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Nationalist China and Democracy in Japan

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Developments in Nationalist China, the rise of Communism in China, and Japan's era of transformation from Taisho democracy to growing militarism.

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Nationalist China and Democracy in Japan

  1. 1. Nationalism in China & Japan
  2. 2. I. Appeal of Communism in Asia <ul><li>Many in Asia felt that Marxism was irrelevant b/c it was based on an overthrowing of capitalism and they supported nationalism and religion </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin and the Bolshevik rise to power proved to Asians that a corrupt system could be overthrown and replaced by a Marxism </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Appeal of Communism in Asia <ul><li>1920, Lenin began a program of spreading Communism to non-Western countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove colonies from capitalist powers to weaken imperialist power – raw resources/material goods kept capitalism alive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the nationalist leaders in colonial countries were against possible egalitarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with nationalists, Communist parties established with help of nationalist & middle-class - overthrow capitalist imperialist powers and traditional leaders– afterwards Communists takes power </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. I. Appeal of Communism in Asia <ul><ul><li>1919- Lenin formed the Communist International, or Comintern, to spread Communism – trained agents from around the world and then sent them back to their countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower middle class/intellectuals attracted to Communism - felt Marxism could modernize society and remove the colonial powers, and provided a “here and now” secular ideology – many tried to adapt it to traditional thinking </li></ul>
  5. 5. II. China <ul><li>After Sun Yat-Sen’s failed Revolution of 1911, the president of the new Chinese republic was Yuan Shikai, a man who had the support of the military – Yuan was a dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Yuan Shikai and Sun’s party, the Guomingdang (Nationalist Party) split – Nationalists launched a failed rebellion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Primary Source: Yuan Shikai
  7. 7. II. China <ul><li>Peking University intellectuals studied Western models and writers because they believed that change could not come until Chinese shed tradition and brought in Western values and institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Culture Movement – stress on Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No real support outside of urban areas </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. II. China <ul><li>Japan attempted 21 Demands (Japanese expansion into China)– at Paris Peace Conference, former German territory in China given to Japan for supporting the Allies in WWI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 Demands rejected – reduced to 13 and accepted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 4, 1919- May 4 th Movement – Protest of students and urbanites in Beijing over China’s acceptance of the Paris Peace Conference terms </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Primary Source: May 4 th Movement
  10. 10. II. China <ul><li>Two Political forces in China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalist Party of Sun Yat-Sen allied with Guangdong (Kwangtung) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Communist Party, CCP, formed in 1921, supported by the Comintern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalist Party and CCP joined together to defeated Westerners and drive out colonizers and stop warlords in China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined together for the Northern Expedition of 1926 to seize Chinese land </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. II. China <ul><ul><li>Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925 - Chiang Kai-shek came to control the Nationalist Party and tried to destroy the Communists in 1927, breaking their alliance and sending the CCP into hiding in Shanghai and in the mountains of Southern China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young Communist Mao Zedong led Communists into hiding in the mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mao gained the support of the peasants and believed in peasant revolution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong </li></ul>Primary Source: Chiang Kai-shek & Mao Zedong
  13. 13. II. China <ul><li>The Nanjing Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1928 in Nanjing by Chiang Kai-shek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Sun Yat-Sen’s Three People’s Principles (nationalism, democracy, livelihood) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to take China to the final stage of constitutional government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed to Westernized middle class, not peasants – programs like land reform that would appeal to peasants weak </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. II. China <ul><ul><li>New Life Movement, 1934, championed Confucian values of integrity, propriety, righteousness, and hard work; also rejected Communism and individualism/Western greed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confucian ideas no longer appealing to many – traditional system had failed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founded an underground fascist style society of personal followers called the Blue Shirts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. II. China <ul><ul><li>Programs challenged by Japanese and Great Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialization slow, a lot of money going to the military, most of the money in the hands of the elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanization began to replace manual labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Textile industry growing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Long March </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1934-1935- Chiang Kai-shek surrounded Communists in southern China, including Mao’s People’s Liberation Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communists sent on a long march 200 miles north to Yan’an with Nationalists chasing them – of 90,000, 10,000 survived </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Map- The Long March
  17. 17. II. China <ul><li>Social changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected of Confucian filial piety and subordination of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women demanded right to choose mates and careers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressives wanted to end the hold of traditional ‘duty’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western literature, fashion, and culture become popular in urban areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little changed in villages where women stayed largely subordinate, duty was emphasized, and marriages were arranged – conservatives wanted to retain tradition </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. III. Japan <ul><li>Taisho Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health of Emperor Taisho Yoshihito was poor – shift from genro to the Diet and democratic parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of military control in Japan – army and navy outside of the Diet, answered directly to Emperor – if they did not get what they wanted for the military, they’d resign from the cabinet (headed by the Prime Minister) and it would collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privy Council, the advisory board of the Emperor, made of up genro/oligarchs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. III. Japan <ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor sacred and public expected him to be ‘apart’ from politics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1925- Universal male suffrage granted and labor laws begun – military budget reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxist labor movements and militant nationalists who wanted to reject Western models of development caused trouble </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Primary Source: Emperor Taisho
  21. 21. III. Japan <ul><li>Zaibatsu Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy strong – rich in exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zaibatsu were financial cliques, essential monopolies, made up of already existing companies and enterprising samurai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic dichotomy- modern industry vs. traditional small scale manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zaibatsu supported political parties and political representation – tension between zaibatsu and military </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. III. Japan <ul><li>Shidehara Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-WWI- To find markets and raw materials, Japan seized territory in Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria – West concerned by Japanese aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington Conference, 1922- “Four Power Pact” and the “Nine Power Pact,” Open Door Policy in China, Naval Limitation Treaty of 5 : 5 : 3 : 1.75 : 1.75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for resources from industry – China seen as a solution – Kwantung Army stationed in China became more aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese government more military and ultranationalist </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Primary Source: Washington Conference
  24. 24. <ul><li>Traditional Japan </li></ul><ul><li>New Japan </li></ul>Primary Source: Japan in Transition

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