1926 health hazards in construction 3 1 11


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  • BrEAKDOWN OF OVEREXPOSURES BY ANALYTE (FY04 THRU FY10) Analyte# # Overexps * 2-Butanone 4 Acetone1 Aluminum Metal (Total Dust)2 Arsenic14 Asbestos 5 Benzene 3 Beryllium 17 Beryllium Compounds 9 Cadmium 24 Calcium Oxide 3 Carbon Black 5 Carbon Dioxide 6 Carbon Monoxide 47 Chromic Acid 7 Chromium VI (TWA)37 Chromium Metal 7 Chromium Metal and Insoluble Salts03Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles110Coal tar Pitch Volatiles (Benzene Soluble Fraction)06Cobalt Metal, Dust04Copper Fume3156Ethylene Oxide04Formaldehyde08Gypsum, Total Dust02Iron Oxide Fume081Isopropyl Alcohol02Lead, Inorganic2449Manganese Fume03Mercury Vapor03Methylene Bisphenyl (MDI)01Methylene Chloride118Methyl Formate01Molybdenum, Total01Nickel Metal012Noise, Action Level492,021Noise, PEL6962Oil Mist01Ozone14PNOR1134PNOR (Respirable Fraction)03PNOR (Total Dust)054Silica, Crystalline 3370Silica, Crystalline Quartz, Respirable Dust3280Silver Metal011Styrene01Sulfuric Acid01Titanium Dioxide (Total Dust)01Trichloroethylene01Vanadium Fume06Xylene04Zinc Oxide Fume016 Grand Total714,825 * Number of samples NOT inspections
  • From
  • OHSAS 18001 is an Occupation Health and Safety Assessment Series for health and safety management systems. It is intended to help an organizations to control occupational health and safety risks. It was devloped in response to widespread demand for a recognized standard against which to be certified and assessed.
  • Time-Weighted-Average is NIOSH 8 hour exposure limit. STEL is the short term exposure limit.
  • OSHA webchat Dr., Michaels 2.15.11
  • *http://staff.washington.edu/rneitzel/NIPTS_final_report.pdf REMEMBER! Noise is measured and recorded as decibels on the A weighted scale and the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit is 90 decibels (dB) that is an eight hour time weighted average: aka, 90dBA TWA There is no action level , below 90 dBA, established in the construction standard However , in 1992 OSHA issued a letter of interpretation that outlines what a hearing conservation program in construction should be.
  • Source : 6/29/1992 Interpretation letter from Pat Clark, OSHA Director of Compliance Programs, to FW Lundy, Corporate Safety Director, BE&K Construction Company, Birmingham Alabama (1) Monitoring of employee noise exposures, (2) The instigation of engineering, work practice, and administrative controls for excessive noise, (3) The provision of each overexposed employee with an individually fitted hearing protector with an adequate noise reduction rating, (4) Employee training and education regarding noise hazards and protection measures,
  • http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/lead/
  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/08/100831102627.htm http://www.glassadvantageinc.com/pdf/NIOSH%20Alert%20for%20Silicosis.pdf http://www2.cdc.gov/drds/worldreportdata/SubsectionDetails.asp?ArchiveID=1&SubsectionTitleID=8
  • Exposure Limits OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 0.1 mg/m3 TWA OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 0.1 mg/m3 TWA OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 0.1 mg/m3 TWA American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.2 mg/m3 TWA National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.1 mg/m3 TWA Health Factors Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carcinogenic classification: Group D, Not Classified NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 mg Cu/m3 Potential symptoms: Metal fume fever; chills, muscle aches; nausea; fever; dry throat, coughing; weakness, lassitude; eye, upper respiratory tract irritation; metallic or sweet taste; discolored skin, hair; increased risk of Wilson's disease http://www.nffs.org/nffstar/FAC%20Content/appendicies/F%20-%20CSI%20entry%20for%20copper%20fumes.pdf Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15) Respiratory Effects---Acute lung damage/edema (HE11) Affected organs: Respiratory system, skin, eyes Fall protection is not worn. No welding protection for helper
  • Chromium hexavalent (CrVI) compounds, often called hexavalent chromium, exist in several forms. Industrial uses of hexavalent chromium compounds include chromate pigments in dyes, paints, inks, and plastics; chromates added as anticorrosive agents to paints, primers, and other surface coatings; and chromic acid electroplated onto metal parts to provide a decorative or protective coating. Hexavalent chromium can also be formed when performing "hot work" such as welding on stainless steel or melting chromium metal. In these situations the chromium is not originally hexavalent, but the high temperatures involved in the process result in oxidation that converts the chromium to a hexavalent state. Exposures to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) are addressed in specific standards for the general industry, rules concerning OSHA access to employee medical reports, shipyard employment, marine terminals, and the construction industry.
  • blue smoke (mainly oil and unburnt fuel) which indicates a poorly serviced and/or tuned engine; black smoke (soot, oil and unburnt fuel) which indicates a mechanical fault with the engine; white smoke (water droplets and unburnt fuel) which is produced when the engine is started from cold and disappears when the engine warms up.
  • CO TWA is _50__ ppm. Name one place where cadmium can be found on construction. ___Bolts, sprinklers, metal poles, rust coating___________ _20.9 __% Oxygen is normal air. Which color smoke from a diesel engine is a concern? __ALL or blue________________ Overexposure less than _15___ minutes when torch cutting lead painted surfaces The Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is for 15____ minutes
  • 1926 health hazards in construction 3 1 11

    1. 1. Health Hazards in Construction John Newquist Draft 3 1 11
    2. 2. Worst Job?
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Top Ten Health Issues found by OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>Problem correlated to Overexposures </li></ul><ul><li>Effect Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling Data 2004-2010, Region V, all industries </li></ul>
    4. 4. Risk Factors in Construction <ul><li>Daily change vs. fixed establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Many contractors at onsite who may create problems for you </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover; who is responsible to train new employees? </li></ul><ul><li>Several tasks during the day </li></ul>Factors increasing the health risk of construction workers include:
    5. 5. Illness Prevention Basics <ul><li>Management leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard Prevention and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Training </li></ul><ul><li>Program Evaluation and Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and coordination on multiemployer sites </li></ul><ul><li>These elements exists in some form in…. </li></ul><ul><li>2100 VPP Companies </li></ul><ul><li>1600 SHARPs </li></ul><ul><li>1926.20, 1926.21 </li></ul><ul><li>1910.119 </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI Z9.10 </li></ul><ul><li>OHSAS 18001 </li></ul><ul><li>States AR, CA, LA, HI, MN, MT NV, NH, NY, OR, WA </li></ul>
    6. 6. Clean Air Paradox <ul><li>Quality of Air </li></ul><ul><li>78.1% Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>20.9% Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>0.9% Argon </li></ul><ul><li>0.03% Carbon Dioxide </li></ul>
    7. 7. Units Seem Small <ul><li>1 % = 10,000 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>PEL = Permissible Exposure Limits (OSHA) </li></ul><ul><li>5 Mg/M3 is very small </li></ul><ul><li>2 f/cc = 2,000,000f/M3 </li></ul>
    8. 8. Health Effects <ul><li>Irritation </li></ul><ul><li>Asphyxiation </li></ul><ul><li>Organ Specific Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Mutagen </li></ul><ul><li>Teratogen </li></ul><ul><li>Acute/Chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible vs. Nonreversible </li></ul>
    9. 9. Factors <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Health status </li></ul><ul><li>Route of entry </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency and duration of exposure </li></ul>
    10. 10. Exposure Limits <ul><li>Animal Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiological studies </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Experience </li></ul><ul><li>STEL – 15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Ceiling – never exceeded </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold Limit Value </li></ul>
    11. 11. Sampling <ul><li>Qualified person </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Pre and post calibration </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hierarchy of Controls <ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Protective Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul>
    13. 13. Past Health Hazards <ul><li>400 BC Hippocrates describes lead poisoning in mines </li></ul><ul><li>1473 Ellenbog – Mercury Poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>1700 Dr. Ramazzini published the first edition of his most famous book, the De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers) </li></ul>“I can hire one-half the working class to kill the other half.” Jay Gould
    14. 14. Problem #1 Noise <ul><li>BLS </li></ul><ul><li>125,000+ workers w permanent, hearing loss since 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008 alone, 22,000 hearing loss cases were reported </li></ul>
    15. 16. #1 Noise <ul><li>70% construction workers were exposed to over 85dba* </li></ul><ul><li>30% over 90 dba* </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing Protection worn 20%* </li></ul><ul><li>Several processes involving hammering, cutting, blasting will cause overexposure </li></ul><ul><li>Set up an effective hearing conservation program </li></ul>
    16. 17. REMEMBER! <ul><li>The aforementioned applies to overexposures above 90 dBA TWA ( Time-Weighted-Average) </li></ul>
    17. 18. “ Effective hearing conservation program?” <ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering, work practice, and administrative controls </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing protectors with an adequate noise reduction rating </li></ul><ul><li>Employee training and education in hazards and protection measures </li></ul><ul><li>Baselines and annual audiometry </li></ul>
    18. 19. Audiograms <ul><li>Conduct a baseline analysis on all equipment (New too!) </li></ul><ul><li>Employees can request personal noise monitoring at any time at VPP sites </li></ul><ul><li>60 employees were tested in IL. It cost $29.00 per person plus some labor cost (VPP) </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance carrier will charge $35.00 per person. (VPP site) </li></ul>
    19. 20. #2 Lead <ul><li>Many bridges have lead coated surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Requires compliance with 1926.62 </li></ul><ul><li>Overexposure can occur in less than 5 minutes when torch cutting or painting </li></ul>Lead coating of bridge beams usually requires an enclosure
    20. 21. Lead effects <ul><li>Chronic overexposure - severe damage to the blood-forming, nervous, urinary, and reproductive systems </li></ul><ul><li>High levels will require medical removal </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge Painting/Removal continues to be ones of the consistent lead issues in construction </li></ul>
    21. 22. #3 Silica <ul><li>Cutting, hammering, drilling, blasting can create high silica levels </li></ul><ul><li>Use wet methods and wear respirators </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest occupational diseases </li></ul>Tuckpointing has one of the highest silica generating process in construction
    22. 23. Silica <ul><li>150-200 deaths a year (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>1150-1200 deaths a year (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Yet….one company had 3 silicosis and 10x+ severe respiratory diseases </li></ul>
    23. 24. #4 Copper Fumes - Welding <ul><li>Copper is inhalation hazard affecting respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Mild steel (red iron) and carbon steel contain manganese </li></ul><ul><li>Manganese may cause Parkinson's disease </li></ul>What do you see?
    24. 25. #5 Total Dust <ul><li>All the things not regulated. </li></ul><ul><li>Good, bad, or indifferent? </li></ul><ul><li>Air blowing! </li></ul>
    25. 26. #6 Iron Oxide -Welding <ul><li>Metal fume fever </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Draw or forced ventilation should be used </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Protective Equipment should be used </li></ul><ul><li>Bystanders should be protected as well </li></ul>
    26. 27. #7 Carbon Monoxide <ul><li>Generators are most common problem of CO </li></ul><ul><li>Heaters out of tune are another cause </li></ul><ul><li>CO TWA is 50 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Others set levels 25 ppm </li></ul>
    27. 28. #8 Hex Chrome <ul><li>Stainless steel contains nickel and chromium </li></ul><ul><li>Some cements </li></ul>
    28. 29. # 9 Cadmium <ul><li>Overexposure to cutting cadmium bolts, coated poles </li></ul><ul><li>Torch cutting should never be used </li></ul><ul><li>Use hydraulic bolt cutters </li></ul><ul><li>Comply with 1926.1127 </li></ul>Cadmium bolts are often found in sprinkler pipe use.
    29. 30. #10 Methylene Chloride <ul><li>Paint stripping </li></ul><ul><li>Parts cleaners </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer causing </li></ul>
    30. 31. Asbestos <ul><li>Common Fireproofing material used pre- 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Found in pipe insulation, ceiling tiles, and floor tiles </li></ul><ul><li>Must comply with 1926.1101 </li></ul>
    31. 32. Heat Stress <ul><li>Train the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Perform the heaviest work in the coolest part of the day </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly build up tolerance to the heat and the work activity (usually takes up to two weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Drink plenty of cool water (one cup every 15-20 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Wear light, loose-fitting, breathable (cotton) clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Take frequent short breaks in cool or shaded areas </li></ul><ul><li>Provide fans </li></ul>
    32. 33. Paint Solvents <ul><li>Ventilation is required or overexposure can result </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical must be Class I if within 20 feet during open spraying with flammable paints </li></ul>Tank painting. What could go wrong?
    33. 34. Waterproofing <ul><li>Volatile compounds are heavier than air and toxic. </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards similar to a confined space </li></ul>
    34. 35. Confined Spaces <ul><li>Manholes, pits, vaults, tanks, are common confined spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure atmosphere is safe by testing and ventilating </li></ul>Worker in a sludge pit exposed to lead, arsenic, and cadmium
    35. 36. Diesel Fuel Exhaust <ul><li>blue smoke (mainly oil and unburnt fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>black smoke (soot, oil and unburnt fuel); </li></ul><ul><li>white smoke (water droplets and unburnt fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel Fuel Exhaust is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen per IARC </li></ul>What else is toxic in this ????
    36. 37. Back Strains <ul><li>Many workers out in construction with bad backs </li></ul><ul><li>Due to lifting and twisting constantly </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy loads should have assistance via machines or another person </li></ul>Workers shoveling under a pipe. Safe or unsafe job?
    37. 38. Knee Strains <ul><li>Housekeeping often a common cause </li></ul><ul><li>Several $50,000 cases </li></ul>
    38. 39. West Nile <ul><li>Use DEET or lemon eucalyptus based sprays for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing can be treated with Permethrin </li></ul><ul><li>Wear light color clothing and reduce exposed skin </li></ul>
    39. 40. On The Horizon <ul><li>Silica? </li></ul><ul><li>Noise? </li></ul><ul><li>Confined Space in Construction? </li></ul>
    40. 41. Resources <ul><li>WISHA has a good health in construction presentation at http://wisha-training.lni.wa.gov/training/presentations/HealthHaz.pps </li></ul>
    41. 42. Quiz <ul><li>CO PEL is ___ ppm. </li></ul><ul><li>Name one place where cadmium can be found in construction. ______________ </li></ul><ul><li>____% Oxygen is in normal air. </li></ul><ul><li>Which color smoke from a diesel engine is a concern? __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Overexposure can occur in less than ____ minutes when torch cutting lead painted surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>The Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is for ____ minutes </li></ul>
    42. 43. Summary <ul><li>A baseline hazard analysis for normal routine tasks is accomplished by use of a Job Safety Analysis (JSA) </li></ul>
    43. 44. Further <ul><li>This ppt was prepared by John Newquist as a preliminary aid for people required to evaluate health hazards in construction </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to Kim Stille and Richard Gilgrist for the many training sessions on the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Janet Schulte for corrections and suggestions. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not an official OSHA publication. Those will be on the OSHA.gov website. </li></ul><ul><li>My contact information is Newquist.john@dol.gov or 312-353-5977 if you see any errors. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a draft as of the date on the first slide. </li></ul>