Environmental Science
A Study of Interrelationships
Thirteenth Edition

Enger & Smith

Chapter 8
Energy and Civilization: ...
Energy and Civilization:
Patterns of Consumption
8.1 History of Energy Consumption
 Pre Industrial
revolution
• Biological energy
sources
– Initial energy transfer--photo...
8.1 History of Energy Consumption
 Exploit additional energy sources
 Domesticated animals/plants
 Use of wood
 Heatin...
8.1 History of Energy Consumption
• Increased Use of Wood
– Dense, rapidly growing settlements outstripped wood
production...
8.1 History of Energy Consumption
 Fossil Fuels
• modified remains of plants, animals, microorganisms
that lived million ...
8.1 History of Energy Consumption
 During the Industrial
Revolution
• machines replaced
human/animal labor in
manufacture...
8.1 History of Energy Consumption
 Prior to the Industrial Revolution
• goods were manufactured on a small scale (farms)
...
8.1 History of Energy Consumption

Changes in energy sources
8.1 History of Energy Consumption
 The invention of the automobile
• increased the demand for oil products
• 2% in 1900 t...
8.1 History of Energy Consumption
 More cars
• Job growth in automobile-related industries.
• Major role in development o...
Discussion
 http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-ethanol-solution/
 Page 220 and 230 in text
8.2 How Energy Is Used
 Industrialized nations use energy roughly equally
for:
• Residential / commercial uses
• Industri...
8.2 How Energy Is Used
 In North America, 22% of energy is used for
residential and 18% for commercial purposes.
• In Can...
Transportation Energy Uses
 Per capita energy use for transportation is
• high in developing countries
• highest in highl...
8.2 How Energy Is Used

How Americans get to work
8.3 Electrical Energy
 Most electrical energy
• burning fossil fuels.

 Electricity is easily transported
• uses are so ...
8.4 The Economics and Politics
of Energy Use
 A direct link exists between economic growth
and the availability of inexpe...
8.4 The Economics and Politics
of Energy Use
• International trade fossil fuels
– Influence world economy/politics

 Auto...
8.4 The Economics and Politics
of Energy Use
 Taxes in the U.S. represent 15% of retail
gasoline price.
• 30% in Canada
•...
8.4 The Economics and Politics
of Energy Use

Gasoline taxes and fuel efficiency
8.4 The Economics and Politics
of Energy Use
 Governments often charge road users to help build
and repair roads by taxin...
Kyoto Treaty
 Kyoto Treaty
• The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on
December 1997 and entered into force on F...
8.4 The Economics and Politics
of Energy Use
 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries (OPEC) consists of 13 cou...
Persian Gulf OPEC

40% oil production; Control 75% of oil reserves
8.5 Energy Consumption Trends
 Over half of world energy consumption is by the
25 member countries of the Organization fo...
8.5 Energy Consumption Trends

Changes in world energy consumption
Summary
 A direct correlation exists between the amount of
energy used and the complexity of civilizations.
 Fossil-fuel...
Summary
 Because of the high dependence of modern
societies on oil as a source of energy, OPEC
countries can set the pric...
FUEL
 http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/fuel/
Intro to energy lecture 6
Intro to energy lecture 6
Intro to energy lecture 6
Intro to energy lecture 6
Intro to energy lecture 6
Intro to energy lecture 6
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Intro to Energy, Lecture 6 NAU Environmental Science

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Intro to energy lecture 6

  1. 1. Environmental Science A Study of Interrelationships Thirteenth Edition Enger & Smith Chapter 8 Energy and Civilization: Patterns of Consumption Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Energy and Civilization: Patterns of Consumption
  3. 3. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption  Pre Industrial revolution • Biological energy sources – Initial energy transfer--photosynthesis. – Very early in human history – Hunter/gatherers
  4. 4. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption  Exploit additional energy sources  Domesticated animals/plants  Use of wood  Heating  Cooking
  5. 5. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption • Increased Use of Wood – Dense, rapidly growing settlements outstripped wood production – new fuel sources such as coal
  6. 6. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption  Fossil Fuels • modified remains of plants, animals, microorganisms that lived million of years ago  Coal • 286-362 million years ago • Plant material under heat/pressure  Oil and natural gas • one-celled marine organisms.
  7. 7. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption  During the Industrial Revolution • machines replaced human/animal labor in manufacture and transportation • Steam engines (heat energy into forward motion) • Countries or regions without large coal deposits left behind.
  8. 8. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption  Prior to the Industrial Revolution • goods were manufactured on a small scale (farms)  Expanding factories needed larger labor pools – people began congregating around factories and cities. • Coal in cities resulted in increased levels of air pollution.  Within 200 years, energy consumption of industrialized nations increased eightfold.
  9. 9. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption Changes in energy sources
  10. 10. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption  The invention of the automobile • increased the demand for oil products • 2% in 1900 to 40% in 2010  Automobile industry led to roadway construction, which required energy. • • • • Better roads---higher speeds. Higher speeds---bigger, faster cars. Bigger, faster cars---better roads. “More chasing more”
  11. 11. 8.1 History of Energy Consumption  More cars • Job growth in automobile-related industries. • Major role in development of industrialized nations.  Cars altered people’s lifestyles: • Vacationers --greater distances. • People could live farther from work – Led to cities and suburbs. – labor-saving, energy-consuming devices became essential – Energy dependent
  12. 12. Discussion  http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-ethanol-solution/  Page 220 and 230 in text
  13. 13. 8.2 How Energy Is Used  Industrialized nations use energy roughly equally for: • Residential / commercial uses • Industrial uses • Transportation  Less-developed countries--residential purposes. • Cooking and heating  Developing countries--develop industry.
  14. 14. 8.2 How Energy Is Used  In North America, 22% of energy is used for residential and 18% for commercial purposes. • In Canada, about 60% of residential energy is used for heating.  In Africa and Asia--used for cooking, and comes from wood. • Using fuel-efficient stoves instead of fires – could reduce energy consumption by 50% – improve health--breathe less wood smoke.
  15. 15. Transportation Energy Uses  Per capita energy use for transportation is • high in developing countries • highest in highly developed countries • The specific combination – bus, rail, waterways, and private automobiles – main factor in determining a country’s energy use for transportation.
  16. 16. 8.2 How Energy Is Used How Americans get to work
  17. 17. 8.3 Electrical Energy  Most electrical energy • burning fossil fuels.  Electricity is easily transported • uses are so varied • electricity is a major world energy source • Industrialized nations have 20% of the world’s population, but use 55% of the world’s electricity.
  18. 18. 8.4 The Economics and Politics of Energy Use  A direct link exists between economic growth and the availability of inexpensive energy. • industrial societies want to ensure a continuous supply of affordable energy. • The higher the price of energy – more expensive goods and services become. • Subsidies help keep energy costs down.
  19. 19. 8.4 The Economics and Politics of Energy Use • International trade fossil fuels – Influence world economy/politics  Automobile fuel efficiency --government policy has had significant impact  The price of gasoline : • Purchasing and processing crude oil • Taxes
  20. 20. 8.4 The Economics and Politics of Energy Use  Taxes in the U.S. represent 15% of retail gasoline price. • 30% in Canada • 45-65% in Japan and Europe  The average European car driver pays about twice as much as U.S. and Canadian drivers, and uses 40% less fuel to drive the same distance as a U.S. driver.
  21. 21. 8.4 The Economics and Politics of Energy Use Gasoline taxes and fuel efficiency
  22. 22. 8.4 The Economics and Politics of Energy Use  Governments often charge road users to help build and repair roads by taxing fuel. • U.S. only raises 60% of monies needed for roads from fuel taxes. – Low fuel costs in the U.S. encourage more travel, which increases road repair costs.
  23. 23. Kyoto Treaty  Kyoto Treaty • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 1997 and entered into force on February 2005 –  37 industrialized countries and the European  Community committed to reduce GHG emissions • Mandates reductions in carbon dioxide into atmosphere • U.S. has not signed into treaty
  24. 24. 8.4 The Economics and Politics of Energy Use  The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) consists of 13 countries.  OPEC nations control over 75% of the world’s estimated oil reserves (1,400 billion barrels).  With increased solidarity among OPEC countries, • oil prices have continued to rise and reached over $147 per barrel in 2008 • before falling at the end of 2008 – world economy entered a recession.
  25. 25. Persian Gulf OPEC 40% oil production; Control 75% of oil reserves
  26. 26. 8.5 Energy Consumption Trends  Over half of world energy consumption is by the 25 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the developed nations of the world. • Available Energy Sources – Oil  36% – Coal 28% – Natural Gas 24% – Nuclear energy and hydropower provide the rest.
  27. 27. 8.5 Energy Consumption Trends Changes in world energy consumption
  28. 28. Summary  A direct correlation exists between the amount of energy used and the complexity of civilizations.  Fossil-fuel consumption in conjunction with the invention of labor-saving machines resulted in the Industrial Revolution, which led to the development of technology-oriented societies today in the developed world.  The invention of the automobile caused major changes in the lifestyles of people that led to greater consumption of energy.
  29. 29. Summary  Because of the high dependence of modern societies on oil as a source of energy, OPEC countries can set the price of oil through collective action.  In general, rich countries use large amounts of energy and poor countries use much less.  Analysts expect the worldwide demand for energy to increase steadily and the growth in energy usage by those countries becoming industrialized to be greater than that of alreadyindustrialized nations.
  30. 30. FUEL  http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/fuel/

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