Your systems may even be silo-based – not due to inefficiency butout of security concerns. Implementing any new technology built around sharing, networking, andcollaborating is going to fundamentally change the way these things work. For instance, abusiness networking tool like LinkedIn is fine, but it doesnt need to be accessible from inside theenterprise. An inside-the-firewall version of LinkedIns people-finding capability, however, makes moresense. Imagine a search finder that would help an employee in one office find someone in anotheroffice that has exactly the right skill set to give advice on a project. This isexactly the sort of function that an enterprise wiki, or better yet a tool like Jive Software or Teligent,can offer from safely within the firewall. It makes collaboration easy, supports project groups, andallows IT to maintain a greater amount of control.Second, determine how much control you actually need. The more control, the more time and moneyit is going to take to install and implement an Enterprise 2.0 solution. It‘s a delicate balancing act – toolittle control, and you might as well accept the benefits and risks of an open-by-design service likeFacebook. Impose too much control, however, and youll send out the message that Big Brother iswatching.Third, if you are going to implement Enterprise 2.0 tools for collaboration, messaging and so on, lookat the training costs for a particular tool. Ideally there shouldn‘t be any. Finally, don‘t lose sight ofthe ultimate goal. You want an Enterprise 2.0 solution that will give users the benefits they need –collaboration, fast access to information, and flexibility – with the security and managementcapabilities your IT team needs. There are solutions that make it possible to strike this balance, andit‘s probably a good idea for your company to start looking into them. Nothing will wreak havoc onyour business faster than unhappy employees who go looking elsewhere for the tools you should beproviding them.How Indian IT services companies fare in the EnterpriseSoftware Market:Let us have an overview of the Indian IT companies in the Enterprise Software market:Indian IT services firms are mostly doing the following bouquet of jobs in the enterprise solutionsmarket:
1.) Advisory services for business process and requirements analysis and the recommendation, implementation and maintenance of an enterprise software solution. 2.) IT eco-system is often fraught with legacy system environments mixed together with enterprise software in a patched framework resulting into significantly degraded customer experience, the result of a non-integrated, siloed approach to various enterprise activities. Consulting and implementation of technology to streamline the above, is a major part of the services offered to enterprises. 3.) Focused Master Data Management consulting and solutions across an enterprise, supported by dedicated Centres of Excellence with a multidisciplinary resource pool. 4.) The key dimensions of people, process, and technology, helping enterprises succeed in their CRM initiative with the best technology.Drawing from the 3 year experience the author had with one of India‘s fastest growing Tier-1 softwareservice company having a sizable enterprise software business; one can realistically assume that thebroad category of work that any Indian software services company is doing in the enterprise softwarespace, can be classified under 3 heading: a.) New implementation/replacement of legacy systems by enterprise software b.) Enhancement/modifications for an ongoing system. c.) Support in the day to day functioning and monitoring of enterprise systemsThe service delivery map of Indian Software service companies readily makes it understandable thathow an ever-evolving collaborative platform as provided by Enterprise 2.0 will greatly supplement theservice delivery capabilities of Indian vendors; Here are some chief considerations: 1.) A large proportion of new projects to implement enterprise level solutions to a new client, follow a similar model already successfully implemented by the same vendor to some other client. Web 2.0 collaborative tools can be really be helpful in bringing two different teams separated by time or distance in sharing knowledge more efficiently. 2.) One tool developed by some team for a particular project can out of the way, help another totally different requirement. Enterprise 2.0 can really smoothen such a collaborative work. 3.) Support to production systems of clients generally have a very tight service level agreement (SLA requirements), so that the work, goes on, period. A fully fledged interactive platform based on social media/Enterprise 2.0 setup between the client and vendor can effectively fasten up the information sharing and percolation process and subsequent timely action, across geographies and time zones.How Web 2.0 can benefit Indian Tech Companies:1) Speed of Execution and Effectiveness: Most web 2.0 vendors provide easy to executetooling that helps create applications and do back office efforts faster and cheaper and in many casesbetter. Indian best of breed workforce coupled with best of breed web 2.0 tools and mashups ofapplications can keep Indian‘s outsourcing drive front of the curve.2) Developing Creative Services: A lot of Indian companies are trying to be creative serviceproviders. An example would be Tutor Vista, which uses web 2.0 like services in Skype, Google talketc. to provide tutoring over the web. In today‘s flat world, Indian Companies can use their tech savvyto its advantage by creating interesting new services that can be delivered via low cost web 2.0technologies over the web. Web 2.0‘s very low to free cost models for services offered will bring innew businesses out in the open – business that were not given access to delivering and sellingbecause of high infrastructure costs in the past.
3) Leveraging Community in Solution Building: A lot of the web 2.0 participants are techies who lovesolving other people‘s technical problems online especially if they are challenging. Using blogs, wikisand other web 2.0 sources, engineers working in India can leverage global tech talents in solvingcritical technical issues for the client.4) Create Consumer Driven Cult Following: If you look at the most popular TV shows in Americatoday, you will get a glimpse of how consumers are true bosses. Most popular shows like AmericanIdol, So You Think You Can Dance etc. are literally driven by consumer votes. This power harnessedby the people and not by some buttoned down judge helps create a cult following. For the firsttime ever, an un released movie called ―Snakes On a Plane‖ has received mass publicity throughblogs, podcasts etc. all of which were driven by fans (read consumers). Heck they even madedemands through web 2.0 forums on what some dialogues would be in the movie. The production unitwent back and shot scenes as demanded in blogs showing true power in the hands of consumers.Drawing parallel to it in the tech world, active open communication and mind sharing through blogs, ormanaging requirements real time without putting a structural workflow around it can provide you apathway to make a true connection with your customers and create a sense of stakeholderownership.5) Being Early Adopters: A lot of the Indian tech Companies have been in business for lessthan 10 years. They maintain a dynamic culture, which is willing to try out things. This highly contrastssome traditional IT shops in American where change is resisted in all possible ways. Industry trendssuggest that web 2.0 s the way of the future. Time will tell if this analysis will hold true. However, ifweb 2.0 reigns supreme in the years to come, Indian companies will leap to the forefront of thatmovement by being early adopters of web 2.0 technology and fine tuning it to fit their existingbusiness model. This may be an opportunity for Indian tech companies to be leaders in web 2.0movement by not only being power users but being lead developers of new tools and content.Putting It All Together Faster, cheaper and better is the web 2.0 mantra that gets people excited.However, just like any new trend, there is a lot of buzz around web 2.0, when the reality is that a lot ofthe players will get strike out very soon. Besides, the web 2.0 architecture needs some work.Developers still struggle from switching between API‘s. RSS have competing formats and so on.Beyond all the hype, the emerging web 2.0 standard, combined with cheap tools, AJAX programmingand open source platform may truly reshape the tech industry of the future. One suggestion for theIndian tech companies who would want to understand how web 2.0 can benefit their model is to put asmall pilot team in place to start studying what web 2.0 is all about.Picture courtesy : http://www.mindtouch.com
Potential Benefits of Enterprise 2.0:Enterprise will have more effective internal communication:According to IDC report social platforms emerged as one of leading technology trends for manycorporate, as they are looking easy ways to collaborate, interact and share data. Earlier organisationsfollowed structured path for communication where information flowed from top to bottom and veryrarely few suggestions from bottom to top. But with changing organisational strategies communicationhas become across the organisation and there is no more top to bottom/bottom to top models.Technological advancements have helped organisations achieve this. And Enterprise 2.0 is themanifestation of the same.Enterprise will have avenues for internal collaboration for faster turn around and higher productivity:With enterprise 2.0 technology companies can use their intranet to increase confidence level ofemployees as it offers a platform for interaction with each other within organisation. It enhancesproductivity and helps maximising employee participation and cross team collaboration. Top techfirms are realising that keeping the new generation glued, they need changes beyond pure salaries,which is already considered hygiene by new recruits. Let us take one such successful initiative.Launched around two years ago by Cognizant, the C2 already has around 60,000 active users andthe site records over six million page views every month. (The author was himself an active part ofsuch an initiative)From the time a new customer project is kicked off, to when it‘s actually delivered, Cognizant 2.0glues the entire workflow together, across varied skills, geographies and business units.For Cognizantas an organisation, the system helps it not only knit the project groups together, but also reduce theentire time taken to identify who can do a particular project better than the rest.The system works much like a Google search—Project managers put the skill set required, and thesystem throws up different project teams and individuals with prior experience in dealing with suchsituations. Some 7,000 projects are already registered in the system, and employees have sharedaround 200,000 posts about these projects.At TCS, the country‘s biggest software exporter, nearly one third of its over 1,50,000-strong workforceis actively participating in the company‘s social media platforms already. TCS uses wikis, orpersonalised, websites that bring together specialised communities, apart from other tools to help itsemployees collaborate better. While Justask enables employees to ask questions openly, Ideamaxencourages employees to share their ideas about a particular technology or a process.Employee Development:This system will give the senior workforce more chance to network with their younger employees.Leaders who connect to mentees in an enterprise 2.0 network can stay in touch with them moreeasily, understand their strengths and offer them more opportunities. They can mentor on an ambientlevel, openly broadcasting their ideas, knowledge and help for mentees or anyone to consider, bysharing their thoughts on micro-blog systems, and they can receive feedback the same way. There is no free lunch. Mentees may take to Facebook easily but still find socialnetworking at workplace awkward. In surveys and interviews of interns and new hires, it is frequentlyheard that they dont see the value of that kind of connection in the workplace. But the reasons why lieless with them than with organizational culture. When youre new to an organization, your relationshipnetworks are usually limited and have little built-in trust. Millennials who converse freely with theirfriends socially are often told at work to stay strictly work-focused. This can limit the depth of theirconversations and keep them from developing trust and extensive networks. Enterprise 2.0 will givethem that one chance to liberation.
Effective Enterprise external communication: In the era of social networks implementing Enterprise 2.0 will make the organizations much moretransparent and more press or media savvy. The time is going to come when the media as we know itwill be present only on the virtual or web 2.0 based interactive world. Until and unless organizationsfundamentally inculcate a 2.0 based culture, they will be left behind in the times to come.IT companies and the open source movement:More collaborative and social networking based Enterprises, will certainly be more open source intheir software requirements. Software which is conceived, written, tested and implemented all at acommunity level will form the backbone of a new generation of tools. Enterprise 2.0 will effectively bea win for the open source movement as well.Expertise location : Expertiselocation capability provides corporations the ability to solve business problems that are difficult toarticulate or communicate explicitly and involve highly skilled people. Dynamic people profiles andsearches are increasingly seen as integral components of a support environment that encouragesunplanned collaboration and informal interactions as effective ways to solve business problems.Expertise Location increases productivity and organizational success by identifying the status andlocation of human expertise in globally dispersed and increasingly virtual organizations. Publishing ofthe employee profiles and searches against those profiles are increasingly seen as integralcomponents of business process that encourages unplanned collaboration and informal interactionsas effective ways to solve business problems. Social networks tools help Manager find the rightperson / group for the appropriate positionCorporate bloggingLike personal blogs, corporate blogs use blogging technology - in this case for leadership messages,online journals and knowledge-management forums. Google Inc. and Facebook, Inc. pioneered thispractice within their own corporations. Instead of a flashy launch even or a press conference,corporations have started to use internal and external corporate blogs. Corporate blogs are becominga part of the standard set of corporate communication tools and the emerging portfolio of social-mediatools. Features like tags and rating help corporate employees find content and make judgementsabout policies or procedures.Corporate wikisCorporate wikis provide an easy-to-use environment for subject-matter experts to publish theirinterpretation on any subject. A corporate wiki can capture corporate acronyms. Large corporationscreate a roll-up wiki so that individual divisions have the flexibility to add items to their wiki and makea decision on which items should roll up to the corporate level. Wikis, like blogs, provide platforms forcollaborating and communication.Internal community platforms:Internal community platforms provide an environment for corporate employees to create a virtualforum to share their opinions, knowledge and subject-matter expertise on topics of interest. Usuallycommunity platforms centre around a particular topic of interest. Generally [quantify] the communityparticipates in an unstructured exchange of ideas which could mature given significant interest fromthe community.
Idea generation:Also known as ideation - can involve a structured business methodology for collecting and incubatinginnovative ideas that could mature with community participation. Large corporations use ideamanagement systems to solicit ideas from their customers and employees. Idea generation in somecases fuels the product pipeline. Enterprise 2.0 will make it much more streamlined.Government 2.0:When the concept of Enterprise 2.0 is super-imposed on the functioning of the government we maydream of getting a collaborative government in which people have their say in its day to dayfunctioning. This would then be the real decentralization of power and the real democratization of themasses.Summary:Enterprise 2.0 is the use of ‗Web 2.0‘ technologies within an organization to enable or streamlinebusiness processes while enhancing collaboration - connecting people through the use of social-media tools. Enterprise 2.0 aims to help employees, customers and suppliers collaborate, share, andorganize information the use of emergent social software platforms within companies, or between 3companies and their partners or customers . The potential usability of an Enterprise 2.0 enabledsystem can be simply stated as a knowledge repository which is not a static, dead-end silo, but aMicrosoft-Word-like document in your web browser that allows you real-time access to information inCRM, your legacy intranet, Microsoft Access (and other databases), LinkedIn, Twitter, Google orother APIs and more. Its a foregone conclusion that the current enterprise software are bulky,expensive, insensitive to customer needs and are really hard to maintain. But incorporating Enterprise2.0 will not only revolutionize their usage, but also make the organizations as a whole, much morefuturistic. Indian IT services companies can greatly benefit from Enterprise 2.0. The immense benefitsin general that will come forth once organizations (and not only software companies) start adapting tothis new concept. The more important of the potential benefits will be: more effective communicationinside and outside the enterprise to various stakeholders, development and mentoring of employees,Idea generation, Idea collaboration, more effective staffing ,and a farfetched yet realistic idea of moreeffective governance and democracy.3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_2.0