What do these images show? A B C
 
Deforestation of Amazon Rainforest – Why?
 
 
Papua New Guinea is at risk of losing more than half of its rainforests by 2021 because of commercial logging, subsistence...
Case Study: Amazon Rainforest <ul><li>Location – South America </li></ul><ul><li>Rainforest covers 9 countries – 60% in Br...
Deforestation in Amazon R/F <ul><li>Large areas of the rainforest are being cleared every year, particularly in Brazil, Co...
Reasons for deforestation <ul><li>A) Increase in demand for agricultural/farming landuse </li></ul><ul><li>More than ¼ of ...
 
<ul><li>Land also cleared for growing crops, either for subsistence or commercial purpose </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. growing o...
B) Growth of settlements (Urbanisation) <ul><li>- Due to population increase, land is cleared for housing needs </li></ul>...
<ul><li>3) Improved transport networks </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are felled to make way for roads to grain access to and dev...
C) Growth of industries <ul><li>Much of the forests are cleared to support industrial activities: </li></ul><ul><li>i) Log...
<ul><li>ii) Mining </li></ul><ul><li>Rich deposits of iron, bauxite, copper, nickle and gold in the Amazon basin </li></ul...
D) Dam Construction <ul><li>Large areas of forest flooded to create reservoirs behind dams to harness HEP </li></ul><ul><l...
E) Forest Fires <ul><li>Land clearance by cultivators and farmers often start forest fires deliberately as it is a very fa...
 
 
 
 
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Forest Destruction Lesson

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Forest Destruction Lesson

  1. 1. What do these images show? A B C
  2. 3. Deforestation of Amazon Rainforest – Why?
  3. 6. Papua New Guinea is at risk of losing more than half of its rainforests by 2021 because of commercial logging, subsistence agriculture and poor conservation efforts.
  4. 7. Case Study: Amazon Rainforest <ul><li>Location – South America </li></ul><ul><li>Rainforest covers 9 countries – 60% in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries include Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Columbia </li></ul>
  5. 8. Deforestation in Amazon R/F <ul><li>Large areas of the rainforest are being cleared every year, particularly in Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador and Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Attributed to the following factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in demand for agricultural landuse </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Improved transport networks </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of Dam </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Fires </li></ul>
  6. 9. Reasons for deforestation <ul><li>A) Increase in demand for agricultural/farming landuse </li></ul><ul><li>More than ¼ of forest (Brazil, Venezuela, Columbia and Peru) converted into pastures for large-scale cattle ranching operated by multinationals </li></ul><ul><li>Beef sold to MEDCs such as USA, Canada and France is a valuable source of revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Large subsidies and tax incentives given to cattle ranchers to encourage this oepration </li></ul><ul><li>Land was not suitable for pastures and weeds soon take over the land and the cattle ranchers move off and clear more forest </li></ul>
  7. 11. <ul><li>Land also cleared for growing crops, either for subsistence or commercial purpose </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. growing of maize in Brazil, Columbia and Bolivia, the cultivation of crops for self-sufficiency by peasant farmers in brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Cash crops such as sugar-cane, coffee, bananas in large scale plantation cultivation in Brazil, Ecuador and Peru </li></ul>
  8. 12. B) Growth of settlements (Urbanisation) <ul><li>- Due to population increase, land is cleared for housing needs </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive areas of the forest have been removed for the resettlement of people mainly from the north-east </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers were given plots of land with frontage alone a major road </li></ul><ul><li>Towns built to serve farmers </li></ul><ul><li>More than 56 million ha of land used for this purpose </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>3) Improved transport networks </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are felled to make way for roads to grain access to and develop the interior </li></ul><ul><li>In Brazil, vast tracts of forest have to give way for the construction of the 6,000km Trans-Amazonian Highway </li></ul><ul><li>Building of this highway resulted in more settlements being set up along it </li></ul><ul><li>Forest are cleared when they build houses, as well as plant crops </li></ul>
  10. 14. C) Growth of industries <ul><li>Much of the forests are cleared to support industrial activities: </li></ul><ul><li>i) Logging </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for tropical hardwoods from the MEDCs such as the USA, Japan and France </li></ul><ul><li>Amazonian countries reap lucrative profits from logging </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of illegal logging too </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technology speeds up deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Not uncommon to harvest 10% of the timber in an area to destroy 50% of the remaining trees </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>ii) Mining </li></ul><ul><li>Rich deposits of iron, bauxite, copper, nickle and gold in the Amazon basin </li></ul><ul><li>Some 900,000 sq. km of forests have been removed for the mining of high grade iron ore in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Over 10,000 sq. km forests cleared for mining oil and constructing refineries in Ecuador </li></ul>
  12. 16. D) Dam Construction <ul><li>Large areas of forest flooded to create reservoirs behind dams to harness HEP </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Tucurui Dam on the Toncantins River in Brazil </li></ul>
  13. 17. E) Forest Fires <ul><li>Land clearance by cultivators and farmers often start forest fires deliberately as it is a very fast and efficient way </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt vegetation will also catch fire easily during the dry season </li></ul>

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