Jammu and Kashmir Problems and Solutions


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Jammu and Kashmir Problems and Solutions

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Jammu and Kashmir Problems and Solutions

  1. 1. Jammu and Kashmir: Problems and Solutions Prafulla Ketkar Asst. Prof and Head, Political Science, Smt. BRD Arts and Commerce Mahila Mahavidylaya, Nashik Road prafulla10@gmail.com
  2. 2. Sequence of Discussion What do we know about Kashmir?  Various perspectives on the Kashmir Issue;  Historical understanding  Strategic issues  Decoding myths  What we should highlight? 
  3. 3. What do we know About Kashmir? History?  Demography/Population composition?  Geography/Strategic Location?  Political Situation? 
  4. 4. Why Kashmir Now?  8 point agenda declared by the Centre: a. to de-scale the presence of security forces to constitute a group of interlocutors to hold a “sustained dialogue” with all shades of Valley life; to release about 245 persons detained for stonepelting; 5 lakhs for people who died in army/police firing; to remove AFSPA in certain districts. b. c. d. e.
  5. 5. Why Kashmir Now? Statement by the J & K CM that the accession of Jammu and Kashmir into Indian Union was conditional and it had not merged with India ;  26th October: date of accession of Kashmir in India.  22nd Feb – Resolution for Complete Integration of J & K 
  6. 6. Kashmir Issue: Various Perspectives Spearhead of Secular India;  Socio-economic problem;  Strategically Important;  Culturally, historically and politically India’s integral part 
  7. 7. Historical Understanding      Kalhana’s ‘Rajat Rangini’ Story of “Jalodbhav” – Kashyapanche Meer; Gonand: Mahabharat period: Remained the center of Hindu Civilization; 273-232 BC: Ashoka established “Shrinagari” – Jalouka spread the cultural aspects of Hinduism Karkota Regime – 300 -761 Kanishka, Avantivarma and Lalitaditya: further integrated and brought the golden age in Kashmir Lohara Regime – 1003 AC Mohammad Gajhanavi invaded Kashmir
  8. 8. Historical Understanding Damara regime – real degeneration – Shah Mir and Rinchana entered Kashmir  1320 – Mongol invader Dulacha came to Kashmir – King Suhadev kept borders unguarded and Dulancha captured Kashmir with Shah Mir and Ramchandra Pradhan – Islamization of Kashmir  14 Oct 1586 – Akbar took over Kashmir 
  9. 9. Historical Understanding      Akbar ruled through his representatives; After weakening of Moghal empire their representative Mir Mukim Kanth ruled Kashmir and called Mohammad Shah Abdali to crush the popular revolt Abdullakhan, Jabbarkhan & Azadkhan most cruel Afghani pathans; Batta Bazar and Batavath 1720 – 1746 – worst period – ruled by Nadir Shah
  10. 10. Historical Understanding    1819 – Raja Ranjitsingh took over Kashmir and Ruled from Lahore; 9th March 1846 – British took over Kashmir from Dulip Singh after Sikh British War against – Lahore Agreement 16th March 1846 – Gulab Singh in Jammu region – from Dogra family since 900, helped Britishers during war, Purchased Kashmir in 75 lakhs, integrated Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir – ultimate British Control;
  11. 11. Partition and Kashmir Raja Hari Singh – took decision to remain independent on the advice of Swami Sant Deo  Mountbatten, Mahatma Gandhi and Sri Guruji tried to convince Hari Singh on accession – but he refused;  24th October 1947 – Pakistan sent military infiltrators in Kashmir Valley, dual plan of Pakistan (Ramchandra Kak and Military) – Raja fled to Jammu 
  12. 12. Accession of Kashmir     Shaikh Abdullah – key member of Islamic Conference – close to Nehru Role of Major Shah and Meharchand Mahajan 24th and 25th October – Ramlal Batra met Nehru and Patel with a request letter from Raja – they pressed Raja to sign the accession treaty 26th October 1947 – the Raja signed the accession treaty – V P Menon – special representative of the Government got the treaty signed – defense, Ex. Affairs and Communication handed over to the Indian government – became the foundation of Art. 370
  13. 13. Blunder of 1948 From 27th October 1947 – Bharat declared all out war against Pakistan;  After initial losses, Indian military made serge in northern areas through Jozilla;  431 days war ended with a blunder - on the advice of Lord Mountbatten Nehru took the matter to the United Nations – 1 st January 1948 and 28th October made a declaration about ‘plebiscite’ in Kashmir; 
  14. 14. Internationalization of Kashmir Gave Pakistan an advantage;  Became a key to Pakistan’s role in the Cold War;  Retained the separate status of Kashmir through Art 370;  Had to accept the terms of condition of the UN – S-1100 – resolution on 13th August 1948 
  15. 15. UN resolution – key terms End of War  Pakistan will withdraw forces from Kashmir Valley  India will take plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir  Both the countries will finalize an agreement with each other regarding the modalities; 
  16. 16. Karachi Agreement Both the countries declared ceasefire on 1st January 1949;  Karachi Conference – Gen Nazir Ahmad & Gen Thimayya – UN delegation of 5 members headed by Williams Dell  Line of Control – was forced to be accepted 
  17. 17. Strategic Issues     Key transport and trade roots passes through Pakistan; All major rivers that makes Punjab and Sindh fertile originates in India; It’s a key to enter in central and East Asia; Reach natural resources and important strategic location makes ‘hot point’ for international politics.
  18. 18. Decoding the Myths? Jammu and Kashmir is a Muslim majority state with Muslim Culture; (Hairat)  Most of the Kashmiri people are antiIndian; (Lord Aveberry plebiscite);  Indian and Government and Army has been unjust to Kashmiri people; (Sadbhavana and packages)  India refused to take plebiscite 
  19. 19. What we Need to Understand? Kashmir has been an integral part of Hindu (Indian) culture since ages;  It is not an issue of Hindu or Muslim Majority – Kashmiriyat is as much part of Hindu culture as Punjabi/Marathi culture;  370 article has made the situation worst;  It is not an issue of Hindu/Muslim/Buddhist way of worship but nationality 
  20. 20. What we Need to Understand? More than 300000 pandits are displaced in last 23 years, their human rights are equally important;  Human rights of armed and police forces are also important;  Abdullah and Mufti Mohammad Said family used Kashmir for personal gains;  Huriyat conference never participated in elections; 
  21. 21. What we Need to Understand? Indian government is soft on separatists – should not be party to dialogue;  Democratic participation in Indian parts is much better than PoK (Nicholson report);  US cannot help us solve this problem;  Pressurize government to make it an issue of national importance – scrape Art 370 – make the integration real 
  22. 22. Any Queries/suggestions?????
  23. 23.  Thank YOU!!!!