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Workplace Violence Retail Slides

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Workplace Violence Retail Slides

  1. 2. Nicole Deese, M.S. OOHN Intern August 4 th , 2009 Workplace Violence in Retail: Controls that Work
  2. 3. Coming Up <ul><li>Scary Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors in Retail </li></ul><ul><li>Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design </li></ul><ul><li>Research on What Works </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 4. Quick Stats - 2007 5488 Total Workplace Fatalities 835 Falls 488 Exposure to Harmful Substances 151 Fire and Explosions 22 Bodily Reaction and Exertion 839 Assaults & Violent Events <ul><ul><li>916 </li></ul></ul>Contact with Objects 2234 Transportation Accidents
  4. 5. Quick Stats
  5. 6. Risk Factors in Retail
  6. 7. Risk Factors <ul><li>Cash </li></ul>
  7. 8. Risk Factors <ul><li>Public </li></ul>
  8. 9. Risk Factors <ul><li>Few People </li></ul>
  9. 10. Risk Factors <ul><li>Night time work </li></ul>
  10. 11. Risk Factors <ul><li>Poor Visibility </li></ul>
  11. 12. Risk Factors <ul><li>Easy Escape </li></ul>
  12. 13. Controls that Work
  13. 14. General Duty Clause 5(a)(1) <ul><li>Employer failed to keep workplace safe </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard was recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard was causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible and useful way to correct it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed abatement would significantly reduce the hazard </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) <ul><li>Main Idea: Potential criminals think logically- weighing the pros & cons </li></ul><ul><li>Make the pros & cons in our favor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing perceived rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Effective is a Combination of Controls! </li></ul>
  15. 16. Convenience Stores <ul><li>Associated with Reduced Risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullet-Resistant Shielding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATM Machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Handling Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hendricks, et al., 1999 </li></ul>
  16. 17. Cash-Handling Policies
  17. 18. Signage
  18. 19. Gas Stations, Motels, Liquor Stores <ul><li>Intervention (How): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peek-Asa et al., 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome / Reduction of Risk : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Compliers: 5% Decrease in Crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Compliers: 28% Increase in Crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look up control risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>n = 314 (intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>n = 96 (control) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Lighting - Outside
  20. 21. Lighting- Indoors
  21. 22. Liquor Stores <ul><li>Intervention (How): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape Routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Casteel et al., 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome / Reduction of Risk : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>82% Reduction in Robbery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Group Increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>n = 9 (intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>n = 13 (control) </li></ul>
  22. 23. Visibility
  23. 24. Retail - Variety <ul><li>Intervention (How): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility & Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Casteel et al., 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome / Reduction of Risk : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Compliers: 26% Lower Violent Crime Rate vs. Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>41% Lower Robbery & Attempted vs. Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>n = 305 (intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>n = 96 (control) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Accessibility - Outside
  25. 26. Accessibility - Indoors Counter Goodies Door Door Door Goodies
  26. 27. Convenience Stores <ul><li>Intervention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility & Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-Release Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clifton, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome / Reduction of Risk : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64% Decrease in Robberies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>n = 47 Stores </li></ul>
  27. 28. Buddy System Butterworth, 1991
  28. 29. State Plans <ul><li>Several State plans address WPV in retail: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others address WPV in the healthcare setting and/or public sector: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delaware </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Summary <ul><li>CPTED- Reduce perceived gains, increase barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective to use several controls together. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced crime rates by up to 82%! </li></ul><ul><li>Hope this would be helpful to OSHA’s enforcement team. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Questions or Comments? Thank you!

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