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A Brief History of India
Balaji Viswanathan, NalandaU.com
Full Course: https://www.udemy.com/a-brief-history-of-india
Lecture 0: A Brief introduction.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Water
Of the 26 river basins in
the world, 4 are in India
and China. Majority of the
remaining 22 is in frigid
regions or ...
River valleys just above the Tropic of Cancer
produced the 4 ancient civilizations.

1
2

Balaji Viswanathan

3

4

Naland...
Key Rivers that shaped
Indian civilization
2
1

4
3

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Plentiful distribution of water

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Cultivated Land
The reason for high population could be partly
explained by the vast availability of agricultural land.
Al...
India had a strong economy for
most part of human history.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Only two major routes to enter into India from West. This
fort-like geography shaped India’s history.

Balaji Viswanathan
...
India is named a Subcontinent. 6 different climatic zones
exist making it hard to rule the entire subcontinent.

Balaji Vi...
Lecture 1: Stone Age.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Human Evolution in Africa: ~200K years ago

Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/erh5000/human_evolution.html

Balaji Viswa...
Last Ice Age: 120K years - 12K years

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
65K years ago: Migration out of Africa

Source: http://www.upf.edu/cexs/actualitat/genographic.html

Balaji Viswanathan

N...
Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
30K years ago: Paintings of Cave Men

Bimbeketa, Madhya Pradesh
Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Lost City in the Gulf of Cambay

Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1768109.stm

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.c...
Founder Crops
Domestication of Wheat, Barley, Peas, Chickpeas,
lentils and flax about 11500 years ago.

Balaji Viswanathan
...
9000 years ago: Mehrgarh

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
5300 years ago: Discovery of Bronze

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Lecture 2: Indus Valley Civilization
(3300 BC - 1500 BC)
“...the structure of their cities were so far advanced that it wa...
In 1827 a wandering traveler at the East India
Company finds mysterious brick mounds near
Harappa.....

Balaji Viswanathan
...
Circa 3300 BC
Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1056 cities and human
settlements found so far.
More than 5 million
inhabitants..

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Jump into the mature civilization of Harappa.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Grid like patterns for cities

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Citadel at the center of the city

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Advanced town planning & Municipal corporations

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Modern drainage systems

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
No central authority. No warfare.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Life in Indus Valley

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Extensive Art Work.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Mysterious Scripts

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Global Trade of Indus Valley
Gold &Jade from Southern India. Copper from Afghanistan. Turquoise from Iran.
All paid with c...
Early Hinduism. Pashupathi Seals.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1700 BC: End of Civilization around Indus.
Global climactic changes
Weather
got cooler
and drier

Monsoon
Patterns
Changed...
Timeline of Indus Valley Civilization

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Contributions

Discovery of cotton

Invention of pottery

Balaji Viswanathan

Modern Metallurgy

NalandaU.com
Lecture 3: Vedic Era
Iron Age (1500 BC - 300 BC)

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
The Rise of Vedas
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfLYe6Y_EM8
Rig Veda
Sama Veda
Yajur Veda
Atharva Veda
Balaji Viswanatha...
Administration during Vedic Era
Rajan

Head of Jana
Councils
Sabha

Samiti

Balaji Viswanathan

Vidhata

Gana

NalandaU.co...
Mahajanapadas: Rise of
Republics
Magadha
Kuru
Kashi
Vriji

Panchala
Kosala
Kamboja
Gandhara

Balaji Viswanathan

Malla
Che...
Kingdoms start merging

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
6th Century: Turning Point

Siddhartha Gautama:
563 BC to 480 BC
Buddhism
Balaji Viswanathan

Vardhamana Mahavira:
599 BC ...
Recording of Indian History
Begins.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha:
Second known dynasty of India

Bimbisara

Starts expanding Magadha.
Early supporter of Buddha...
Ajathasatru empire.
Rivals the size of Persian
empire under Cyrus.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Nanda Empire
Ajathasatru was succeeded by Shishunga dynasty
and then the Nanda dynasty.
Nandas were extremely unpopular an...
Kingdoms of Ancient Magadha

Brihadratha

Haryanka

Shishunga

Nanda

Unknown

6th century

5th century

4th century

Bala...
Lecture 4: Invasions & Cultural
Interchange

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Extent of Cyrus the Great of Persia.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
400 BC. Takshashila: India’s first University at the
crossroads of Persia and India.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Taxila: Students entered at 16 and learned a variety of arts
- from archery to physics and religion from masters.

Charaka...
326 BC: Alexander Attacks India
Ambi - the ruler of Taxila submits to Alexander.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Battle of Hydaspes.
King Porus (Purushotam) of Purushapura (Peshawar) resists
Alexander although losing the battle.

Excel...
Alexander’s army refuses to go further east,
fearing the mighty Nanda Empire.
“For they were told that the kings of the Ga...
Chandragupta Maurya:
First Major Emperor begins Consolidation

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
With Chanakya’s strategy
Chandragupta pushes Greeks out of South Asia

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Rise of Ashoka.
Political Integration of India. (269-232 BC)

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Battle of Kalinga (261 BC)
turns Ashoka to a pacifist.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Heartbroken by a brutal war with Kalinga, Ashoka
turns Pacifist. Spreads Buddhism all over old world.

Balaji Viswanathan

...
A golden age for India.
40% of world population and close to 50% of world GDP
was from Ashoka. Continues the great work of...
Ashoka’s Legacy

Stupas & other
buildings
Balaji Viswanathan

Moral Symbols

First major
written language
NalandaU.com
Mauryan Emperors Try Different Religious Sects

Chandragupta
Jainism

Bindusara
Ajvika

Ashoka
Buddhism

Ashoka’s Mauryan ...
185 BC: Within 50 years of Ashoka’s death, Pushyamitra
Sunga does the first military coup in India assassinating
Mauryan em...
Lecture 5: Classical Age.
(200 BC - 1100 AD)
Greatest works of Indian art would be created.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU....
India faces Globalization
End of Mauryas causes confusion all over
India. Without a strong emperor, India is
attacked by C...
Migration of the Yuezhi to India.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Invasion of northern India by Kanishka(from central
Asia) causes an explosion of art interactions among
Greece, Persia, Ba...
Satvahanas: Consolidation of
Middle India. 230 BC to 220 AD.
Created the present world heritage sites of
Ajantha, Ellora a...
Trade flourishes among Egypt,
Rome, Arabia and India

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
India at the time of Christ

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Chandrgupta - I
Yet another Chandragupta
emerges to fight alien powers
in India. Marries a Lichchhavi
princess & gets Magad...
Gupta Dynasty

Age of Innovations (320 - 520 AD)

Chess

Place value
system

Balaji Viswanathan

University

Sex
Education...
Numeric system originates in Gupta Era.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Top scientists of Gupta era

Varahamihira
Trignometry, Optics,
Arithmetic and
calculation of equinox.

Aryabhatta

Shushru...
4th century Nalanda University: Heights of Indian
Education System.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
The two Chinese Scholars who helped
document India’s classical era.

Xuanzhang
6th century
Balaji Viswanathan

Faxian
4th ...
After two centuries of attacks, Hunas
finally end Gupta Empire in 530 AD

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Emperor Harsha Vardhana drives
away the Hunas and tries to
reunite India after 100 years of
disintegration. After 40 years...
Battle of Rajasthan: 738 AD.
An alliance of Hindu rulers led by Vikramaditya - II
defeat Arabs and ends Islamic expansion ...
First Democratic election
in India: 750 AD
Gopala gets elected and builds
the Pala empire starting from
Bengal. For 400 ye...
Meanwhile in South India...
South India, especially Tamil region had a parallel
history. It had 4 main dynasties - Chola, ...
Pallava Dynasty (2nd - 9th
century AD): Period of
extraordinary architecture.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Raja Raja Chola and his son Rajendra build a massive
empire. Unlike most other Indian empires, they were
strong seafarers....
1192 AD: Second Battle of Tarain.
An inspired Prithiviraj could not contain a relentless Ghori.
Islam enters India after t...
In 1193 Nalanda University was
destroyed by an invading Afghan ruler.
Hindu empires simultaneously collapse all over
India...
Lecture 6: Hindu-Islamic Era.
(1200 - 1800 AD)

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
India after the Second battle of Tarain.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Delhi Sultanates (1200 - 1526 AD)
5 dynasties: Mamluk, Khilji, Tuqlaq, Sayyid, Lodhi

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1221: Genghiz Khan
retreats back from the
Indus river.
Alaudin Khilji of Delhi
was strong and Khan
didn’t want to take a
c...
1000s of historic Hindu & Buddhist sites are
ravaged during the period.

Sun temple of Anantnag, Kashmir

Balaji Viswanath...
1398: Timur of Samarkhand plunders Delhi
and leaves 100,000 dead in 1 day.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1336: Rise of Vijayanagara Empire

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Samrat Hemu Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) fights
back the Afghans and takes back Delhi

Wins 22 battles against Afghans. Lose...
1526-1757: Mughal Dynasty.
Akbar’s lucky
victory against
Hemu starts a
200 year Mughal
dynasty that ruled
a big chunk of
n...
Aurangzeb: Last of the Mughal Emperors
goes harsh on native Hindu population.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
By 1707 most of India is consolidated by
the Mughal rulers.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Marathas of Central India: Bhosle Era (1674 - 1759)
Shivaji introduces guerilla warfare against the Mughals. Hindu rulers
...
By 1761, Marathas take control of most
of north India.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1761: 3rd battle of Panipat. Marathas lose against
the combined strength of Afghans and Persians.
In 1818 a weakened Marat...
Lecture 7: Entry of Colonial Powers in
India (17th - 19th centuries)

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, European
sailors start looking for alternative routes to Asia.

Vasco da Gama re...
Europe starts building strong trade
routes to India. Goa is colonized.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Portugal, Netherlands, France, Denmark
and England all setup trading posts.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
East India Company is one the first modern
Corporation. It entered India as a trading
company in 1612 after Jahangir allowe...
The Company gets a lot of natural harbors that are
unutilized by the native rulers who ignore navy.
In 1668 England got Bo...
Carnatic Wars: European rivalries enter
India. France nationalizes French India
Company.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Robert Clive - an
officer at the East
India Company has
grand plans.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
In 1756, the new Nawab of Bengal
captures Calcutta from the Company.

The Black Hole of
Calcutta - where the
Nawab held En...
1757: Battle of Plassey
Clive buys out Bengali aristocrats: Jagat Seth & Mir Jafar

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
By 1800, the only impediment to the Company
was a loose confederation of Marathas.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Tippu Sultan of Mysore uses Rocket Warfare for the
first time in human history. The defeat of his ally
Napoleon in Waterloo...
Most Indian kingdoms slowly fall, unable to
tackle the industrial prowess of the Company

Ahom kingdom
1226-1820
Balaji Vi...
1772: Capital shifted to
Calcutta by Warren Hastings

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Consequences of Company Rule
Millions perish in
dozens of famines.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Some positives: Social
Reforms takes off too.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy (father of
modern India) and others lead
social reforms i...
Strongest company ever

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
By 1857 most of India
is under the company
or company’s
dependents.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
In 1857, Indians would strike back...
ending the company forever...

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Lecture 8: First War of Indian
Independence (1857).

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
10 May 1857. Sepoys Mutiny in Meerut
Suspect there might be beef or pork coating in the cartridge.
Compounded resentment f...
11th May. Mutiny spreads to Delhi.
Indian troops capture Delhi.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Rani Laxmibai: Denied throne on basis of the
“Doctrine of Lapse”. Widespread hatred in royalty.
Awadh, Jhansi, Kanpur
and ...
A large number of Indian states join the
sepoy mutiny.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
India’s native rivalries and
suspicious soon dominate
•

Sikhs were angry at the eastern Indians for
not helping them out ...
Mutineers executed

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Bahadur Shah: Last of Indian
Mughals is exiled to Burma

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
British Queen takes over India from
the Company after 100 years of rule

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Lecture 9: India’s fight for
Independence (1857 - 1947).

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Transportation systems that
helped the British rule better.

1869: Suez Canal
Balaji Viswanathan

1853: Indian Railways
Na...
1857-1914
Indians are pragmatic in this period.
Dadhabhai Naoroji becomes first Indian to
be an MP in Britain. Indians ente...
In 1885 Indians come together to form
the Indian National Congress.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Turn of 20th century: Congress splits
between moderates and radicals
Radicals (wanted full
freedom)

Lala Lajpath Rai

Bal...
1914: Return of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
perfected
“Satyagraha” or
truth movement in
South Africa. He is
now ready fo...
Gandhi converts Congress party into a
mass movement

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1919: Jallianwallabagh Massacre.
1000s of unarmed civilians shot at.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Non-cooperation movement: Mahatma
Gandhi turns the movement to focus
more on economic and social factors.

Balaji Viswanat...
1930: Gandhi takes Indians on Civil Disobedience.
Breaks laws on making salt in Dandi, Gujarat.

Balaji Viswanathan

Nalan...
Gandhi secure widespread support
allover the world - even in Britain.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Netaji: Indian National Army

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Indian Extremists Strike.

Bhagat Singh

Balaji Viswanathan

Chandrashekar
Azad

Ramprasad
Bismil

NalandaU.com
16th Aug 1946: Muslim League under
Jinnah leaves a trail of violence to press
for a separate nation for Muslims.

Balaji V...
Lord Mountbatten: Last
Viceroy of India sets
India’s freedom date for
15th August 1947 and
decides to partition the
countr...
Lecture 10: India after
Independence.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wUcw8Ufx_Y
Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Jan 30, 1948. Assassination of the
Mahatma

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Political Integration of India.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
India’s iron man- Sardar Patel and first
prime minister Nehru fight to keep
India as a single union.

Taking over Hyderabad,...
Kashmir Puzzle
The territory of Kashmir was bought by Hindu Maharajahs in 1860. The
Maharajah joined India, while the popu...
1956. Indians states reorganized on
linguistic lines.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1962: India and China battle on high
mountains for a month.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999: Indo
Pakistan wars.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1971: India splits Pakistan to create a
separate nation of Bangladesh.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1977: India Gandhi declares Emergency. Takes
absolute powers & suspends democracy.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1991: India comes out of socialism with promarket reforms to avoid total bankruptcy.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Summary: Key Learning
Takeaways

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Only two major routes to enter into India from West. This
fort-like geography shaped India’s history.

Balaji Viswanathan
...
Humans moved into India about 60K years ago.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Heights of Indus Valley Civilization: 3300 -1700 BC

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Formation of Republics in Gangetic Valley

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Taxila: Students entered at 16 and learned a variety of arts
- from archery to physics and religion from masters.

Charaka...
Rise of Ashoka.
Political Integration of India. (269-232 BC)

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Gupta Dynasty

Age of Innovations (320 - 520 AD)

Chess

Place value
system

Balaji Viswanathan

University

Sex
Education...
1526-1757: Mughal Dynasty.
Akbar’s lucky
victory against
Hemu starts a
200 year Mughal
dynasty that ruled
a big chunk of
n...
1757: Battle of Plassey
Clive buys out Bengali aristocrats: Jagat Seth & Mir Jafar

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
First War of Indian Independence (1857).

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
1930: Gandhi takes Indians on Civil Disobedience.
Breaks laws on making salt in Dandi, Gujarat.

Balaji Viswanathan

Nalan...
Political Integration of India.

Balaji Viswanathan

NalandaU.com
Key battles that changed the face of India.
327 BC: Battle of Hydaspes. Porus vs. Alexander.
Ends Greek Expansion in Asia....
India needs to rediscover Nalanda.
It is the period where India’s science grew to
great heights. It is time to bring back ...
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A Brief History of India.

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These are the slides for the Udemy course: A Brief History of India. https://www.udemy.com/a-brief-history-of-india

I will walk you through 5000 years of Indian history and explain how the various events in India are connected.

Published in: Technology

A Brief History of India.

  1. 1. A Brief History of India Balaji Viswanathan, NalandaU.com Full Course: https://www.udemy.com/a-brief-history-of-india
  2. 2. Lecture 0: A Brief introduction. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  3. 3. Water Of the 26 river basins in the world, 4 are in India and China. Majority of the remaining 22 is in frigid regions or stuck in rain forests. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  4. 4. River valleys just above the Tropic of Cancer produced the 4 ancient civilizations. 1 2 Balaji Viswanathan 3 4 NalandaU.com
  5. 5. Key Rivers that shaped Indian civilization 2 1 4 3 Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  6. 6. Plentiful distribution of water Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  7. 7. Cultivated Land The reason for high population could be partly explained by the vast availability of agricultural land. Although it is only the 7th largest country, it ties with the US when it comes to having the world’s largest agriculture land. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  8. 8. India had a strong economy for most part of human history. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  9. 9. Only two major routes to enter into India from West. This fort-like geography shaped India’s history. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  10. 10. India is named a Subcontinent. 6 different climatic zones exist making it hard to rule the entire subcontinent. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  11. 11. Lecture 1: Stone Age. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  12. 12. Human Evolution in Africa: ~200K years ago Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/erh5000/human_evolution.html Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  13. 13. Last Ice Age: 120K years - 12K years Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  14. 14. 65K years ago: Migration out of Africa Source: http://www.upf.edu/cexs/actualitat/genographic.html Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  15. 15. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  16. 16. 30K years ago: Paintings of Cave Men Bimbeketa, Madhya Pradesh Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  17. 17. Lost City in the Gulf of Cambay Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1768109.stm Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  18. 18. Founder Crops Domestication of Wheat, Barley, Peas, Chickpeas, lentils and flax about 11500 years ago. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  19. 19. 9000 years ago: Mehrgarh Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  20. 20. 5300 years ago: Discovery of Bronze Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  21. 21. Lecture 2: Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC - 1500 BC) “...the structure of their cities were so far advanced that it was not surpassed until the late nineteenth century in Europe...” Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  22. 22. In 1827 a wandering traveler at the East India Company finds mysterious brick mounds near Harappa..... Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  23. 23. Circa 3300 BC Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  24. 24. 1056 cities and human settlements found so far. More than 5 million inhabitants.. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  25. 25. Jump into the mature civilization of Harappa. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  26. 26. Grid like patterns for cities Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  27. 27. Citadel at the center of the city Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  28. 28. Advanced town planning & Municipal corporations Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  29. 29. Modern drainage systems Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  30. 30. No central authority. No warfare. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  31. 31. Life in Indus Valley Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  32. 32. Extensive Art Work. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  33. 33. Mysterious Scripts Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  34. 34. Global Trade of Indus Valley Gold &Jade from Southern India. Copper from Afghanistan. Turquoise from Iran. All paid with cotton and pottery. Development of transportation systems: boats (with docks) & bullock carts. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  35. 35. Early Hinduism. Pashupathi Seals. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  36. 36. 1700 BC: End of Civilization around Indus. Global climactic changes Weather got cooler and drier Monsoon Patterns Changed River Courses Changed Trade Floundered People migrated to Gangetic plains and southern India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  37. 37. Timeline of Indus Valley Civilization Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  38. 38. Contributions Discovery of cotton Invention of pottery Balaji Viswanathan Modern Metallurgy NalandaU.com
  39. 39. Lecture 3: Vedic Era Iron Age (1500 BC - 300 BC) Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  40. 40. The Rise of Vedas https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfLYe6Y_EM8 Rig Veda Sama Veda Yajur Veda Atharva Veda Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  41. 41. Administration during Vedic Era Rajan Head of Jana Councils Sabha Samiti Balaji Viswanathan Vidhata Gana NalandaU.com
  42. 42. Mahajanapadas: Rise of Republics Magadha Kuru Kashi Vriji Panchala Kosala Kamboja Gandhara Balaji Viswanathan Malla Chedi Machcha Surasena Kalinga Assaka Avanti Vatsa Anga Yona NalandaU.com
  43. 43. Kingdoms start merging Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  44. 44. 6th Century: Turning Point Siddhartha Gautama: 563 BC to 480 BC Buddhism Balaji Viswanathan Vardhamana Mahavira: 599 BC to 527 BC Jainism NalandaU.com
  45. 45. Recording of Indian History Begins. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  46. 46. Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha: Second known dynasty of India Bimbisara Starts expanding Magadha. Early supporter of Buddha Balaji Viswanathan Ajathasatru Builds a highly powerful and fearsome Magadha force. NalandaU.com
  47. 47. Ajathasatru empire. Rivals the size of Persian empire under Cyrus. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  48. 48. Nanda Empire Ajathasatru was succeeded by Shishunga dynasty and then the Nanda dynasty. Nandas were extremely unpopular and were reportedly cruel. They denied help to other Indian kings besieged by alien invasions. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  49. 49. Kingdoms of Ancient Magadha Brihadratha Haryanka Shishunga Nanda Unknown 6th century 5th century 4th century Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  50. 50. Lecture 4: Invasions & Cultural Interchange Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  51. 51. Extent of Cyrus the Great of Persia. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  52. 52. 400 BC. Takshashila: India’s first University at the crossroads of Persia and India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  53. 53. Taxila: Students entered at 16 and learned a variety of arts - from archery to physics and religion from masters. Charaka Panini “Father” of Medicine Grammarian Balaji Viswanathan Chanakya Military Strategist NalandaU.com
  54. 54. 326 BC: Alexander Attacks India Ambi - the ruler of Taxila submits to Alexander. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  55. 55. Battle of Hydaspes. King Porus (Purushotam) of Purushapura (Peshawar) resists Alexander although losing the battle. Excellent Video documentary in: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WvgzOa2rko Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  56. 56. Alexander’s army refuses to go further east, fearing the mighty Nanda Empire. “For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand fighting elephants.” Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  57. 57. Chandragupta Maurya: First Major Emperor begins Consolidation Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  58. 58. With Chanakya’s strategy Chandragupta pushes Greeks out of South Asia Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  59. 59. Rise of Ashoka. Political Integration of India. (269-232 BC) Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  60. 60. Battle of Kalinga (261 BC) turns Ashoka to a pacifist. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  61. 61. Heartbroken by a brutal war with Kalinga, Ashoka turns Pacifist. Spreads Buddhism all over old world. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  62. 62. A golden age for India. 40% of world population and close to 50% of world GDP was from Ashoka. Continues the great work of his father Bindusara & grandfather Chandragupta. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  63. 63. Ashoka’s Legacy Stupas & other buildings Balaji Viswanathan Moral Symbols First major written language NalandaU.com
  64. 64. Mauryan Emperors Try Different Religious Sects Chandragupta Jainism Bindusara Ajvika Ashoka Buddhism Ashoka’s Mauryan successors go directionless. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  65. 65. 185 BC: Within 50 years of Ashoka’s death, Pushyamitra Sunga does the first military coup in India assassinating Mauryan emperor Brihadratha. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  66. 66. Lecture 5: Classical Age. (200 BC - 1100 AD) Greatest works of Indian art would be created. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  67. 67. India faces Globalization End of Mauryas causes confusion all over India. Without a strong emperor, India is attacked by Central Asian nomads. From 230 BC to 320 AD, India is ruled by many kings and there is an huge interchange of art and culture all over Asia and Greece. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  68. 68. Migration of the Yuezhi to India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  69. 69. Invasion of northern India by Kanishka(from central Asia) causes an explosion of art interactions among Greece, Persia, Bactria and India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  70. 70. Satvahanas: Consolidation of Middle India. 230 BC to 220 AD. Created the present world heritage sites of Ajantha, Ellora and Amaravati. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  71. 71. Trade flourishes among Egypt, Rome, Arabia and India Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  72. 72. India at the time of Christ Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  73. 73. Chandrgupta - I Yet another Chandragupta emerges to fight alien powers in India. Marries a Lichchhavi princess & gets Magadha kingdom as dowry. Starts massive expansion. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  74. 74. Gupta Dynasty Age of Innovations (320 - 520 AD) Chess Place value system Balaji Viswanathan University Sex Education NalandaU.com
  75. 75. Numeric system originates in Gupta Era. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  76. 76. Top scientists of Gupta era Varahamihira Trignometry, Optics, Arithmetic and calculation of equinox. Aryabhatta Shushruta Approxmated Pi, decimal system (0), algebra, heliocentrism, explanation of eclipses. Father of modern surgery. Author of Shushtrua Samhita. Other great scientists: Brahmagupta (first to use 0), Bhaskara - I. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  77. 77. 4th century Nalanda University: Heights of Indian Education System. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  78. 78. The two Chinese Scholars who helped document India’s classical era. Xuanzhang 6th century Balaji Viswanathan Faxian 4th century NalandaU.com
  79. 79. After two centuries of attacks, Hunas finally end Gupta Empire in 530 AD Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  80. 80. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  81. 81. Emperor Harsha Vardhana drives away the Hunas and tries to reunite India after 100 years of disintegration. After 40 years of rule, his empire disintegrates at his death. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  82. 82. Battle of Rajasthan: 738 AD. An alliance of Hindu rulers led by Vikramaditya - II defeat Arabs and ends Islamic expansion towards east. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  83. 83. First Democratic election in India: 750 AD Gopala gets elected and builds the Pala empire starting from Bengal. For 400 years his dynasty will rule parts of northern & eastern India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  84. 84. Meanwhile in South India... South India, especially Tamil region had a parallel history. It had 4 main dynasties - Chola, Chera, Pandya and Pallavas (probably from north). Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  85. 85. Pallava Dynasty (2nd - 9th century AD): Period of extraordinary architecture. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  86. 86. Raja Raja Chola and his son Rajendra build a massive empire. Unlike most other Indian empires, they were strong seafarers. Circa 1000 AD. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  87. 87. 1192 AD: Second Battle of Tarain. An inspired Prithiviraj could not contain a relentless Ghori. Islam enters India after the second battle. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  88. 88. In 1193 Nalanda University was destroyed by an invading Afghan ruler. Hindu empires simultaneously collapse all over India due to independent reasons. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  89. 89. Lecture 6: Hindu-Islamic Era. (1200 - 1800 AD) Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  90. 90. India after the Second battle of Tarain. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  91. 91. Delhi Sultanates (1200 - 1526 AD) 5 dynasties: Mamluk, Khilji, Tuqlaq, Sayyid, Lodhi Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  92. 92. 1221: Genghiz Khan retreats back from the Indus river. Alaudin Khilji of Delhi was strong and Khan didn’t want to take a chance. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  93. 93. 1000s of historic Hindu & Buddhist sites are ravaged during the period. Sun temple of Anantnag, Kashmir Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  94. 94. 1398: Timur of Samarkhand plunders Delhi and leaves 100,000 dead in 1 day. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  95. 95. 1336: Rise of Vijayanagara Empire Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  96. 96. Samrat Hemu Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) fights back the Afghans and takes back Delhi Wins 22 battles against Afghans. Loses against Akbar due to a stray arrow hitting him in the eye in the Second Battle of Panipat (1556). Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  97. 97. 1526-1757: Mughal Dynasty. Akbar’s lucky victory against Hemu starts a 200 year Mughal dynasty that ruled a big chunk of north India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  98. 98. Aurangzeb: Last of the Mughal Emperors goes harsh on native Hindu population. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  99. 99. By 1707 most of India is consolidated by the Mughal rulers. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  100. 100. Marathas of Central India: Bhosle Era (1674 - 1759) Shivaji introduces guerilla warfare against the Mughals. Hindu rulers fight back again. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  101. 101. By 1761, Marathas take control of most of north India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  102. 102. 1761: 3rd battle of Panipat. Marathas lose against the combined strength of Afghans and Persians. In 1818 a weakened Maratha Empire is completed defeated by the East India Company. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  103. 103. Lecture 7: Entry of Colonial Powers in India (17th - 19th centuries) Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  104. 104. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, European sailors start looking for alternative routes to Asia. Vasco da Gama reaches India in 1498. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  105. 105. Europe starts building strong trade routes to India. Goa is colonized. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  106. 106. Portugal, Netherlands, France, Denmark and England all setup trading posts. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  107. 107. East India Company is one the first modern Corporation. It entered India as a trading company in 1612 after Jahangir allowed them. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  108. 108. The Company gets a lot of natural harbors that are unutilized by the native rulers who ignore navy. In 1668 England got Bombay as a dowry from Portugal (after the royal wedding of Charles II). The company gets permission to setup factory in Madras after Vijayanagara kings give permission. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  109. 109. Carnatic Wars: European rivalries enter India. France nationalizes French India Company. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  110. 110. Robert Clive - an officer at the East India Company has grand plans. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  111. 111. In 1756, the new Nawab of Bengal captures Calcutta from the Company. The Black Hole of Calcutta - where the Nawab held English prisoners creates huge flutter in England. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  112. 112. 1757: Battle of Plassey Clive buys out Bengali aristocrats: Jagat Seth & Mir Jafar Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  113. 113. By 1800, the only impediment to the Company was a loose confederation of Marathas. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  114. 114. Tippu Sultan of Mysore uses Rocket Warfare for the first time in human history. The defeat of his ally Napoleon in Waterloo messes up with his plan. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  115. 115. Most Indian kingdoms slowly fall, unable to tackle the industrial prowess of the Company Ahom kingdom 1226-1820 Balaji Viswanathan Sikh Empire 1799-1849 NalandaU.com
  116. 116. 1772: Capital shifted to Calcutta by Warren Hastings Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  117. 117. Consequences of Company Rule Millions perish in dozens of famines. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  118. 118. Some positives: Social Reforms takes off too. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (father of modern India) and others lead social reforms in India to abolish Sati (Widow burning) and allow widow remarriage. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  119. 119. Strongest company ever Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  120. 120. By 1857 most of India is under the company or company’s dependents. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  121. 121. In 1857, Indians would strike back... ending the company forever... Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  122. 122. Lecture 8: First War of Indian Independence (1857). Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  123. 123. 10 May 1857. Sepoys Mutiny in Meerut Suspect there might be beef or pork coating in the cartridge. Compounded resentment from serving on overseas battles. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  124. 124. 11th May. Mutiny spreads to Delhi. Indian troops capture Delhi. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  125. 125. Rani Laxmibai: Denied throne on basis of the “Doctrine of Lapse”. Widespread hatred in royalty. Awadh, Jhansi, Kanpur and Lucknow were soon up in rebelling. Tatya Tope of Maratha territory was trying to coordinate the attack. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  126. 126. A large number of Indian states join the sepoy mutiny. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  127. 127. India’s native rivalries and suspicious soon dominate • Sikhs were angry at the eastern Indians for not helping them out during their war with the English. Also, they feared the resurrection of Mughals. Thus they sided the British. • With the help of Sikh, Gurkha and Pathan regiments, East Indian company ends the first war of Indian Independence. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  128. 128. Mutineers executed Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  129. 129. Bahadur Shah: Last of Indian Mughals is exiled to Burma Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  130. 130. British Queen takes over India from the Company after 100 years of rule Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  131. 131. Lecture 9: India’s fight for Independence (1857 - 1947). Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  132. 132. Transportation systems that helped the British rule better. 1869: Suez Canal Balaji Viswanathan 1853: Indian Railways NalandaU.com
  133. 133. 1857-1914 Indians are pragmatic in this period. Dadhabhai Naoroji becomes first Indian to be an MP in Britain. Indians enter civil service and legal service. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  134. 134. In 1885 Indians come together to form the Indian National Congress. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  135. 135. Turn of 20th century: Congress splits between moderates and radicals Radicals (wanted full freedom) Lala Lajpath Rai Bal Ganghadhar Tilak Balaji Viswanathan Moderates (wanted to secure more rights) Motilal Nehru Gopal Krishna Gokale NalandaU.com
  136. 136. 1914: Return of Mahatma Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi perfected “Satyagraha” or truth movement in South Africa. He is now ready for India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  137. 137. Gandhi converts Congress party into a mass movement Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  138. 138. 1919: Jallianwallabagh Massacre. 1000s of unarmed civilians shot at. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  139. 139. Non-cooperation movement: Mahatma Gandhi turns the movement to focus more on economic and social factors. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  140. 140. 1930: Gandhi takes Indians on Civil Disobedience. Breaks laws on making salt in Dandi, Gujarat. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  141. 141. Gandhi secure widespread support allover the world - even in Britain. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  142. 142. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  143. 143. Netaji: Indian National Army Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  144. 144. Indian Extremists Strike. Bhagat Singh Balaji Viswanathan Chandrashekar Azad Ramprasad Bismil NalandaU.com
  145. 145. 16th Aug 1946: Muslim League under Jinnah leaves a trail of violence to press for a separate nation for Muslims. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  146. 146. Lord Mountbatten: Last Viceroy of India sets India’s freedom date for 15th August 1947 and decides to partition the country into two - India & Pakistan. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  147. 147. Lecture 10: India after Independence. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wUcw8Ufx_Y Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  148. 148. Jan 30, 1948. Assassination of the Mahatma Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  149. 149. Political Integration of India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  150. 150. India’s iron man- Sardar Patel and first prime minister Nehru fight to keep India as a single union. Taking over Hyderabad, 1948 Balaji Viswanathan Fight to keep Kashmir, 1948. Take over Goa from Portugal, 1960. NalandaU.com
  151. 151. Kashmir Puzzle The territory of Kashmir was bought by Hindu Maharajahs in 1860. The Maharajah joined India, while the populace was majority Muslim. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  152. 152. 1956. Indians states reorganized on linguistic lines. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  153. 153. 1962: India and China battle on high mountains for a month. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  154. 154. 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999: Indo Pakistan wars. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  155. 155. 1971: India splits Pakistan to create a separate nation of Bangladesh. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  156. 156. 1977: India Gandhi declares Emergency. Takes absolute powers & suspends democracy. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  157. 157. 1991: India comes out of socialism with promarket reforms to avoid total bankruptcy. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  158. 158. Summary: Key Learning Takeaways Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  159. 159. Only two major routes to enter into India from West. This fort-like geography shaped India’s history. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  160. 160. Humans moved into India about 60K years ago. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  161. 161. Heights of Indus Valley Civilization: 3300 -1700 BC Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  162. 162. Formation of Republics in Gangetic Valley Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  163. 163. Taxila: Students entered at 16 and learned a variety of arts - from archery to physics and religion from masters. Charaka Panini “Father” of Medicine Grammarian Balaji Viswanathan Chanakya Military Strategist NalandaU.com
  164. 164. Rise of Ashoka. Political Integration of India. (269-232 BC) Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  165. 165. Gupta Dynasty Age of Innovations (320 - 520 AD) Chess Place value system Balaji Viswanathan University Sex Education NalandaU.com
  166. 166. 1526-1757: Mughal Dynasty. Akbar’s lucky victory against Hemu starts a 200 year Mughal dynasty that ruled a big chunk of north India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  167. 167. 1757: Battle of Plassey Clive buys out Bengali aristocrats: Jagat Seth & Mir Jafar Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  168. 168. First War of Indian Independence (1857). Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  169. 169. 1930: Gandhi takes Indians on Civil Disobedience. Breaks laws on making salt in Dandi, Gujarat. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  170. 170. Political Integration of India. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  171. 171. Key battles that changed the face of India. 327 BC: Battle of Hydaspes. Porus vs. Alexander. Ends Greek Expansion in Asia. 261 BC: Battle of Kalinga. Kalinga vs. Ashoka. Turns Mauryas to pacifism and Buddhism. 738 AD: Battle of Rajasthan. Umayyad vs. Chalukyas. Checks Islamic expansion east. 1192 AD: Battle of Tarain. Prithiviraj Chauhan vs. Ghori. Ghori wins in second battle and brings Islam to India. 1556 AD: 2nd Battle of Panipat. Hemu vs. Akbar. Akbar wins through a scattered arrow. Mughal empire begins. 1757 AD: Battle of Plassey. East India Co. vs. Bengal. Brings India under East India Company & European rule. 1761 AD: 3rd Battle of Panipat. Marthas vs. Afghans. Marathas are pushed back and last of Indian empires bites dust. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com
  172. 172. India needs to rediscover Nalanda. It is the period where India’s science grew to great heights. It is time to bring back that era. Balaji Viswanathan NalandaU.com

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