Pool safety

V
You Don't Pay Lifeguards to Babysit... You Pay Them to Save Lives. Swimming Pool Safety Draft 9 15 2011 Newquist
Lifeguards ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
36-year-old mother of five - July 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Water Clarity     ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],ANSI/NSPI -1 Standard for Public Swimming Pools. 2003
These Deaths Were Preventable ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Injury Prevention Basics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Saves = Near Miss ,[object Object],[object Object]
Swim Lesson Save -  DeKalb 2010  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Water Aerobics Rescue - DeKalb  July 13, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
DeKalb Double Save July 20, 2011     ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
DeKalb Save July 29, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
DeKalb Slide Save July 21, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Slide in Shallow end
DeKalb Slide Save January 2011     ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
DeKalb Activity Center Save 2011   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Leonard Pope Saves 6 y.o. Child June 12, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],“ He saved my son's life, and I am so thankful that he was there for me and my child.”
RI Rescue July 12, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
12 y.o. Boy 'alert' after nearly drowning in Great Falls pool July 23, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
TX Apartment Pool Save July 25, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
OK Reserve Deputy Helps Save Teen’s Life  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hazards to Public ,[object Object]
Camp Accident 2005 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],http://www.yonigottesman.co m/yonis_death_page2.htm Click on:  Security Video
Running ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Suction Entrapment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
No Diving Shallow End ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Baby Pools ,[object Object],[object Object],See ANSI standard for other requirements
Breath Holding Deaths July 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hypothermia     ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Deep End Ability ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Horseplay ,[object Object],No pushing people in the pool No throwing in the pool No dunking No chicken fight No alcohol
Hazard to Guards ,[object Object]
Lightning ,[object Object],[object Object],Use the weather reports to track lightning and severe weather. Establish rules that give plenty of time to evacuate the pool and provide shelter.
Suction Entrapment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Heat and Sun    ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Signs of Drowning  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Conflict Resolution ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Lap laners have become territorial in using “their” lane.
Distractions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electrical      ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Shift length? ,[object Object],[object Object]
Chemical     ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Note: Cloth respirator is not acceptable for chemicals.
Sunglasses         ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Polarized lenses allow more visibility.
Industry Standards ,[object Object],[object Object]
Ratio of guards to swimmers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Maximum User Load for the Pool ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Diving Boards ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Circulation System ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lighting     ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Pool Depth Marking and Separation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Rescue Equipment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Glass and Food ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Other      ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Chemical Operation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Slides ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
One Meter Diving Board ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Training ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Further  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RipCurrents ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Other Deaths ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
July 18, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hotel Pools ,[object Object],[object Object]
June 24, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
July 25, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tot drowns in Osage pool July 24, 2011 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Kentucky River  July 6, 2011  ,[object Object]
1 of 63

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Pool safety

  • 1. You Don't Pay Lifeguards to Babysit... You Pay Them to Save Lives. Swimming Pool Safety Draft 9 15 2011 Newquist
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Editor's Notes

  1. quote 1 16 2011 chris
  2. http://articles.boston.com/2011-07-22/news/29804096_1_water-clarity-workers-pool-manager-and-assistant http://blogs.plos.org/retort/2011/07/03/swimming-pool-safety-on-very-public-drownings/   drowned in a public swimming pool in Fall River, Mass., turned all the more macabre with the subsequent revelation that her body—spotted by chance this past Tuesday evening—had rested in the murk at the bottom of the pool for two days, unnoticed by dozens of swimmers or six lifeguards . The scandalous details of the case, from the unacceptable cloudiness of the water to reports that lifeguards ignored warnings from a 9-year-old boy that the woman was in trouble http://www.bostonherald.com/news/regional/view/2011_0703mom_lifeguards_ignored_sons_pleas_to_help_friend/srvc=home&position=0   Officials identified three state workers yesterday who were forced to resign after a woman drowned last month in a state-run pool in Fall River and her body went undetected in the water for more than 48 hours. The state Department of Conservation and Recreation identified the workers as Brian Shanahan, a full-time regional director for the department, and seasonal staff members Justin Medeiros and Kevin Tavares, the pool manager and assistant manager, respectively. Officials said on Wednesday that the workers were forced to resign following the death of Marie Joseph, 36, who drowned on June 26 at Vietnam Veterans Memorial Swimming Pool and was discovered in the water two days later. S.J. Port, a spokeswoman for DCR, said she did not have information last night on how long the men had worked for the department. Shanahan was paid an annual salary of $83,635.07, while Medeiros and Tavares were paid biweekly salaries of $1,363.98 and $1,131.20 respectively, according to DCR. Port said she could not say whether any of them had prior disciplinary issues during their employment, because that information would be part of their confidential personnel files. None of the men could be reached for comment last night. Also on Wednesday, Mayor William Flanagan of Fall River said a 10-year city inspector, Roger Casavant, had been fired after he inspected the pool hours before the discovery of Joseph’s body and issued a permit, despite noting in his report that the water was cloudy. Casavant could not be reached for comment last night. The family of a 9-year-old boy with Joseph when she went under the water has told reporters that he tried to alert lifeguards when she did not resurface, though a DCR investigator said Wednesday that the report has not been substantiated. Twelve minutes after Joseph disappeared under the water, workers closed the deep end of the pool, citing the water clarity, according to the initial results of a DCR investigation. The Bristol district attorney’s office is expected to complete its investigation of Joseph’s death next month.  
  3. Causes of incidents: See Causes sheet. 42 falls: includes 8 falls from ladder, 4 falls from catwalk, 2 scaffolds, 2 aerial lifts 35 struck object: 14 saw blades, 13 falling objects (8 vehicle loads), 3 struck by flying object, 10 collapses: 5 aerial lifts, 2 forklifts, 2 ladders, 1 scaffold 7 burns: 4 pyrotechnics. 2 arc blasts, 1 gunpowder 6 caught in/between: 4 pyrotechnic explosions 16 other: 4 inhalation of CO, 3 hearing loss, 2 pedestrian struck by vehicle, 2 motor vehicle incidents, Activity: See Activity sheet
  4. "We were attending a pool party, and Bryson was in the water with the other kids," said Moore, who has known Pope since he was a little boy. "All of a sudden, I saw Bryson going down in the water and I started screaming. Leonard was inside, and he came out of nowhere and dove into the water without any hesitation, cell phone in his pocket and all. He saved my son's life, and I am so thankful that he was there for me and my child." Pope was the only person at the party who knew how to swim so I don't want to think what would have happened if he weren't there. "My prayers were answered by God when Leonard jumped in and saved my son," said Moore. "The fact that he is normally at camp and could have been in Kansas City just proved to me that he was placed here to save my son from drowning, and I thank God that he was here. He truly lived up to his nickname "Champ" because he was truly a champion for me and my son this past weekend."  Bryson, 6, was attending a cousin’s birthday party when he went under in a pool around 7 p.m. Saturday at Troy Hill Apartments located on East Glessner Street. Bryson said he wondered if someone was going to save him. “When my head was going down into the water, and when my head was touching into the water, I got scared,” he said. “I felt (Pope) touching my waist, and then he picked me up, and I came up coughing. I didn’t feel so well.”
  5. http://newsblog.projo.com/2011/07/lifeguard-rescues-boy-at-east.html  
  6. http://www.greatfallstribune.com/article/20110726/NEWS01/107260301/Boy-alert-after-nearly-drowning-Great-Falls-pool A 12-year-old boy remained hospitalized Monday in Great Falls after surviving a near-drowning at Mitchell Pool on Saturday night. The boy was continuing to receive treatment at Benefis Health System, according to a city of Great Falls news release Monday afternoon. Great Falls police late Sunday had reported the boy was "alert" but still in intensive care at the hospital's east campus. Jennifer Reichelt, the deputy city manager, said the city wishes the boy, who has not been publicly identified, a speedy recovery. Reichelt said she had no additional medical information on the boy's condition. Reichelt said in an interview that the city's lifeguards, many of them older teenagers, are highly trained and acted appropriately under trying circumstances. The incident took place on a busy, sunny day at the Electric City Water Park, as temperatures rose into the low 80s. But the number of swimmers was reduced by early evening as a private party rented the facility, with city lifeguards still on duty. A mixture of adults and kids were using the pool at 7:45 p.m. when someone called out about an object under water, Reichelt said. Five lifeguards were on duty at Mitchell Pool along with a head lifeguard, not counting lifeguards in other parts of the water park, she said. "They jumped into action immediately," Reichelt said, explaining lifeguards are trained in what to do during an emergency. "They whistled three times. They jumped to the bottom of the pool." One called 9-1-1. While many of the lifeguards are younger than 20 years old, they must be certified and demonstrate physical ability in tests, Reichelt said. Officials said lifeguards are required to be able to swim 500 yards without stopping, be able to dive down 12 feet to retrieve a 10-pound brick and then carry it to the end of the pool and learn multiple rescue techniques. They also must meet swimming requirements each week and practice responses to emergency situations. Reichelt said there was some confusion among members of the public over the weekend over who performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, on the boy. "Our lifeguards did start CPR," she said. Reichelt said some adults on the scene also had CPR training and jumped in to assist. Great Falls Police and paramedics also were on the scene to help tend to the boy. She added the city's lifeguards all are well trained in CPR and must know it to be hired. Reichelt said the city's employees acted appropriately, then she added, "it's been a traumatic experience for all of them." Reichelt reassured the public that it is safe to swim in city pools. She said a look at city records showed no drowning or near-drowning incidents in city pools in recent years. "It's always been safe," Reichelt said. A city news release cited the city's "exemplary safety record" at its pools, and said its lifeguards acted immediately and were cool and calm under pressure. The news release referred to an "unfortunate water incident" at Mitchell Pool, the city's largest. Reichelt suggested that in light of Saturday's scare, city lifeguards will be even more vigilant. "They're going to be like hawks out there," the deputy city manager said.  
  7. http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local_news/article/Cable-repairman-saves-boy-from-drowning-1606814.php A cable repair technician working at a North Side apartment complex became a hero Tuesday evening when he revived a 7-year-old boy who nearly drowned.
  8. Cramer did not know him or his family. Cramer noticed a couple of people by the deep end of the pool and went to see if he could help. He saw a man pulling a boy out of the water. “ I helped him with that,” Cramer said. “He asked if anyone knew CPR and I didn’t’ say anything, I just started looking for a pulse.” Cramer also works as a reserve deputy for the Cleveland County Sheriff’s Office. These highly trained volunteers are CLEET certified and give of their time to serve others. It’s not surprising then, to learn Cramer helped save the life of an unknown child while in Florida. NORMAN — By day, Victor Cramer works for the Oklahoma Department of Central Services. In fact, that’s why he was in Daytona, Fla. last week. “ I buy the vehicles for the state,” Cramer said. “I was at an auction.” “ I was sitting on a lounge chair (poolside),” Cramer said. “I had just gotten there Monday and was taking in the scenery.” His opportunity to kick back and relax only lasted about five minutes. “ A lady ran by and said ‘he drowned.’ That’s all she said.” There was “bloody foam coming out of his mouth and blood out of his eyes, nose and ears,” he said. “ We did about 20 cycles of CPR before we got a pulse,” Cramer said. Once they got a pulse, they rolled the boy to his side in a recovery position. “ He was still unconscious but he spit out a little bit of water.” A few minutes later, emergency medical responders showed up and took over, transporting the boy to the hospital. “ Afterwards, they said he was healthy. I checked on him every day when I was down there,” Cramer said. “I did not talk to him. I was getting updates on his status from the hotel management.” He was told the boy was taken off the respirator and had been writing sentences. Cramer said CPR is an important tool for saving lives and minimizing damage. “ When you’re doing CPR, and you’re doing chest compression, that pumps the heart and provides oxygen to the brain and organs,” Cramer said. “I still don’t know what that kid’s name is.” All Cramer knows is that the victim is a 15-year-old black male from Georgia. He never met the boy’s family. Cramer heard the boy had been swimming with his aunt and a cousin who got out to go to the hot tub located near the deep end of the pool. “ He was going to swim over there to met them, and he never made it,” Cramer said. Cleveland County Sheriff Joe Lester said he is not surprised. “ I think Victor (Cramer) exemplifies all of our reserve deputies and what they do, not only through this county and this state, but now other states,” said Lester. “The training that they have received in life saving was put to good use on this recent trip to Florida.”
  9. Pediatrician Dr. Zach Reda, who testified in the case, says the club was unlicensed, and the lifeguards were untrained in child C.P.R. Those are important cautions for parents as summer approaches.  Noel's law firm Cappello & Noel brought suit against the athletic club on behalf of Yoni's parents. Yoni's father Oded  was understandably devastated when he viewed the security camera video http://www.thedailysound.com/043009PunitiveDamages www.yonigottesman.com/.../articles/KTLA_ Drowning _Danger.pdf
  10. • Hair entrapment — hair knotted or snagged in an outlet cover. • Limb entrapment — a limb inserted or sucked into an outlet opening with a broken or missing cover, resulting in a mechanical bind or swelling. • Body suction entrapment — suction applied to a large portion of the body, resulting in entrapment. • Evisceration/disembowelment —suction applied directly to intestines through an unprotected sump or suction outlet with a missing or broken cover. • Mechanical entrapment —jewelry, swimsuit, hair decorations, finger or toe, etc. caught in the opening of an outlet or cover.   Suction drains at the bottom of pools pose a particular risk. 7-year-old Virginia Graeme Baker, the granddaughter of former Secretary of State James Baker, III, drowned in 2007 when her body was held underwater by one. In 2009, a law in her name mandated specialized drain covers and a second anti-entrapment system in public pools and spas. The law didn't apply to private pools.
  11. One young man is dead and another is clinging to life after a breath-holding exercise went terribly awry in Staten Island yesterday . Bodhan Vitenko and Jonathan Proce, both 21, were pulled, seemingly lifeless, from the bottom of the Lyons pool yesterday morning at around 8:25 a.m. and immediately went into cardiac arrest. For the past month they had been practicing at the 3 1/2 foot deep pool with two friends in the hopes of one day joining elite military groups. Vitenko, a John Jay College student with Navy aspirations, died about 9:45 a.m. while Proce is still listed in critical condition . It is unclear how long the pair were underwater for—surveillance video is still being analyzed by the authorities—but a source tells us that the pair had ankle weights as part of their exercise and could have been down as long as 20 minutes. The pair were both reportedly interested in joining the Air Force's pararescue unit. About 20 other people were swimming in the pool at the time of the accident and the pool was staffed with lifeguards. In fact Proce works as a lifeguard at another borough pool, according to reports . "We're very surprised about what happened because Jonathan is a very accomplished swimmer," his uncle told reporters. http://gothamist.com/2011/07/14/breath-holding_exercise_in_shallow.php
  12. Hypothermia symptoms usually begin slowly. As you develop hypothermia, your ability to think and move often become clouded. In fact, you may even be unaware that you need help. As your thought process is impaired, you fail to realize that you are becoming colder. Once you get cold, it can be very difficult to get warm again. Someone with hypothermia is likely to have frostbite as well. The key hypothermia symptom is an internal body temperature below 95º F (normal is 98.6º F). Usually, everyone thinks about hypothermia occurring in extremely cold temperatures, but that doesn’t have to be the case. It can happen anytime that you are exposed to cool, damp conditions. Older people are more susceptible to hypothermia. Two things to remember about hypothermia is that… You don’t need to be experiencing sub-zero temperatures to encounter hypothermia and … Your judgment will be impaired making you much more likely to experience an accident. If you, or someone in your group, becomes hypothermic, take immediate action before it becomes a severe emergency! Hypothermia symptoms include: Uncontrollable shivering (although, at extremely low body temperatures, shivering may stop) Weakness and loss of coordination Confusion Pale and cold skin Drowsiness – especially in more severe stages Slowed breathing or heart rate If not treated promptly, lethargy, cardiac arrest, shock, and coma can set in. Hypothermia can even be fatal. Hypothermia signs that can be observed by others: Slowing of pace, drowsiness, fatigue Stumbling Thickness of Speech Amnesia Irrationality, poor judgment Hallucinations Loss of perceptual contact with environment Blueness of skin Dilation of pupils Decreased heart and respiration Stupor Death Victims need IMMEDIATE help if the following symptoms are present: If you observe ANY of these hypothermia sympthoms or signs in yourself or anyone in your party, seek immediate help: Poor articulation of words Disorientation Decrease in shivering followed by rigidity of muscles Cyanosis (Blueness of Skin) Slowness of pulse, irregular or weak pulse
  13. http://deadspin.com/5823556/north-carolina-woman-left-paralyzed-after-bachelorette+party-accident--will-get-married-today
  14. http://www2.tbo.com/news/breaking-news/2011/sep/15/osha-investigating-adventure-island-lifeguards-dea-ar-257702/
  15. http://www2.tbo.com/news/breaking-news/2011/sep/15/osha-investigating-adventure-island-lifeguards-dea-ar-257702/ TAMPA -- During peak hours, large crowds at theme parks increase the probability of accidents, injuries and in some cases, deaths, industry experts said. Throw in unpredictable Florida weather, especially here in lightning-prone Tampa, and anything can happen. Those are the factors to consider in the case of Justin Savers Inversso, an Adventure Island lifeguard who died last week when he was struck by lighting, according to William Avery, a consultant on theme park safety. "You can do everything by the book, you can have the best plan in the world and still get caught," said Avery, whose firm is based in Maitland. "You can bank on lightning being predictably unpredictable." Inversso was evacuating patrons from the 700-foot tall Key West Rapids ride about 11:50 a.m. on Saturday as a storm was about to sweep through the area, according to relatives. When lightning struck the tower, Inversso was standing in about two or three feet of water, probably at a curve in the water slide where tube riders sometimes get stuck, relatives said. The Pasco County High School graduate was taken to University Community Hospital where he died. He just turned 21 the day before. His funeral was held Wednesday in his hometown of Dade City. Inversso's death is being investigated by the Tampa office of the Occupational Health & Safety Administration. Les Grove, the agency's area director, declined to comment because of the ongoing investigation. Jim Dean, the president of Busch Gardens and Adventure Island, said in a statement that the fatal lightning strike was the first incident of its kind since the water park opened in 1980. The park has systems, including weather radar, that monitors the approach of severe weather, said Jill Revelle, Busch Gardens spokeswoman. A park manager is responsible for checking on weather conditions, she said. All of the park's rides are closed and cleared of patrons if lightning is detected in the area, Dean said. He, Revelle and other park officials declined to comment on Inversso's death and the investigation. Avery, the safety consultant, said from what he's read in news reports, it appears that Inversso and park officials were following procedure. But there could have been other factors in play that OSHA investigators could focus on. "Did he move quickly enough? Was it a particularly busy day?" Avery said. "Did he do what needed to be done to evacuate?" When he was the safety manager at Polk County's now defunct Boardwalk and Baseball theme park in the 1990s, Avery said the time needed to evacuate patrons depended on how fast a storm was moving. The industry doesn't have a set time frame for that and it is up to the discretion of park officials, he said. "But you can't wait until a storm is five miles out," Avery said. "Seconds can be your enemy. In Florida, storms can happen in a short period of time." Aleatha Ezra, spokeswoman for the World Waterpark Association, said most parks across the nation have a weather monitoring system, but there are no regulations that require them to have one. There are more than 1,000 water parks across North America, according to the association, which had 79 million visitors last year. Adventure Island had 626,000 in 2010, which placed it eighth on a list of 20 parks with the highest attendance, an industry report said. Typhoon Lagoon at Walt Disney World tops the list with 2 million visitors last year. Even with those attendance numbers, reports of lightning striking visitors or park workers is rare, Ezra said. Avery agrees. "Statistically, it's rare, but it's always a possibility," he said. Park operators try to establish solid safety plans, but in Florida, "your park would be shut down half the day if you worried too much," Avery said. Patrons have a responsibility for their safety too, he said. "If you see dark clouds, it's a clue. If you see lightning, get out of the water," Avery said. "You shouldn't wait for the park to tell you that."
  16. • Hair entrapment — hair knotted or snagged in an outlet cover. • Limb entrapment — a limb inserted or sucked into an outlet opening with a broken or missing cover, resulting in a mechanical bind or swelling. • Body suction entrapment — suction applied to a large portion of the body, resulting in entrapment. • Evisceration/disembowelment —suction applied directly to intestines through an unprotected sump or suction outlet with a missing or broken cover. • Mechanical entrapment —jewelry, swimsuit, hair decorations, finger or toe, etc. caught in the opening of an outlet or cover.   Suction drains at the bottom of pools pose a particular risk. 7-year-old Virginia Graeme Baker, the granddaughter of former Secretary of State James Baker, III, drowned in 2007 when her body was held underwater by one. In 2009, a law in her name mandated specialized drain covers and a second anti-entrapment system in public pools and spas. The law didn't apply to private pools.
  17. http://gcaptain.com/drowning/?10981 There is very little splashing, no waving, and no yelling or calls for help of any kind.  To get an idea of just how quiet and undramatic from the surface drowning can be, consider this:  It is the number two cause of accidental death in children, age 15 and under (just behind vehicle accidents) – of the approximately 750 children who will drown next year, about 375 of them will do so within 25 yards of a parent or other adult.  In ten percent of those drownings, the adult will actually watch them do it, having no idea it is happening (source: CDC). Instinctive drowning response http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instinctive_drowning_response
  18. Read more:  http://www.bnd.com/2011/07/24/1796827/six-shocked-in-granite-city-pool.html#ixzz1T3c6U56J
  19. ANSI 7.2.3 There shall be a completely unobstructed distance of 14 feet above the tip of the diving board.  (two exceptions)    
  20.   July 25, 2011 KENNER, La. – A nine-year-old boy has died after drowning in a Kenner country club pool Monday afternoon. Tuesday morning, the Jefferson Parish Coroner's Office identified the boy as Zaven Sears and confirmed that the cause of death was asphyxiation by drowning following an autopsy. Sears had apparently scaled a gate with a friend to swim in the pool that was closed because of the rain. http://www.wwltv.com/home/9-year-old-in-hospital-after-possible-drowning-126138408.html    
  21. Call U.S.A. Diving's main office in Indianapolis: (317) 237-5252 to get the 2nd edition. On page 54, you will find a good description and discussion of the regulations. On page 55, is the pool diagram and dimensions in meters   http://www.duraflexinternational.com/faqindex.php?faq_id=2
  22. http://www.startribune.com/local/minneapolis/126097783.html     http://toronto.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20110727/13-year-old-boy-drowns-niagara-falls-110727/20110727/?hub=TorontoNewHome   July 23, 2011 NIAGARA FALLS, Ont — A 13-year-old boy has drowned in a motel pool in Niagara Falls, Ont. Emergency personnel rushed to the A-1 Motel on Lundy's Lane Tuesday night after the teen was found in the outdoor pool. He was pronounced dead at the Niagara hospital. Police are investigating, but say the incident does not appear to be suspicious.    
  23. ELYSBURG, Pa. - A 6-year-old boy who jumped into a swimming pool at an amusement park in eastern Pennsylvania did not resurface and later died. George S. Roberts III, of Wilkes-Barre, was found under water on Wednesday afternoon at Knoebels (pronounced kuh-NO'-bulz) Amusement Resort in Elysburg, police said. Lifeguards tried to resuscitate him but Roberts later died at a nearby hospital, Locust Township Police Chief Allen L. Breach said. An autopsy is planned on Friday. There were conflicting reports about whether the boy hit his head. Park co-owner Buddy Knoebel, who was not on site when the accident occurred, told the Press Enterprise of Bloomsburg that Roberts was diving into a 4- to 5-foot-deep water that is posted with "No Diving" signs. A statement on the park's website said: "Initial reports indicated that he had hit his head. We later learned that no head injury was involved." "Please join the Knoebel families in placing the child's family and friends in your prayers," the statement said. Knoebel said the child's death was the first fatality from an accident at the 85-year-old park, which is about 95 miles northwest of Philadelphia. ,,,
  24. http://www.desmoinesregister.com/article/20110726/NEWS/107260332/-1/digdev_wrapper_nav/?odyssey=nav%7Chead A Fort Dodge toddler drowned in an Osage pool during a family reunion Sunday despite the presence of two lifeguards on duty and two others nearby. The boy's mother was on the pool deck at the time. As of Monday afternoon, authorities hadn't determined how Ryan Detmering of Fort Dodge got into the Lazy River feature at the Cedar River Complex pool. He was found about 2:40 p.m., facedown in 3½ feet of water. The small, river-like attraction is off to one side of the main pool. A current moves swimmers in a circle. The main pool has a beach-style entrance that is about 18 inches at its deepest point. Three lap-swimming lanes are in 3½ to 12 feet of water. This was the first drowning at the pool, which had not had a serious accident of any kind since opening last year, said Osage Mayor Steve Cooper, who also is chairman of the board that runs the complex. Regulations call for one lifeguard for the 35 swimmers on hand, but the pool had two on duty when the boy was discovered by a 14-year-old lifeguard trainee. Lifeguards tried to resuscitate the boy, who was declared dead at a local hospital an hour later. Authorities didn't release the names of his parents. Ryan's uncle, Curtis Detmering of Fort Dodge, said the family would not have any comment on the tragedy. Funeral arrangements are pending and expected to be completed sometime today, Detmering said. The pool staff and officials struggled to cope, too. "We're feeling grief," Cooper said. "This was an accident. We're very, very confident that everything in place was adequate." Cooper said the pool is just a year old and meets all standards for lighting, supervision and safety equipment. The staff will review procedures, Cooper said, but is not expected to find anything was amiss. The pool will remain closed until an investigation is complete.