Richard J. Gerrig, Ph.D. Philip G. Zimbardo, Ph.D. Advanced General Psychology Instructor:  Vickie Wingard, S.S.P. NCSP [e...
Chapter 1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Psychology and Life Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Group. Developed and p...
Chapter 1 Main Points   What makes psychology unique? Psychology’s Goals The evolution of modern psychology Historical Fou...
What Makes Psychology Unique? Psychology defined - The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental pr...
What Makes Psychology Unique? Scientific Method defined - Set of  procedures  used for gathering and interpreting objectiv...
What Makes Psychology Unique? Behavior defined - The  observable  actions by which an organism adjusts to its environment ...
The Goals of Psychology Describing what happens Behavioral data Levels of analysis Objectivity Explaining what happens - S...
Let’s name ten behaviors psychologist might want to control. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon ...
Describing What Happens Behavioral Data defined Behavioral data are reports of observations about behavior and conditions ...
Explaining What Will Happen Descriptions describe what happened Explanations look to explain “how” behavior works Internal...
Predicting What Will Happen A Closer Look at Scientific Prediction - Based on an understanding of the ways events relate t...
Controlling What Happens Control means making behavior happen or not happen  Ways of helping improve the quality of life P...
Evolution of Modern Psychology Historical Foundations “ Psychology has a long history but a  short past” (H. Ebbinghaus, 1...
Evolution of Modern Psychology School of Structuralism - Contents of the mind and concept of “reductionism” All human ment...
Evolution of Modern Psychology School of Functionalism - Minds with a purpose and a property   -William James The  functio...
Fathers of Psychology Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Wilhelm Wundt   Set up an experimental   lab at Leipzig in 1875 W...
Evolution of Modern Psychology G. Stanley Hall  - Founded the APA in 1892 Women in Psychology: Margaret Washburn  First fe...
Current Psychological Perspectives Psychodynamic perspective  Behaviorist perspective Humanistic perspective Cognitive per...
Current Psychological Perspectives Psychodynamic perspective Key Figure: Sigmund  Freud Behavior is explained  in terms of...
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2eyP6iY5Do&feature=related
Current Psychological Perspectives Behavioral perspective - Key Figures: John Watson, B.F. Skinner  - Primarily concerned ...
www.bing.com/videos/watch/video/bf-skinner-foundation-pigeon-turn/deb92c2d7feffbc6364adeb92c2d7feffbc6364a-395958878215?q=...
Current Psychological Perspectives Humanistic perspective   - Key Figures: Carl Rogers,  Abraham Maslow Emphasizes an indi...
Humanistic Perspective Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Carl Rogers  (1902-1987) Individuals have a natural tendency tow...
Current Psychological Perspectives Cognitive perspective Human thought and the process of knowing and thinking Behavior oc...
Current Psychological Perspectives Biological perspective Focuses on the functioning of the genes, brain, nervous system, ...
Current Psychological Perspectives Evolutionary perspective Key Figures: Charles Darwin- Published  Origin of the Species ...
Current Psychological Perspectives Sociocultural perspective -  Cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences ...
Current Psychological Perspectives Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
What Psychologists Do Engage in psychological inquiry Formulate questions to be researched Conduct various forms of resear...
What Psychologists Do? Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Recapping Chapter 1 Main Points What makes psychology unique? Definitions  Goals of psychology The evolution of modern psy...
End of Chapter 1 Psychology and Life Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
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Power Point Ch 1 Psy492

  1. 1. Richard J. Gerrig, Ph.D. Philip G. Zimbardo, Ph.D. Advanced General Psychology Instructor: Vickie Wingard, S.S.P. NCSP [email_address] Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 An Overview of Psychology: Its Past and Present, Your Future A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Psychology and Life Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Group. Developed and prepared by M Lisa Valentino. This Allyn and Bacon multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over any network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  3. 3. Chapter 1 Main Points What makes psychology unique? Psychology’s Goals The evolution of modern psychology Historical Foundations Current Perspectives What psychologists do Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  4. 4. What Makes Psychology Unique? Psychology defined - The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  5. 5. What Makes Psychology Unique? Scientific Method defined - Set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information in a way that minimizes error and yields dependable generalizations Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  6. 6. What Makes Psychology Unique? Behavior defined - The observable actions by which an organism adjusts to its environment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  7. 7. The Goals of Psychology Describing what happens Behavioral data Levels of analysis Objectivity Explaining what happens - Synthesis of information Predicting what will happen - Scientific vs. causal prediction Controlling what will happen - Prevention and intervention Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  8. 8. Let’s name ten behaviors psychologist might want to control. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  9. 9. Describing What Happens Behavioral Data defined Behavioral data are reports of observations about behavior and conditions under which they occur Researchers choose an appropriate level of analysis Measures of behavioral data must be objective Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  10. 10. Explaining What Will Happen Descriptions describe what happened Explanations look to explain “how” behavior works Internal factors Genetic makeup, motivation, intelligence External factors Situational factors Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  11. 11. Predicting What Will Happen A Closer Look at Scientific Prediction - Based on an understanding of the ways events relate to one another - Suggests what mechanisms link those events to certain predictors A Closer look at Causal Prediction - Specifies conditions under which behaviors will change Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  12. 12. Controlling What Happens Control means making behavior happen or not happen Ways of helping improve the quality of life Prevention Intervention Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  13. 13. Evolution of Modern Psychology Historical Foundations “ Psychology has a long history but a short past” (H. Ebbinghaus, 1908) School of Structuralism School of Functionalism Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  14. 14. Evolution of Modern Psychology School of Structuralism - Contents of the mind and concept of “reductionism” All human mental experience can be understood as a combination of simple elements or events - Wilhelm Wundt - First psychological experimental laboratory - Edward Titchener - Brought Structuralism to America - Max Wertheimer - Concept of Gestalt psychology Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  15. 15. Evolution of Modern Psychology School of Functionalism - Minds with a purpose and a property -William James The function of mind and behavior in an organism’s interactions with the environment - John Dewey - American Functionalism and progressive education Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  16. 16. Fathers of Psychology Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Wilhelm Wundt Set up an experimental lab at Leipzig in 1875 William James Set up an experimental lab at Harvard in 1875
  17. 17. Evolution of Modern Psychology G. Stanley Hall - Founded the APA in 1892 Women in Psychology: Margaret Washburn First female to earn a doctorate degree (Ph.D.) in psychology in 1894 Psychology remains a popular major today More women today are obtaining advanced degrees in the field Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  18. 18. Current Psychological Perspectives Psychodynamic perspective Behaviorist perspective Humanistic perspective Cognitive perspective Biological perspective Evolutionary perspective Sociocultural perspective Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  19. 19. Current Psychological Perspectives Psychodynamic perspective Key Figure: Sigmund Freud Behavior is explained in terms of inherited instincts, biological drive, and attempts to resolve conflicts Focus is on the unconscious Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  20. 20. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2eyP6iY5Do&feature=related
  21. 21. Current Psychological Perspectives Behavioral perspective - Key Figures: John Watson, B.F. Skinner - Primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  22. 22. www.bing.com/videos/watch/video/bf-skinner-foundation-pigeon-turn/deb92c2d7feffbc6364adeb92c2d7feffbc6364a-395958878215?q=Videos+of+BF+Skinner&FORM=VIRE5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  23. 23. Current Psychological Perspectives Humanistic perspective - Key Figures: Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow Emphasizes an individual’s inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to maximum potential Self-actualization Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  24. 24. Humanistic Perspective Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Individuals have a natural tendency toward psychological growth and health Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Coined the term self-actualization to refer to each individual’s drive toward the fullest development of his or her potential
  25. 25. Current Psychological Perspectives Cognitive perspective Human thought and the process of knowing and thinking Behavior occurs because people think Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  26. 26. Current Psychological Perspectives Biological perspective Focuses on the functioning of the genes, brain, nervous system, and endocrine system Behavior is explained in terms of underlying physical structures and biochemical processes Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  27. 27. Current Psychological Perspectives Evolutionary perspective Key Figures: Charles Darwin- Published Origin of the Species in 1859 Importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness Natural selection Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  28. 28. Current Psychological Perspectives Sociocultural perspective - Cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  29. 29. Current Psychological Perspectives Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  30. 30. What Psychologists Do Engage in psychological inquiry Formulate questions to be researched Conduct various forms of research Apply psychological principles Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  31. 31. What Psychologists Do? Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  32. 32. Recapping Chapter 1 Main Points What makes psychology unique? Definitions Goals of psychology The evolution of modern psychology Psychology’s Historical Foundations Current Psychological Perspectives What psychologists do Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  33. 33. End of Chapter 1 Psychology and Life Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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