Switzerland lively life sciences ecosystem


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Switzerland lively life sciences ecosystem

  1. 1. Switzerlands Lively Life SciencesEcosystemDate 03 May 2011
  2. 2. ColophonContact Jeannette de Lannoy T +31 088 602 10 83 Jeannette.delannoy@agentschapnl.nl NL EVD Internationaal Juliana van Stolberglaan 148 | 2595 CL Den Haag P.O. Box 20105 | 2500 EC Den HaagAuthor(s) Jasper Bouwsma T +41 31 381 50 80 jasper.bouwsma@vujade.com Vujàdé Ltd. Gutenbergstrasse 9 | CH-3011 Bern | Switzerland P.O. Box 4 | CH-3257 Grossaffoltern | Switzerland Christoph Ditzler T +41 31 387 37 97 ditzler@reflecta.ch reflecta ag Schwarztorstrasse 56 | Bern | Switzerland Postfach 530 | CH-3000 Bern 14 | Switzerland©May 2011The ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation, NL EVD International.NL EVD International supplies this information for free. The content needs to beavailable for free for our clients, dutch companies. It is not allowed to multiply orpublish anything out of this edition by photocopy, microfilm or on any other possibleway, without previous notice of the publisher. In spite of all the care that is takenover this edition, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation cannotbe held legally liable for possible inaccuracy. Page 3 of 88
  3. 3. Executive SummaryDuring the past years, Switzerland has built a remarkable innovation ecosystem. Itwas built on the life science industry- coming out of the pharmaceutical industry,and the microtechnology industry – coming out of the watch industy. Both theseclusters overlap in the medtech industry. In addition, both clusters have a stronginterest in the nano-technology.Biotechnology and medtech are among the fastest growing fields in the Swissindustry today. They are also major contributor to the national R&D performance.Both fields are the outcome of a strong specialization process, which the Swissmanufacturing sector was undergoing during the recent past.A peculiarity of the Swiss R&D-system is the absence of a notable public R&D. Closeto three-quarters of the national R&D expenditure (74.6%) is provided by privatesources. The rest is provided by the academic institutions. Within the universitysystem the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology at Zurich and Lausanne(ETHZ and EPFL) are dominating basic research. A number of universities in majorSwiss towns, and a renewed system of cantonal/regional Universities of AppliedSciences is complementing them.On a national level, Switzerland has started a series of research initiatives based onnational competence centres and national research programmes. There is a closelink between these activities and the activities on the European Research Area (ofwhich Switzerland is a non-EU full member).Despite the small area, Switzerland is a heterogeneous country. 3 official languages,different religious confessions, urban as well as rural areas are forming small, butdistinct environments. The heterogeneity is fostered by a strict federalist politicalsystem, which is dominated by the cantons. In fact, the cantons are the sovereignelement in the Swiss political landscape.This dominance of the cantons and the strong local orientation of Swiss policy haveprevented a membership in the EU. Instead, the Swiss federal government incooperation with the ruling bodies of the EU has opted for a series of bilateralagreements. As a result, today there is free movement of People betweenSwitzerland and the EU. The manufacturing, construction, and service sector are fullmembers of the European Economic Area. The agricultural sector instead remainshighly protected.For Dutch Business there several possibilities to hook into the Swiss industry: a) setting up a joint R&D-project within the European Framework Program, b) setting up a research program at a Swiss research unit which typically requires the funding of 50% by the private partner while the cost of the research unit (the other half) will be supported by the state (provided the criteria are met), c) setting up a business is Switzerland either as a joint-venture or as a subsidiary. Page 5 of 88
  4. 4. Authors’ Notes 1. Life Science Industry: according to the authors, life sciences are a collection of traditional specialties that are currently converging and will merge even more in the near future. However, in this report we will focus on the following three industries separately a. Biotechnology (including pharmaceuticals) b. Microtechnology (including medical technology) c. Nanotechnology 2. Practical Guide: In this report, the authors have used independent governmental as well as dependent market statistics. In some cases they don’t match completely. Although not academically correct we wanted to provide some useful figures for you, the reader. 3. Complexity: Switzerland is a heterogeneous country with 3 official languages and a unique historic federal system in which the 26 cantons play a more powerful role than the central government in Bern. It takes foreigners probably a decade to build a comprehensive understanding of the intricacies of Swiss policy making. In order to provide you, the reader, with a useful guide, the authors need to distinguish between national and regional initiatives and clusters and we will indicate the prevalent language used in the context discussed.Page 6 of 88
  5. 5. IndexColophon 3Executive Summary 5Authors’ Notes 6Figures & Tables 91 Introduction: Innovation and High-Tech in Switzerland 111.1 Fact & Figures 111.2 Swiss Innovation Ecosystem: How Innovation Is Organized In Switzerland 172 Life Sciences in Switzerland 272.1 Introduction 272.2 Biotechnology: 282.3 Microtechnology: 392.4 Nano-technology: 462.5 Opportunities for Dutch Business 543 How To Do Business in Switzerland 553.1 General 553.2 Culture, Cantons 563.3 Does & don’ts 574 Laws & Regulations 594.1 General 594.2 Swiss legal system 594.3 Tax system 614.4 Import & Export Regulations 634.5 Bilateral agreements with the EU 644.6 Employment regulations 655 References 675.1 Selected Reports 675.2 Useful Contacts 686 Annex 716.1 Comparison between Switzerland and The Netherlands: Selected Economic Indicators 716.2 Number of Companies and Employment in Swiss Biotechnology and Microtechnology Industry 2008 736.3 The Swiss Innovation Ecosystem: Innovation Policy Making 756.4 R&D Expenditures of Swiss Organizations 1996-2008 826.5 Import & Export Regulations 836.6 Bilateral Agreements With The EU 856.7 Employment Regulations and Social Security 87 Page 8 of 88
  6. 6. Figures & TablesFiguresFIGURE 01: Innovation Performance of European Countries 12FIGURE 02: Relative Innovation Performance of European Countries: Switzerland 12FIGURE 03: R&D Expenditures by Sector as Percent of GDP, 2008 13FIGURE 04: Targeted R&D Fields by Support Measures by the Industry inSwitzerland Compared to EU-27 14FIGURE 05: Distribution of R&D-Intensive Industry Coverage According to EconomicSector and Country, International Comparison, 2005 16FIGURE 06: Development of EUR – CHF Exchange Rate 1999 – 2011 17FIGURE 07: Key Elements of the Swiss Innovation System 17FIGURE 08: National Centres of Competence in Research (NCCR) (Overview) 19FIGURE 09: The Universities of Applied Science in Switzerland 21FIGURE 10: Venture Investments by Sector in Switzerland 2009 24FIGURE 11: Number of Transactions in Venture Capital by Industry 25FIGURE 12: Venture Capital Investments by Region and Industry 25FIGURE 13: A Rough Sketch of the Swiss Industry Clusters based on Biotechnologyand Microtechnology 28FIGURE 14: Key Activities of Biotechnology Companies in Switzerland 29FIGURE 15: Size of Biotechnology Companies in Switzerland 30FIGURE 16: Foundation of Biotechnology Companies in Switzerland 1999-2009 31FIGURE 17: Sources of New Company Foundations in Biotechnology 31FIGURE 18: New Products in Pipeline of Swiss Biotechnology Companies 32FIGURE 19: Swiss Medtech Industry: Manufacturer by Category 40FIGURE 20: Swiss Medtech Industry: Suppliers by Category 40FIGURE 21: Map of the Swiss Medical Technology Industry 42FIGURE 22: Map of the Dutch Medtech Industry 42FIGURE 23: Distribution of the nano-tera.ch Research Groups 47FIGURE 24: Population Distribution: Agglomerations, Towns and Villages inSwitzerland 55FIGURE 25: The 25 Cantons of Switzerland 56FIGURE 26: Languages in Switzerland 57FIGURE 27: Average Tax-Rate in the Capital Towns of the Cantons 2009 58FIGURE 28: Switzerland: EU, EFTA 64FIGURE 29: The WEF Competitive Landscape 71FIGURE 30: Graphic Representation of the Swiss Innovation System 75FIGURE 31: Organization of the ETH-Domain 77
  7. 7. TablesTABLE 01: R&D Expenditures of Selected Swiss Companies 2010 15TABLE 02: Promotion of Startups by the CTI 22TABLE 03: Philanthropic Foundations and Competitions Supporting Startups 23TABLE 04: Major Recent Biotech Ventures in Switzerland 24TABLE 05: The Structure of Life Sciences Used in This Report 27TABLE 06: Geographical Spread of the Biotechnology Industry in SwitzerlandCompared to The Netherlands 33TABLE 07: Important Initiatives and Organizations in the Swiss BiotechnologyCluster 35TABLE 08: R&D Spending of the Swiss Precision Industry 41TABLE 09: Relevant Developments in Swiss Micro-technology Industry 42TABLE 10: Relevant Developments in Swiss Nanotechnology Sector 48TABLE 11: Overview of Selected Swiss Life Sciences Industries and Opportunities forDutch Businesses 54TABLE 12: Selected Reports on the Swiss Life Sciences Industries 67TABLE 13: Selected Contacts in the Life Sciences Industries 68TABLE 14: Selected Contacts for Economic Promotion 70TABLE 15: Collection of Miscellaneous Rankings and Comparison BetweenSwitzerland and The Netherlands 72TABLE 16: Number of Enterprises and Employees According to Industry Divisions in2008 73TABLE 17: R&D Expenditures of Swiss Organizations intra- and extramuros 1996-2008 81TABLE 18: Social Insurance Contribution Rates 2011 (Without Health Insurance) 87Page 10 of 88
  8. 8. 1 Introduction: Innovation and High-Tech in SwitzerlandThis introduction chapter is meant to give you, the reader, and a general impressionof the Swiss high-tech industry. We provide you with selected facts and figures anda short explanation of how high-tech and innovation is managed in Switzerland (i.e.the Swiss Innovation Ecosystem).1.1 Fact & FiguresSwitzerland is especially known and well renowned for its R&D, innovation and high-tech industries. However, the rational and impact of Switzerland’s emergingtechnologies is not easy to grasp. The authors have chosen to share 4 observations:1: Ranking of Switzerland2: R&D statistics3: Relative size4: Foreign trade1.1.1 Observation No. 1: Ranking of SwitzerlandLike The Netherlands, Switzerland is a small, but very successful country. Innumerous studies and comparisons Switzerland maintains leading positions, oftenclosely followed by The Netherlands (see Figure 01 as well as an overview ofrankings in Annex A). At the beginning of this report we would like to focus on theInnovation Union Scoreboard published in 2010:“Switzerland is one of the innovation leaders with an above average performance.Relative strengths are in open, excellent and attractive research systems,intellectual assets, innovators and outputs. Relative weaknesses are in finance andsupport and linkages & entrepreneurship. High growth is observed for venturecapital, community trademarks and sales of new products. A relatively strong declineis observed for SMEs (small and medium size enterprises) innovating in-house andinnovative SMEs collaborate with others. Growth performance in finance andsupport, intellectual assets and outputs is above average. In the other dimensions itis below average.”(Source: innometrics, Innovation Union Scoreboard 2010, 01 February 2011. Link:http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/iu-scoreboard-2010_en.pdf )
  9. 9. FIGURE 01: Innovation Performance of European CountriesSource: innometrics, Innovation Union Scoreboard 2010, 01 February 2011. Link:http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/iu-scoreboard-2010_en.pdfThe top position of the Swiss innovation performance within Europe is primarily theeffect of high output of the R&D system. Switzerland is especially strong in terms ofscientific publications, patent applications, and license and patent revenues fromabroad. The indicators with regard to innovation are pointing to some weaknesses inthe marketing of the output of the research system.FIGURE 02: Relative Innovation Performance of European Countries: SwitzerlandSource: innometrics, Innovation Union Scoreboard 2010, 01 February 2011. Link:http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/iu-scoreboard-2010_en.pdfPage 12 of 88
  10. 10. 1.1.2 Observation No. 2: R&D StatisticsSwitzerland is currently spending about 3% of the GDP in R&D (approximatelyCHF15 Billion). According to a 2008 statistic, Switzerland ranked 6th behind Israel,Sweden, Finland, Japan, and Korea, which is the result of a sharp absolute andrelative increase of R&D spending from 2000 onwards. This development is in linewith the increase of R&D spending in other technological leader countries such asthose mentioned above but unlike the EU-27 average and the OECD average. Inrelative terms Switzerland shows a higher R&D spending than Germany and the US.The Swiss R&D spending is exclusively effectuated by the private and academicsector, i.e. the share of the public sector is almost negligible. This is unlike theOECD-countries, where public sector’s R&D spending amounts to an average ofapprox. 0.25% of the GDP.FIGURE 03: R&D Expenditures by Sector as Percent of GDP, 2008Source: Bundesamt für Statistik (BFS), F+E der Schweiz 2008, 2010 (Swiss FederalStatistical Office, R&D in Switzerland 2008), based on data from the OECD. Link:http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/news/publikationen.html?publicationID=3960This high relative R&D spending is especially due to high R&D investment of theprivate industry, which accounts for close to 75% of total R&D investment. Behindthese overall figures, there are some specific developments to be looked at.1.1.3 Observation No. 3: Relative SizeThis observation shows that pharmaceuticals (life science industry, as they labelthemselves) and precision instruments represent a major specialized area within the
  11. 11. Swiss manufacturing industries. We will illustrate this by taking A) an industryperspective, and B) a company perspective.A) Industry Perspective: - The life science industry is the most important contributor to Switzerland’s R&D investments: 44% of the domestic intramuros R&D expenditures are spent by the chemicals and the pharmaceutical industry. By taking foreign intramuros and extramuros R&D into account, the share of this industry amounts to 57%. - R&D expenditures of the producers of microtechnology products (i.e. high- technology instruments including office machines, medical equipment, optical devices, watches) nearly tripled, from CHF697 Million in 2004 to CHF2’018 Million in 2008. - Other sectors slightly reduced their R&D expenditures (e.g. IT & telecommunication), hence showing a relative decline, whilst the machine builders reduced their expenditures in absolute terms.The trends mentioned above can also be seen in the R&D fields targeted inSwitzerland, where health, nano-sciences and nano-technologies as well asbiotechnology and materials are clearly above, and ICT is considerably below theEU-average.FIGURE 04: Targeted R&D Fields by Support Measures by the Industry inSwitzerland Compared to EU-27Page 14 of 88
  12. 12. Source: innometrics, Innovation Union Scoreboard 2010, 01 February 2011. Link:http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/iu-scoreboard-2010_en.pdfB) Company Perspective: - Pharmaceutical’s Novartis and Roche are responsible for 30% of Switzerland’s R&D expenditure - Switzerland has attracted many companies for locating R&D activities in Switzerland.Especially the pharmaceutical giants Roche and Novartis, play a crucial role in SwissR&D. According to Booz & Company, Roche was the number R&D spending companywith a total of USD 9 Billion (i.e. 20.1% of sales). Novartis (#6) is spending USD 7.5Billion. Extracting the R&D budgets spent by these companies in Switzerland you willfind that approximately one third of the overall R&D expenditure in Switzerland canbe led back to three companies.TABLE 01: R&D Expenditures of Selected Swiss Companies 2010 Worldwide In Switzerland % R&D in SwitzerlandRoche USD 9.120 Billion (1) CHF 1.220 Billion 13% (2) CHF 9.050 Billion (2)Novartis USD 7.469 Billion CHF 3.400 Billion 38% (1) (3)Nestlé CHF 1.980 Billion CHF 0.389 Billion 24% (4) (4)Total CHF 5.009 Billion 33%Sources:(1) http://www.booz.com/media/file/sb61_10408-R.pdf and http://www.booz.com/global/home/what_we_think/featured_content/innovation_1000_2010),(2) http://www.roche.com/research_and_development/r_d_overview/facts_and_figures.htm(3) http://www.novartis.com/downloads/newsroom/corporate-publications/NovartisPass_EN.pdf(4) http://www.nestle.com/Common/NestleDocuments/Documents/Library/Documents/About_Us/Nestle-in-Switzerland- EN.pdfInternational companies have recognized the significance of R&D in Switzerland too.Since 1956, IBM operates one of their Research Centers in Rüschlikon which hasprovided IBM with 4 out of its 5 Nobel Laureates. (Source:http://www.zurich.ibm.com/pdf/ZRL_Leaflet_24082010.pdf ). In spring 2011 IBMwill open its USD 90 Million and 6’000m2 Nanotechnology Center there, which willfind a private public usage in collaboration with the ETHZ (The Swiss FederalInstitute of Technology, Zurich). The operation of the center is based on a costsharing scheme between IBM and the ETHZ.Although, the share of expenditures in the ICT market is lower on average comparedto EU-27, Switzerland has experienced a keen interest of US companies to open R&Dlabs: - Google (Zurich) - Microsoft (Zurich) - Disney Labs (Zurich)
  13. 13. - SAP (St. Gallen) - Nokia (Lausanne)1.1.4 Observation No. 4: Foreign TradeSwitzerland is known for its big share of exports in high technology products. Theshare of exports in total national demand (GDP+Imports) of 37% indicatesSwitzerland’s high dependency on foreign demand. Exports of Germany for examplecontribute 25% of its total demand. This must mainly be attributed topharmaceuticals, as (by the statistical definition of the OECD) this is the only Swisshigh-technology industry. In fact, the trade balance of the other high-technologyindustries by the definition used by the OECD (computers, electronics, aerospace) isnegative. Looking at the ratio of exports to imports of pharmaceuticals, Switzerlandis number two behind Sweden and number one in the instruments industry in theOECD.FIGURE 05: Distribution of R&D-Intensive Industry Coverage According to EconomicSector and Country, International Comparison, 2005Source: Federal Department of Home Affairs/Federal Statistical Office, Science andtechnology (S&T) Indicators in Switzerland, 2008, based on OECD, MISTI database,November 2007.Link: http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/themen/15/22/lexi.htmlOverall Switzerland shows a significant trend to specialization in pharmaceuticals(life science) and microtechnology/precision instruments (including medicalinstruments). This fast developing specialization is partly the effect of the ongoingstrength of the Swiss Franc. It must be clear that the appreciation of the Swiss Francis developing in scoops which temporarily create heavy pressure on thecompetitiveness of Swiss export goods.Page 16 of 88
  14. 14. FIGURE 06: Development of EUR – CHF Exchange Rate 1999 – 20111.2 Swiss Innovation Ecosystem: How Innovation Is Organized In SwitzerlandThe relative independence of the private and academic sector in terms of financingR&D expenditures does not mean that there is a lack of coordination between theactors in the Swiss innovation system. The actors within the Swiss InnovationEcosystem will be discussed in the next paragraph.FIGURE 07: Key Elements of the Swiss Innovation System - Policy makers - Academia - Startups - Investors (Business Angels, Venture Capital and Private Equity)
  15. 15. - Industry1.2.1 Innovation PolicyA number of different bodies are involved in the definition of the innovation policy atthe federal level: - SER: State Secretariat For Education and Research - OPET: Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology - ETH Board which presides over the ETH-Domain which includes the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology at Zurich, and Lausanne respectively - SSTC: The Swiss Science and Technology Council - SNSF: The Swiss National Science Foundation - CTI: The Commission for Technology and Innovation - CRUS: Rector’s Conference of the Swiss UniversitiesAll these institutions are involved in the preparation of the message concerning thepromotion of education, research, and innovation (ERT-message) presented to theSwiss Parliament for approval every fourth year. The next 4-year message iscurrently being prepared for the period 2013-2016(1). An important part of thepreparation process of this message (and all the political messages in general, theso called “Vernehmlassungsverfahren” / “procédure de consultation”) is the issue ofa first draft for public consultation, where all interested bodies (political parties,cantons, industry associations, unions, etc.) are invited to comment on the proposal.These comments form the basis for the finalization of the message that will besubmitted to the Swiss Parliament by the Federal Counsel.The ERT-message is the key document of the national innovation policy. It forms thestrategic and financial framework for the actions taken by the SER, the ETH-Board,the SNSF, and the CTI.See also: http://www.proinno-europe.eu/page/innovation-and-innovation-policy-switzerland orhttp://cordis.europa.eu/erawatch/index.cfm?fuseaction=ri.content&topicID=619&parentID=44&countryCode=CHWhilst most funding of the SNSF is not thematically bound, it differentiates betweentwo measures to fund thematic research. “National Research Programmes” (NRP)analyze urgent problems of national significance while “National Centers ofCompetence in R9esearch” (NCCR) support long-term research projects in areas ofvital strategic importance. The thematic priorities are adjusted continuously.Currently, calls for NRPs are open in the following areas: gender equality policy,sustainable water management, smart materials, stem cells and regenerativemedicine, opportunities and risks of nano-materials and the new urban intensity.(1) A special ERT-message for 2012 is currently in preparation. It will bridge the ERT-message for the period 2008-2011 and the ERT-message for the period 2013-2017. This intermediate step has been introduced to bring the ERT-periods in line with the legislative periods.Page 18 of 88
  16. 16. Each NCCR has a maximum duration of twelve years. The Swiss National ScienceFoundation provides financing for NCCR for the first stage of up to four years.Further funding is determined on the basis of a formal application for an extension offinancing and the outcome of an interim evaluation. The program presently includes27 NCCRs. Some 14 of these NCCRs started up in 2001, six in 2005, and anothereight in 2010. The call for proposals for a forth series of National Centres ofCompetence in Research will be launched in 2011.FIGURE 08: National Centres of Competence in Research (NCCR) (Overview)Source: SNSF. Link:http://www.snf.ch/nfp/nccr/E/nccrdetail/current/Pages/default.aspxA comprehensive Guide to the National Centres of Competence in Research ispublished every year by the SNSF. The 2011 guide is available under the followinglink: http://www.snf.ch/SiteCollectionDocuments/nccr_guide_11.pdfThe funding agency for innovation projects is the CTI. It mainly supports technologytransfer by funding universities that find private partners who fund at least half ofthe project. Furthermore, the CTI has enlarged its programme to support start-ups.“CTI start-up” offers start-ups coaching services and labels promising ones. “CTIentrepreneurship” promotes the entrepreneurial spirit by offering courses topotential and prospective entrepreneurs. “CTI invest” is a networking platform thatstages regular events where young entrepreneurs present their ideas to businessangels and venture capital firms. “CTI Discovery Projects” directly funds projectsthat are highly risky but have the potential to result in radical innovations.Internationalisation, which is an important aspect in the ERT-message, is fostered bythe measure “CTI-Asia” which promotes co-operations in applied R&D withuniversities and firms from Asia. The engagement in different ERA-NETs fosters theinternationalisation of the national innovation system.The engagement in different ERA-NETs (European Networks for the coordination ofthe different sectors of the EU Framework Programmes in Research) fosters theinternationalization of the national innovation system. The activities are coordinatedby the SNSF (see also: http://www.snf.ch/E/international/europe/Pages/era-net.aspx ).
  17. 17. 1.2.2 AcademiaSwitzerland has a number of high quality public universities and universities ofapplied sciences (CH: “Fachhochschule” / “Haute école spécialisée”, NL: “HBO”).Below you will find a short overview of the different institutes.A) UniversitiesWithin the group of the universities one must distinguish between A.1) the SwissFederal Institutes of Technology at Zurich, and Lausanne respectively, and A.2) theother public universities and A.3) the Universities of Applied Science:A.1) Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology at Zurich, and Lausanne respectivelyEspecially the two Federal Institutes of Technology (Eidgenössische TechnischeHochschule, ETHZ, Zurich and École Polytechnique Fédérale, EPFL, Lausanne) play aprominent role in the Swiss academic landscape. Both institutes are world-renownedfor its research, and attract foreign researchers as a result. Furthermore, theuniversities are a main source for innovative start-ups (see: for example a study bythe transfer office of the ETHZ on “The performance of Spin-off companies at theSwiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich”http://www.vpf.ethz.ch/transfer/ETH_Zurich_spin-offs.pdf).The two technical universities are the pillars of the so-called ETH-Domain, which alsoincludes four additional research institutes: - PSI: Paul Scherrer Institute - EMPA: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research - EAWAG: Aquatic Research - WSL: Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape ResearchA brief overview over the ETH-Domain is given inhttp://www.ethrat.ch/download/Der_ETH-Bereich_in_Kürze_2010_E.pdf .A.2) Cantonal UniversitiesIn addition to the 2 federal (technical) universities, there are cantonal universitiescovering in principle the whole spectrum of scientific research and teaching: - Basel - Bern - Fribourg - Geneva - Lausanne - Lucerne - Neuchâtel - St. Gall - ZurichPage 20 of 88
  18. 18. A.3) Universities of Applied ScienceDuring the recent years, the landscape of the universities of applied sciences haschanged from a cantonal focus to a regional focus. This development was spurred bythe Bologna-Reform and lead to a tremendous modernization of the infrastructure.The universities of applied sciences also contribute significantly to innovationpromotion and knowledge transfer. They provide management staff and youngentrepreneurs with education and are committed to applied research anddevelopment. In the innovation process these universities act in a bridging role,linking science, the economy and society.FIGURE 09: The Universities of Applied Science in SwitzerlandSource: http://www.bbt.admin.ch/themen/hochschulen/index.html?lang=en1.2.3 StartupsIn recent years there has been an influential mix of public and private promotionand support of entrepreneurship in Switzerland. As a result there is an active,healthy and successful startup scene in Switzerland as for example the lists of theRedHerring 100 Europe Winner 2009 and 2010 show.A) The Activities of the CTI (The Commission for Technology and Innovation)The CTI is the most important Swiss public institution for funding startups. Thefollowing activities of the CTI are of special interest:
  19. 19. TABLE 02: Promotion of Startups by the CTICTI Activity Description LinkCTI As the Confederation’s innovation http://www.kti.a promotion agency, CTI lends support dmin.ch/?lang=d to R&D projects, to entrepreneurship e as well as to the development of start-up companies. CTI helps to optimise knowledge and technology transfer through the use of thematic and regional networks and platforms.VentureLab Financed by CTI, VentureLab http://venturelab promotes the entrepreneurial spirit .ch/ by offering free-of-charge courses to potential and prospective entrepreneurs. → Focus on early stageCTI Startup CTI start-up offers start-ups http://www.ctista coaching services and labels rtup.ch/htm/hom promising ones. e.htm → Focus on mid to late stageCTI Label The „CTI Label“ is a label for Swiss http://www.ctista start-ups and well recognized by rtup.ch/htm/hom Swiss investors as a quality label. e_label_compani → focus on mid to stage to maturity es.htmCTI Invest “CTI invest” is a networking platform http://www.cti- that stages regular events where invest.ch/ young entrepreneurs present their ideas to business angels and venture capital firms. → focus from mid-stage onwards.In addition, almost every canton has its own startup support and economicdevelopment program that coach, promote, and facilitate startups.B) Private Support of StartupsB.1) Technoparks and Startup facilitiesThroughout Switzerland you will find an extensive number of startup parks andfacilities creating innovation hot-zones and/or local clusters. Startups can rent spaceand benefit from facility services and cross-pollination. The Biotechnopark inSchlieren (Zurich) for example provides fully equipped laboratories to life sciencesstartups. Notable is the fact, that in general the Technoparks are privately funded.Page 22 of 88
  20. 20. B.2) Philanthropic Foundations and CompetitionsThere are a great number of Swiss philanthropic foundations that support innovationand entrepreneurship. Many startups make use of these possibilities to obtaincoaching and develop their business plan and/or obtain seed funding throughcompetitions.TABLE 03: Philanthropic Foundations and Competitions Supporting StartupsCompetition Description LinkVenture – Since 1996, McKinsey in collaboration with the http://www.venture.Companies for ETHZ and since 2009 CTI, organizes the bi- ch/default_e.asptomorrow yearly start-up competition “Venture – Companies for tomorrow”, where project http://www.venture. groups obtain free-of-charge coaching in the ch/teams_2010_pha development of their business plan. The winner se2_e.asp of the competition is awarded CHF60’000. The platform has proved to be an effective marketing and fund-raising tool as the track- record shows.venturekick Where the Venture competition attracts project http://www.venturek groups, “venturekick” facilitates early-stage ick.com/ entrepreneurs with coaching and an impressive opportunity for obtaining CHF130’000 seed- funding. In three rounds entrepreneurs pitch their start-up to a diverse jury consisting out of a representative number of people from the Swiss Innovation ecosystem (entrepreneurs, industry, investors etc.). Between the start in 2007 and the end of 2010, venturekick has distributed an impressive CHF5.7 Million in awards, financed by four Swiss foundations (Gebert Rüf, Ernst Göner, OPO Stiftung, and Avina Stiftung).1.2.4 InvestorsFor a healthy and sustainable startup environment it is imminent that the ecosystemhas sufficient risk capital to finance the innovative endeavors. In addition, it is alsoimportant that risk capital is available for each growth stage from seed toexpansion; a missing link in the financing chain dramatically reduces the probabilityof success.In an extensive study by SECA (Swiss Private Equity & Corporate FinanceAssociation), the Swiss Venture Capital Market has been studied between 1999 and2009 (link: http://www.seca.ch/sec/files/newsletter/pdf-news222/Booklet_3_Venture_Capital_in_der_Schweiz_A5.pdf ). In 2007, 0.09% ofGDP was invested in venture capital in Switzerland; in the same year the USA
  21. 21. invested 0.19%. Nevertheless, Switzerland has seen between 80 and 150 VCtransactions a year. In monetary terms, the life science industry dominates theventure capital market in Switzerland with over 80% of total capital invested. Thisdomination can easily be explained based on the capital-intensive nature of the lifesciences companies in comparison with investments in e.g. information andcommunication technology startups, which are in general much less capitalintensive. To illustrate, in a presentation on the Swiss Life Sciences Statistics 2009-2010 by biotechgate.com the five largest therapeutic biotech financing rounds arelisted, accumulating to well over CHF 300Million or 15% of total venture capitalinvested in 2009 in Switzerland.TABLE 04: Major Recent Biotech Ventures in Switzerland Company Date Currency Amount (M) TypeESBATech AG 14.09.2009 USD 150 Million OtherNovImmune 12.05.2009 CHF 63 Million Equity – Later StageMolecular 15.12.2009 CHF 46 Million Equity –Partners AG Second StageAC IMMUNE SA 26.01.2009 CHF 40 Million Equity – Later StageEndosense SA 01.09.2009 USD 36 Million Equity – First StageSource: www.biotech.comFIGURE 10: Venture Investments by Sector in Switzerland 2009Source: European Private Equity Statistics for Switzerland 2010(http://www.seca.ch/sec/files/statistiks/Switzerland_2010.pdf )Page 24 of 88
  22. 22. FIGURE 11: Number of Transactions in Venture Capital by IndustryNew Value WWZ Swiss Venture Capital Transaction Monitoring 1999-2009Explanation Number of Venture Capital Transactions in Switzerland per industry peryear. The category ”andere” (other) includes agriculture, chemical, financialservices, and energy & environment.Source: Pascal Gantenbein, Maurice Pedergana, Jens Engelhardt: Venture Capital inder Schweiz, Wichtigste Ergebnisse aus den Jahren 1999 bis 2009, SECA 2010 (Link:http://www.seca.ch/sec/files/newsletter/pdf-news222/Booklet_3_Venture_Capital_in_der_Schweiz_A5.pdf)FIGURE 12: Venture Capital Investments by Region and IndustrySource: Pascal Gantenbein, Maurice Pedergana, Jens Engelhardt: Venture Capital inder Schweiz, Wichtigste Ergebnisse aus den Jahren 1999 bis 2009, SECA 2010 (Link:http://www.seca.ch/sec/files/newsletter/pdf-news222/Booklet_3_Venture_Capital_in_der_Schweiz_A5.pdf )
  23. 23. (For more in-depth information on the financial aspects of the emerging biotechsector in Switzerland, see Thomas Heimann, Yann C. Crozat: Biotech alsAssetklasse, SECA Booklet Nr. 5, 2010 (Link:http://seca.ch/default.asp?V_ITEM_ID=306 ), available only in German).1.2.5 IndustryThe importance of the pharmaceutical and life sciences industry in Switzerland hasalready been discussed above. In addition to the contribution of Roche and Novartisto the R&D investments in Switzerland, it is also important to mention the role ofthese and other companies as potential investors and/or exit opportunity. BothRoche and Novartis maintain both a very active venture fund both with headquarterin Basle, Switzerland. As a consequence of the close geographical proximity, thesefunds have invested in multiple life sciences companies in Switzerland. (For moreinformation see: http://www.venturefund.roche.com/http://www.venturefund.novartis.com/ andhttp://www.venturefund.novartis.com//assets/files/VentureFundReport2010.pdf ).Page 26 of 88
  24. 24. 2 Life Sciences in Switzerland2.1 IntroductionLife sciences consist out of single, as well as the interdisciplinary combination ofdisciplines and industries. On the one hand the authors have observed the ongoingconverging of disciplines into life sciences. On the other hand many of the disciplinesare also positioned and reported upon in statistics separately. The authors felt thatfor this report to provide a practical usage for the reader we had to structure the lifesciences industry and focus on selected disciplines. The focus of the report on handis to cover the fields of bio, medical, and nanotechnology. The authors haveintegrated pharmaceuticals into biotechnology due to the practical reason that inmost (Swiss) statistics and reports pharmaceuticals are part of biotechnology.Furthermore, the authors have included medical technology into microtechnologydue to similar reasons as aforementioned.Finally, the authors would like to make a quick note on the historic development intothese leading Swiss sectors. Switzerland has a long-standing tradition in theprecision industry, starting out with the watch industry for which Switzerland is wellknown. On the other hand the chemical industry around Basel, which started outwith the production of synthetic dyes, led to the pharmaceutical industry. Nano-technology as a base technology is rapidly affecting a vast number of diverseindustries.Although not all of the industries mentioned are directly part of life sciences in thenarrow sense of the word, it provides an insight into why Switzerland almostnaturally developed into a life sciences cluster in a broader sense of the word.TABLE 05: The Structure of Life Sciences Used in This Report.Chapter 2A Chapter 2B Chapter 2Cbiotechnology microtechnology Nano-technology(incl. pharmaceuticals) (incl. medical-technology)
  25. 25. FIGURE 13: A Rough Sketch of the Swiss Industry Clusters based on Biotechnologyand MicrotechnologySource: Vujàdé Ltd & reflecta ag2.2 Biotechnology:In this chapter we will provide you with key insights into the Swiss biotechnologyindustry by providing you with an overview of the subsectors and a number ofstatistics. In addition we will present a number of recent developments, and willprovide you with the opportunities for Dutch companies.2.2.1 SubsectorsDue to differences in the definitions of the biotechnology industry, it is difficult toprovide exact figures. Nevertheless, the different sources give a goodapproximation.According to official statistics (Bundesamt für Statistik/Office fédéral de lastatistique), Switzerland housed 229 biotechnology companies in 2008, 159 of whichcounted as core biotech companies undertaking R&D-activities. The total number ofemployees amounted to 17.993. According to the Life Sciences Statistics 2009-2010Report 287 biotech companies are based in Switzerland, employing over 32’000employees, of which more than are 1000 R&D related (source:www.biotechgate.com ). The biggest sub-sectors are diagnostics and analytics,contract research, and therapeutics.Page 28 of 88
  26. 26. FIGURE 14: Key Activities of Biotechnology Companies in SwitzerlandSource: www.Biotechgate.com
  27. 27. 2.2.2 Fact & FiguresIn the Swiss Biotechnology sector 72% of the companies are small enterprisesemploying less than 50 employeesFIGURE 15: Size of Biotechnology Companies in SwitzerlandSource: www.Biotechgate.comSince the 2008, when the financial crises hit the world economy, the Swissbiotechnology sector experienced a steady decline in the number of new companyventures. Therapeutic products and services have become the main driver for newcompanies.Page 30 of 88
  28. 28. FIGURE 16: Foundation of Biotechnology Companies in Switzerland 1999-2009Source: www.Biotechgate.com25% of the companies are university spin-offs, 44% are independent (“standard”)foundations. Only 6% are company spin-offs.FIGURE 17: Sources of New Company Foundations in BiotechnologySource: www.Biotechgate.com
  29. 29. Presently, the bulk of the products are in the discovery and preclinical phase.FIGURE 18: New Products in Pipeline of Swiss Biotechnology CompaniesSource: www.Biotechgate.comPage 32 of 88
  30. 30. 2.2.3 Geographical SpreadThe Swiss Biotechnology scene has split into 4 regional areas: Basel Area(BioValley), Zurich Area (Greater Zurich Area), Western Switzerland (BioAlps), andTicino (Biopolo).TABLE 06: Geographical Spread of the Biotechnology Industry in SwitzerlandCompared to The Netherlands Switzerland The NetherlandsBiotech –TherapeuticsBiotech / R&DServicesBiotech - other
  31. 31. Switzerland The NetherlandsPharmaOther(Note: due to the highamount of the “other”category, the mapscan only be used in anindicative way).Source: http://www.swisslifesciences.com/swisslifesciences/map/map.php andhttp://www.dutchbiotech.com/dut/map/map.phprPage 34 of 88
  32. 32. 2.2.4 Relevant Developments The is a number of initiatives and organizations in the Swiss Biotechnology cluster, which – together with the entrepreneurs themselves – foster the economic development.TABLE 07: Important Initiatives and Organizations in the Swiss Biotechnology Cluster Case Description Source A. National Research Initiatives SystemsX.ch is currently the biggest research http://www.sy initiative underway in Switzerland with the mandate to stemsx.ch/ promote Systems Biology. It is a consortium with nine universities and three research institutions as partners. SystemsX.ch is funded with a federal budget of CHF 100 Mio for the period of 2008 - 2011. This sum is only available if matched by the same amount by the partners receiving funds. This way the total investment in Systems Biology will be at least CHF 200 Mio for 2008 - 2011, supplemented by third-party funds by industry and other funding agencies. The Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) supervises and safeguards the quality of the research and the initiative as a whole. The National Centre of Competence in Research http://www.fr (NCCR) Frontiers in Genetics, a network of 250 ontiers-in- scientists from different universities and institutes of genetics.org/p Switzerland, is part of a program created in 2001 by age.php?id=pr the Swiss National Science Foundation. ofile_en Frontiers in Genetics aims at understanding the function and regulation of certain genes during development, as well as their role in maintaining health or favouring the emergence of pathology. The NCCR is based on 3 research programs (work packages) and individual contributions. Partnership with industry is encouraged, in order to exploit potential discoveries in the field of medical therapies. The National Center of Competence in Research http://www.nc (NCCR) in Molecular Oncology is a swiss network cr- research program in the field of cancer research. The oncology.ch/ program is led by the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research at the EPFL in Lausanne in close collaboration with several partner institutes. The program is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation.
  33. 33. Case Description Source The SSCN is a non-profit group of scientists, which http://www.u was designed to: nige.ch/scienc - Foster interactions among scientists and between es/biologie/bia scientists and society ni/sscn/ - Advance the discovery of basic molecular, cellular and organismic mechanisms of embryonic and adult http://www.ss stem cell functions in human and all model systems cn.unige.ch/d - Encourage and support young scientists, minorities ocuments/flye and women in science r/english.pdf - Provide the public at large with an informed and first hand view of current stem cell research - Discuss important scientific and ethical issues arising from stem cell research The SSCN does not support reproductive cloning. The SVRI is driven by the common goal of http://www.s international initiatives promoted at a political, wissvaccineres corporate and academic level to reduce or eliminate earchinstitute. suffering and death due to infectious diseases and ch/ cancer. The SVRI will contribute to this goal through exploration, scientific discovery and translation of the discoveries into effective preventive vaccine strategies and therapeutic vaccine interventions for infectious diseases and for cancer. The Friedrich Miescher Institute is devoted to http://www.f fundamental biomedical research aimed at mi.ch understanding the basic molecular mechanisms of health and disease. We communicate and patent our findings to enable their translation into medical application. The institute focuses on the fields of - Epigenetics - Signaling & Cancer - Neurobiology In these fields, it has gained international recognition as a centre of excellence in innovative biomedical research.B. European ResearchProjects Health-TIES is a consortium that gathers four of http://www.he Europe’s top regions in biosciences, medical althties.eu/ technology and health entrepreneurship: Medical Delta (West of the Netherlands), Oxford and Thames Valley (United Kingdom), Canton of Zurich (Switzerland), Biocat (Catalonia), and the mentoring region of Észak- Alföld in Hungary. The consortium is baked by European Commission. Page 36 of 88
  34. 34. Case Description SourceC. Cantonal Initiatives Life Science Zurich is a joint venture initiated by the http://www.lif University of Zurich and the ETH Zurich to promote escience- Zurich as an international centre for cutting-edge zurich.ch/inde research, first class education and economic x.php?id=16& innovation in the field of the life sciences. L=1 Life Science Zurich establishes cooperation networks that bring together the major stakeholders in academia, industry and the public sector. LSZ supports a strong and modern life science curriculum in primary and secondary education. LSZ aims to offer one of the best doctoral schools worldwide in the field of the life sciences and to prepare young researchers to develop into tomorrows leaders in life science research, industry and society. In addition LSZ stimulates dialogue between academia, the broad public and the industry and creates an atmosphere of mutual understanding, respect and trust. The BIO-TECHNOPARK® Schlieren-Zurich, in close http://www.bi collaboration with its network partners, offers o- professional support for life science companies in the technopark.ch setting up and expansion of business activities in the / Greater Zurich area. Companies at the Bio- Technoparks: http://www.bi o- technopark.ch /index.php?id =351&L=1 For young start-ups, the biotop provides in-house ready-equipped laboratory, office and warehousing space. Available for joint usage: laundry, refrigeration, storage facilities and seminar rooms, as well as diverse laboratory equipment. BioValley Basel aims at: http://www.bi - promoting the north-western part of Switzerland - ovalley.ch/con particularly the Basel area tent.cfm?nav= - as prime location for Life Science companies: as best 1&content=2 location to settle down and extend their network - encouraging and supporting Life Science entrepreneurs who wish to set up their businesses in the Basel area
  35. 35. Case Description Source - sponsoring communication and networking among representatives from science, economy, politics and the general public regarding Life Sciences - fostering contact among BioValley members from all countries and enhancing mutual support among them The Greater Zurich Area is Switzerland’s economic http://www.gr engine and a central business location for Europe. eaterzurichare Nearly half the Swiss population lives in the Greater a.ch/content/0 Zurich Area. The business region in and around the 2/02_002en.a world-famous financial center of Zürich employs a sp workforce of some 1.5 million multilingual, international workers in a good 150000 companies. Per capita GDP is around CHF 65000. In recent years, the Greater Zurich Area has become a fast-growing center for the life sciences. Famous international companies like Amgen, Baxter, Ecolab, Nobel Biocare, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, Phonak, Synthes, Zimmer and many more, along with numerous startups in biotechnology, medical technology and the pharmaceuticals industry, have chosen to set up a branch or even their international headquarters in the Greater Zurich Area. The aim is to promote Western Switzerland as a world http://www.bi class centre for the life sciences, and to foster the oalps.org growth of this specific industrial sector. The role goes well beyond the promotion of excellence in the sector as it exists today. It also accompanies, supports, encourages and stimulates both performance and innovation by creating the conditions which enable the development of companies. Biopolo Ticino is an association representing the value http://www.bi chain of the life sciences in Ticino. Members represent opolo.ch/index government and financial agencies, academic .php institutions and industry. Its mission is to foster the development of life sciences research and industry in southern Switzerland. It must be clear that this list is not exhaustive and that the sector is moving fast. However, the authors are confident that this list provides you, the reader, with some important anchor points in Swiss Biotechnology industry. Page 38 of 88
  36. 36. 2.3 Microtechnology:In this chapter we will provide you with key insights into the Swiss microtechnologyindustry by providing you with an overview of the subsectors and a number ofstatistics. In addition we will present a number of recent developments, and willprovide you with the opportunities for Dutch businesses.2.3.1 SubsectorsThe Swiss Microtechnology has its roots in the watch industry as the mother-of-all ofindustrialized precision products. Like modern watch industry, precision instrumentsand Medtech products incorporate small scale mechanical components sensors,actuators, energy sources, mechanical elements and intelligence. Microtechnologyhas been described as standing at the crossroads of mechanical engineering,electronics, materials science and computer science, microengineering gives apanoramic view of engineering disciplines (see http://bachelor.epfl.ch/page-5835-en.html).The Swiss Medtech industry forms a strong cluster which incorporates not only themanufacturers and their suppliers, but also the university hospitals and specificinitiatives on a national level: CTI Medtech Initiative, CCMT – Competence Center forMedical Technology, and the Medical Cluster.A key institution in the field of the microtechnology is the CSEM (Centre Suissed’éléctronique et de microtechnique) at Neuchâtel. It is a private applied researchand development company, having micro- and nanotechnologies, microelectronics,systems engineering , microrobotics, photonics, information and communicationtechnologies as its current main fields. 20% of the shares of CSEM are held by EPFL– Swiss Polytechnic at Lausanne, hence being the largest shareholder.Since January 2009, the EPFL – Swiss Polytechnic at Lausanne has an Institute forMicro-engineering with laboratories at Lausanne and Neuchâtel. It is based on threecentral pillars: micro- and nanotechnologies, optics, robotics (see:http://sti.epfl.ch/page-1674-en.html ).
  37. 37. FIGURE 19: Swiss Medtech Industry: Manufacturer by CategorySource: Swiss Medtech Report 2010 (link: http://www.medtech-switzerland.com/en/index.php?section=downloads&cmd=1&category=2 )FIGURE 20: Swiss Medtech Industry: Suppliers by CategorySource: Swiss Medtech Report 2010 (link: http://www.medtech-switzerland.com/en/index.php?section=downloads&cmd=1&category=2 )Page 40 of 88
  38. 38. 2.3.2 Fact & FiguresToday, there are approximately 800 companies in Switzerland working in the field ofmanufacture of irradiation, electromedical and electrotherapeutic equipment, andmanufacture of medical instruments and supplies. They employ about 35.000people.Most remarkable is the fact, that R&D spending of the manufacturers of precisioninstruments (which includes manufacture of medical technology, office machineryand equipment including computers, and manufacture of watches and clocks) hasquadrupled since 2000:TABLE 08: R&D Spending of the Swiss Precision Industry 2000 2008Domestic intramuros R&D 395 mio. CHF 701 mio. CHFForeign intramuros R&D 32 mio. CHF (2004) 750 mio. CHFExtramuros R&D of 120 mio. CHF (2004) 568 mio. CHFdomesticorganizationsTotal 547 mio. CHF 2’019 mio. CHFSource: Bundesamt für Statistik (BFS), Forschung und Entwicklung in derschweizerischen Privatwirtschaft 2008, 2010 (Link:http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/04/01/new/nip_detail.html?gnpID=2010-716 )There are several factors behind these figures: - Some big international companies building new or enlarging existing R&D facilities in Switzerland: IBM at Rüeschlikon, Google and Walt Disney at Zürich, Nokia at Lausanne; - Growing R&D demand of the domestic companies in order to benefit from latest technological advances.
  39. 39. 2.3.3 Geographical spreadFIGURE 21: Map of the Swiss Medical Technology IndustrySource: Swiss Medtech Report 2010 (link: http://www.medtech-switzerland.com/en/index.php?section=downloads&cmd=1&category=2 )FIGURE 22: Map of the Dutch Medtechnology IndustrySource: http://www.dutchbiotech.com/dut/map/map.phpPage 42 of 88
  40. 40. 2.3.4 Relevant developmentsTABLE 09: Relevant Developments in Swiss Microtechnology Industry Case Description Source A. National Research Initiatives The Cluster précision offers a platform for firms, http://www.cl component suppliers, institutions offering eduction and uster- research which are active in the field of the precision precision.ch/in industry and microtechnology. dex.php?page The organisation supports the members in the =89 acquisition of customers and networking by means of regular cluster-events and joint marketing efforts. The Medical Cluster brings together manufacturers, http://www.m suppliers, service providers and research and edical- development firms along the medtech value-added cluster.ch/ind chain from throughout Switzerland. ex.php?setLan Today, the association has more than 280 members g=2 from all over Switzerland, from Germany and the US. The focus is on the following fields: - Supporting the innovation process throughout the value-added chain, from research through production to market. - Optimising the transfer of knowledge and technology. - Expanding the opportunities for initial and continuing education in the medtech sector. -Providing support for innovative young enterprises. The FSRM - Fondation Suisse pour la recherche en http://www.fs microtechnique lends itself to the promotion of rm.ch/?lang= microtechnologies and applications. e On the 1st January, 2009 the Institute of http://sti.epfl. Microengineering of the University of Neuchâtel was ch/page- officially attached to the EPFL. This was an initiative of 1725-en.html the Secretary of State for Education and Research, mandated by the Board of Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, whereby the Swiss Confederation and Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel decided in October 2007 to integrate the Microengineering Institute of the University of Neuchâtel within the EPFL, while maintaining it in Neuchâtel. If the first stage consisted of integrating existing strucures, it is a real expansion which is being envisaged with the creation of new chairs in the next few years, particularly on the Neuchâtel site, a key
  41. 41. Case Description Source project being the creation of a new building. The result will be a unique institute and a common policy, bearing the slogan "one institute, two sites", with the broad outlines of "Green manufacturing" at Neuchâtel and "Biomedical technologies" at Lausanne. There are many new technologies to develop to meet current challenges, across the domains of health and environment. The Neuchâtel branch of the EPFL will have a mandate distinguished by research quality and industrial relations. The Competence Center for Medical Technology http://www.cc (CCMT) serves as a link between hospitals, research medtech.ch and industry. Acting as an independend hub, the CCMT fosters the establishment of new contacts between various promoters and brings together potential partners. The CTI Medtech initiative sees itself as an information http://www.kt platform and hub that links interested economic and i.admin.ch/net scientific partners through working groups and joint zwerke/00067 projects. The immediate or short-term goal is to /00070/index. improve products and production processes. The html?lang=en longer term objective is to integrate new technologies with the products, thus obtaining the optimal advantage in the global competitive market. It pursues the following main goals: - To promote the innovation and competitiveness of Swiss medical technology - To stimulate the expertise transfer between research and medtech firms, new start-ups and small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) Since the CTI Medtech initiative was launched in 1997, CTI has sponsored over 150 medtech projects with federal grants in the amount of over 50 million CHF. For every franc spent by the Confederation, business partners invest an additional 1.50 CHF, which results in research funds of over 120 million CHF. Page 44 of 88
  42. 42. Case Description SourceB. Cantonal/regionalinitiatives Micronarc is a communication platform created by the http://www.m governments of the seven cantons that constitute icronarc.ch/in Western Switzerland (Berne, Fribourg, Geneva, Jura, dex-en.php Neuchâtel, Valais and Vaud). Its mission is to contribute towards: - Developing and promoting the regional scientific, industrial and economic base in the sectors of micro and nanotechnology, as well as its educational structures, R&D facilities, technology transfer, inward investment and its enterprises - Encouraging seamless interaction between all participants - Attracting other creative and innovative forces, generating jobs and ensuring future generations of a qualified workforce - Acting as a permanent source of reliable and accessible information, serving as an instrument for the dissemination and exchange of knowledge, both professional and public. CSEM, Centre Suisse d Electronique et de http://www.cs Microtechnique (Swiss Center for Electronics and em.ch/site Microtechnology), founded in 1984, is a private applied research and development center specializing in micro and nanotechnology, system engineering microelectronics and communications technologies. It offers its customers and industry partners custom- made innovative solutions based on its knowledge of the market and technological expertise derived from applied research.
  43. 43. 2.4 Nano-technology:2.4.1 Subsectors / Fact & FiguresNano-technology as a new fundamental science helps to create new or improveexisting products and processes, rather than to create a new industry.In Switzerland the core of the R&D in nano-technology is the National ResearchProgramme NRP 64: Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials. Its focus is dividedinto three major topics: - Biomedical research: New nanomaterials can indeed lead to pioneering developments in pharmacology, medical testing and medical equipment The biomedical module deals with the potential health effects of the use of nanomaterials. - Environmental research: Nanoparticles can be released into the water, air or earth either deliberately – for instance when plant protection products are used in farming – or unintentionally in the course of manufacturing, use or disposal. The projects of the environmental research module assess the effects of nanoparticles on the environment and on ecological systems. - Other Fields : This module contains two projects examining the development and use of innovative nanomaterials, nanocomposites and novel building materials. In addition, they evaluate the potential health hazards and environmental risks associated with these materials throughout their life cycle. - (Link: http://www.nfp64.ch/E/portrait/Pages/mainresearchtopics.aspx )The program started in December 2010 and it will end in 2016. The total budgetcovering all 5 years is 12 Million Swiss Francs. The steering committee is made up ofan international group of specialists.The program aims at a close cooperation within the EU Research Frameworkprogrammes. In the case of nanotechnology this works within the ERA-NETEuroNanoMed (see link: http://www.euronanomed.net ).The research activities are coordinated via the nano-tera.ch network.Page 46 of 88
  44. 44. 2.4.2 Geographical SpreadFIGURE 23: Distribution of the nano-tera.ch Research GroupsSource: www.nanotera.ch
  45. 45. 2.4.3 Relevant DevelopmentsTABLE 10: Relevat Developments in Swiss Nanotechnology Sector Case Description Source A. National Research Initiatives Swiss National Research Program NRP64 financed by http://www. the Swiss National Science Foundation. It concentrates nfp64.ch/E/P on biomedical research, environmental research and ages/home.a other fields. spx http://www. nfp64.ch/Sit eCollectionD ocuments/nf p64_progra mmportraet_ e.pdf MaNEP – Matériaux aux proprieties électroniques http://www. exceptionnelles is a long term research programme manep.ch/in focusing on new electronic materials which are at the dex2_en.ht forefront of our future technological environment. It ml gathers a network of 250 scientists from Swiss universities and industry. The Swiss Nanoscience Institute (SNI) developed from http://www. the National Center of Competence in Research nanoscience. (NCCR) “Nanoscale Science” and constitutes a priority ch/nccr/ program of the University of Basel. It combines basic science with application-orientated research. In various projects researchers focus on nanoscale structures and aim at providing new impact and ideas to the life sciences, to the sustainable use of resources, and to information and communication technologies. The University of Basel as the leading house coordinates the NCCR network of the involved universities, federal research institutes, industrial partners and the Argovia-network, which is financed by the Swiss Canton of Aargau. The various research groups focus on the following seven subject areas: - Nanobiology - Quantum Computing and Quantum Coherence - Atomic and Molecular Nanosystems - Molecular Electronics - Functional Materials by Hierarchical Self-Assembly - Applied Projects in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology - Nanoethics Page 48 of 88
  46. 46. Case Description Source As a cooperation programme between the Swiss http://www. National Science Foundation (SNSF) and the nfp62.ch/E/P Innovation Promotion Agency (CTI), the National ages/home.a Research Programme "Smart Materials" (NRP 62) is spx committed to the development of new intelligent materials and advancing promising projects to the R&D stage. NRP 62 will operate with CHF 11 million for a research duration of five years Nano-Tera is a Swiss federal program funding 19 four- http://www. year research projects (RTD), 15 focused projects nano-tera.ch (NTF) and 9 projects of education and dissemination (ED). The total consolidated budget is over CHF 120 million, of which 50% is funded by Nano-Tera and 50% participants own contributions. The Nano-Tera initiative aims to bring Switzerland to the forefront of a new technological revolution, using engineering and information technology to improve the health and security of humans and the environment in the 21st century.B. European ResearchProjects The EuroNanoMed ERA-NET initiative comprises 24 http://www. partners from 18 countries/regions. EuroNanoMed euronanome aims at fostering the competitiveness of European d.net nanomedicine players through the support of trans- national collaborative and multidisciplinary Research and Technology Development (RTD) projects with participants from academia, clinical/public health communities, and industry (particularly small and medium-sized enterprises).C. National ResearchInstitutions The Micro and Nano Science Platform is a network of http://www. researchers within ETH Zurich with the goal to micronano.et promote research and education as well as technology hz.ch/ development and transfer in the field of micro and nano sciences. The Materials Research Center is a platform for all http://www. materials-related research at ETH Zurich. mrc.ethz.ch
  47. 47. Case Description Source Materials research at EPFL encompasses essentially all http://phd.e classes of solid materials aimed at a wide array of pfl.ch/page- applications that span from modern microelectronic 19769- devices over hot blades of aircraft turbines to en.html biomedical devices. Laboratories active in Materials comprise, in addition to the laboratories of EPFLs Institute of Materials also many laboratories within other research Institutes of the EPFL. On the 1st January, 2009 the Institute of http://sti.epf Microengineering of the University of Neuchâtel was l.ch/page- officially attached to the EPFL. This was an initiative of 1725- the Secretary of State for Education and Research, en.html mandated by the Board of Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, whereby the Swiss Confederation and Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel decided in October 2007 to integrate the Microengineering Institute of the University of Neuchâtel within the EPFL, while maintaining it in Neuchâtel. If the first stage consisted of integrating existing strucures, it is a real expansion which is being envisaged with the creation of new chairs in the next few years, particularly on the Neuchâtel site, a key project being the creation of a new building. The result will be a unique institute and a common policy, bearing the slogan "one institute, two sites", with the broad outlines of "Green manufacturing" at Neuchâtel and "Biomedical technologies" at Lausanne. There are many new technologies to develop to meet current challenges, across the domains of health and environment. The Neuchâtel branch of the EPFL will have a mandate distinguished by research quality and industrial relations.Competence Centre for CCMX federates the strengths of four ETH Domain http://www. institutions (EPFL, ETH Zurich, EMPA, PSI) and of ccmx.ch CSEM, and involves the active participation of partners from industry, from industrial associations and from Swiss universities. The Centre is headed by a Steering Committee comprising members from EPFL (chair), ETH Zurich, PSI, Empa, CSEM and industry. At the core of the Centre’s activities are ERUs – Education and Research Units – and an Analytical Platform. The ERUs offer programmes of research and education, including technology transfer, in targeted fields of activity identified together with the Swiss industry: - Surface, coatings and particles engineering (SPERU) - Materials for the life sciences (MatLife) - Metallurgy (MERU) Page 50 of 88
  48. 48. Case Description Source The section 125 of EMPA, "Nanoscale Materials http://www. Science", addresses scientific questions and empa.ch/plu technological problems in surface science and - gin/template technology, magnetism, nanoscience and –technology. /empa/941/ Our interest ranges from the study of atomic and */---/l=2 molecular nanosystems by means of advanced scanning probe microscopy, the fabrication of hard coatings, coatings for medical applications, magnetic thin films and devices, magnetic shape memory alloys, to surface analysis services by TOF-SIMS, XPS and scanning Auger. The section 125 is organized in five research groups and has a strong link to the NCCR on Nanoscale Science at the University of Basel, Switzerland, and SwissProbe AG. The five research groups profit from staff with a background in solid state physics, chemistry, mechanical and electrical engineering and perform projects ranging from basic science to application oriented development including problem solving and analytical services for industry. For more detailed information follow the group links. Section 127 nanotech@surfaces of EMPA understands http://www. itself as a classical research laboratory, with activities empa.ch/plu in fundamental and applied research in the field of gin/template nanostructures on surfaces. The principal aim of the /empa/848/ laboratory is the transfer of results from basic research */---/l=1 via applied research projects to industry. With our actual priorities "Electron Emission from Carbon Nanotubes" and "Molecular Electronics" we satisfy this target perfectly. In the topic "Electron Emission from Carbon Nanotubes" we have a number of projects with industrial partners around the world running or in preparation. These applied research projects are mainly focused on the development of prototype devices using carbon nanotubes in a key function. The second set up priority "Molecular Electronics" is an activity in classical basic research and with a long term perspective regarding applications with are thinkable in 10 or more years. The Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, is the largest http://www. research centre for natural and engineering sciences psi.ch within Switzerland, with its research activities concentrated on three main subject areas: Structure of Matter, Energy and the Environment, and Health. The PSI develops, construct and operate complex large- scale research facilities. Every year, more than 2000 scientists from Switzerland and other countries travel
  49. 49. Case Description Source to PSI in order to perform experiments at our unique facilities. PSI has about 1400 staff, with an annual budget of approximately CHF 300 million, and is primarily financed by the Swiss Confederation. PSI is part of the ETH Domain, with the other members being the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, ETH Zurich and EPFL Lausanne, as well as the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science & Technology, Empa, the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Eawag, and the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL. The Institute is located on both sides of the River Aare, in the Villigen and Würenlingen municipal areas, in the Canton of Aargau. PSI operates large scientific research facilities, such as the SINQ neutron source, the Swiss Light Source (SLS) and the SµS muon source, which offer out-of-the- ordinary insights into the processes taking place in the interior of different substances and materials. These are the only such facilities within Switzerland, and some are the only ones in the world.D. Regional initiatives The Fribourg Center for Nano-Materials FriMat, hosted http://frimat by the Fribourg University, is incorporated as an .unifr.ch interdisciplinary research institute into the Faculty of Sciences of the University. In partnership with the Adolphe Merkle Institute and local industries, the new institute FriMat will conduct materials oriented research and development of new advanced functional materials. Such materials are relevant to the sustained economic growth of Switzerland as a knowledge-based economy. FriMat stands for interdisciplinary cutting edge research and a knowledge pool that offers teams of scientists for problem solutions. FriMat is represented in the Scientific and Technology Platforms of Fribourg, e. g. the „Réseau Plasturgie“, „Réseau Nanotechnology“, etc The Adolphe Merkle Institute (AMI) is a recently http://www. established independent center of competence at the am- University of Fribourg, which focuses on research in institute.ch/ the area of soft nano- and materials science. It is en located in the heart of Western Switzerland, in the bilingual canton of Fribourg. In the landscape of Switzerland’s research institutions, AMI is in many aspects unique. Its focus on soft nanomaterials is unmatched in Switzerland and beyond. AMI prides Page 52 of 88
  50. 50. Case Description Source itself with an unusual blend of fundamental and application-oriented research within a multidisciplinary setting. The Nano-Cluster Bodensee is a regional initiative http://www. focusing on ncb.ch/en/in - Promotion of the commercialisation of nano- and dex.html microtechnology research results. - Enhancement of innovation and competitiveness of companies in the area of the "Lake of Constance" and maintenance respectively creation of jobs. IBM has maintained a research laboratory in http://www. Switzerland since 1956, located on its own campus in zurich.ibm.c Rüschlikon near Zurich since 1962. As the European om/nanocent branch of IBM Research, the mission of the IBM er Research - Zurich lab — in addition to pursuing cutting-edge research for tomorrow’s information technology — is to cultivate close relationships with academic and industrial partners, be one of the premier places to work for world-class researchers, to promote women in IT and science, and to help drive Europe’s innovation agenda. The Nanotechnology Center will be a unique facility for exploratory research. It will not be a production or a pilot line with fixed processes or wafer sizes. Rather, it will be a state-of-the-art exploratory cleanroom fabrication facility combined with "noise-free" labs shielded against external vibrations, acoustic noise, electromagnetic fields and temperature fluctuations. Some of the research fields to be pursued at the Nanotechnology Center: - MEMS/NEMS - Spintronics/magnetism - Nanowires - Carbon-based devices - Functional materials - Directed self-assembly - Electronic packaging - Thermal management - 3D integration - Optical interconnects - Photonics - Simulation and theory
  51. 51. 2.5 Opportunities for Dutch Business In all the fields described above, there is a strong R&D-focus. However, due to the individual characteristics of the three fields, the approach to find a collaboration or directly doing business in Switzerland must be different:TABLE 11: Overview of Selected Swiss Life Sciences Industries and Opportunities for Dutch Businesses Biotechnology Microtechnology & Nano-technology medical technology Strategic approach Entrepreneurial driven Strategic/Business Research Driven driven Governance Biotechnology market Micro and medical- Nano-technology is is clustered around 4 technology companies strongly research areas (see above) are in general small driven. Each Canton/ sized enterprises University has its own scattered all across specialty. Switzerland. They are well organized in a cluster. Opportunities for Collaboration (research Joint Ventures Joint Research (CH-EU- Dutch Businesses and/or business) Supplier and/or NL) Fundraising (Note: Manufacturing Collaboration Swiss presence relationships advisable) Acquisitions/ Investments Strategy Dutch Businesses Dutch Businesses Dutch specialist can should explore the interested in this collaborate directly different areas based industry can contact with suitable partners their specific needs and the cluster and make use of choose the region with organizations as a first existing research most synergies and point of contact and collaborations (e.g. EU- network effects identify potential EP7) companies. Most likely Academics CEO / Mgt Teams PhD Candidates interested audience Innovative SME (Corporate) Investors Universities Entrepreneurs (Corporate) R&D (Corporate) Investors First contacts: Representatives of the Industrial cluster NCCR’s Biotechnology regional organizations organisations Page 54 of 88