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Jan Stefka & Vince Smith A hitchhikers guide to the Galápagos Co-phylogeography of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasi...
The Galap á gos archipelago 5-9 MYA c. 2-3 MYA 7.000 YA Further SE up to 80 MYA? c. 1-2 MYA BALTRA South Seymour BARTOLOMÉ...
The progression rule Patterns of colonization & diversification linked to geological history 0 100 (km) 0 60 (m) Youngest ...
Galap á gos endemics BALTRA South Seymour BARTOLOMÉ Bartholomew ESPAÑOLA Hood FERNANDINA Narborough FLOREANA Charles GENOV...
Galap á gos mockingbirds Mimus  spp.
Host systematics Host mockingbirds Mimus  sp. M. trifasciatus Floreana M. macdonaldi Hood M. parvulus M. melanotis San Cri...
Galapágos mockingbirds 2004-2008 14 Islands <ul><li>Mist nets & potter traps </li></ul><ul><li>Wing vein puncture </li></u...
Mockingbird ectoparasites Amblyceran louse Myrsidea nesomimi 11 islands Ischnoceran louse Brueelia galapagensis 6 (smaller...
Questions <ul><li>Where there is discordance, can we explain it </li></ul><ul><li>What are the evolutionary histories of t...
<ul><li>Homologous 1050 bp fragment COI sequenced in the mockingbirds and all 3 parasite taxa + outgroups  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>107 sequences (25 haplotypes) </li></ul><ul><li>Island populations often single haplotypes (Floreana) </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>86 sequences (71 haplotypes), most diverse ecto.  </li></ul><ul><li>Haplotypes exclusive to each island (*GbE) </l...
<ul><li>98 sequences (37 haplotypes)  </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly maps to host phylogeny, basal SE clade </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Ischnoceran lice  ( Brueelia ) <ul><li>45 sequences (8 haplotypes) </li></ul><ul><li>Very low levels of genetic diversity ...
<ul><li>Wide confidence intervals on node ages </li></ul><ul><li>Indicative of the sequence of speciation  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>GeoPhylo </li></ul><ul><li>ML gene trees  </li></ul><ul><li>Lat. long. data </li></ul><ul><li>KML file </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Evolutionary histories of  Mimus  & 2 ectoparasites ( Analges  &  Myrsidea ) broadly congruent </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Paquita Hoeck  and  Lukas Keller  ( Zoological Museum, University of Zurich, Switzerland)  who provided host and p...
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A hitchhikers guide to the Galápagos: Co-phylogeography of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasites

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A hitchhikers guide to the Galápagos: Co-phylogeography of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasites

  1. 1. Jan Stefka & Vince Smith A hitchhikers guide to the Galápagos Co-phylogeography of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasites
  2. 2. The Galap á gos archipelago 5-9 MYA c. 2-3 MYA 7.000 YA Further SE up to 80 MYA? c. 1-2 MYA BALTRA South Seymour BARTOLOMÉ Bartholomew ESPAÑOLA Hood FERNANDINA Narborough FLOREANA Charles GENOVESA Tower ISABELA Albemarle MARCHENA Bindloe NORTH SEYMOUR PINZÓN Duncan PINTA Abingdon RÁBIDA Jervis SAN CRISTÓBAL Chatham SANTA CRUZ Indefatigable SANTA FÉ Barrington SANTIAGO San Salvador 0 100 (km) 0 60 (m)
  3. 3. The progression rule Patterns of colonization & diversification linked to geological history 0 100 (km) 0 60 (m) Youngest Islands Oldest Islands Shallowest node coalescences Deepest node coalescences
  4. 4. Galap á gos endemics BALTRA South Seymour BARTOLOMÉ Bartholomew ESPAÑOLA Hood FERNANDINA Narborough FLOREANA Charles GENOVESA Tower ISABELA Albemarle MARCHENA Bindloe NORTH SEYMOUR PINZÓN Duncan PINTA Abingdon RÁBIDA Jervis SAN CRISTÓBAL Chatham SANTA CRUZ Indefatigable SANTA FÉ Barrington SANTIAGO San Salvador 0 100 (km) 0 60 (m)
  5. 5. Galap á gos mockingbirds Mimus spp.
  6. 6. Host systematics Host mockingbirds Mimus sp. M. trifasciatus Floreana M. macdonaldi Hood M. parvulus M. melanotis San Cristobal traditional taxonomy East S.East Middle + North West mtDNA (Arbogast et al, 2006), colonization 1.6-5.5 MYA mtDNA phylogeny
  7. 7. Galapágos mockingbirds 2004-2008 14 Islands <ul><li>Mist nets & potter traps </li></ul><ul><li>Wing vein puncture </li></ul><ul><li>Ectoparasites collected by dust ruffling </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mockingbird ectoparasites Amblyceran louse Myrsidea nesomimi 11 islands Ischnoceran louse Brueelia galapagensis 6 (smaller) islands Analgid mite Analges sp. 11 islands Myrsidea Brueelia Analges
  9. 9. Questions <ul><li>Where there is discordance, can we explain it </li></ul><ul><li>What are the evolutionary histories of these lineages </li></ul>Analges Myrsidea Mockingbirds Brueelia <ul><li>Are the host & ectoparasite evolutionary histories congruent? </li></ul>Biogeography <ul><li>To what extent do these diversifications match the successional origins of the islands (progression rule) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Homologous 1050 bp fragment COI sequenced in the mockingbirds and all 3 parasite taxa + outgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary nuclear EF1α sequenced in Brueelia & Analges (not informative in Myrsidea ) </li></ul><ul><li>400 Mimus individuals covering the 11 sampled islands genotyped using microsatellites </li></ul>Data Analyses <ul><li>NJ, ML and BI phylogenetic analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Haplotype network built using TCS </li></ul><ul><li>Mockingbird microsats analysed via Bayesian clustering algorithm in Structure </li></ul><ul><li>*BEAST to compare mutation rates, infer a multi-species tree from gene trees, & estimate dates of speciation </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPhylo and Google Earth to visualize genetree congruence </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>107 sequences (25 haplotypes) </li></ul><ul><li>Island populations often single haplotypes (Floreana) </li></ul><ul><li>Largely congruent with traditional taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Basal split separates SE pop. from rest </li></ul><ul><li>No regular migration between islands (Structure analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruence with ectos must have another explanation (eg ancestral polymorphism) </li></ul>Mockingbirds COI ML tree SE
  12. 12. <ul><li>86 sequences (71 haplotypes), most diverse ecto. </li></ul><ul><li>Haplotypes exclusive to each island (*GbE) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly maps to host phylogeny, SE clade @ root </li></ul><ul><li>Fastest mutation rate (9x Mimus ) </li></ul>Feather mites ( Analges ) COI SE
  13. 13. <ul><li>98 sequences (37 haplotypes) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly maps to host phylogeny, basal SE clade </li></ul><ul><li>Island groups monophyletic & well supported </li></ul><ul><li>But less pop. structure than mites </li></ul><ul><li>Several haplotypes shared across islands </li></ul><ul><li>Champion & Santa Fe relationship (recent migration perhaps by unknown louse vector) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation rate approx 2x Mimus </li></ul>Amblyceran lice ( Myrsidea ) COI
  14. 14. Ischnoceran lice ( Brueelia ) <ul><li>45 sequences (8 haplotypes) </li></ul><ul><li>Very low levels of genetic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Island populations comprise 1-3 haplotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Some genetic isolation between islands </li></ul>SE NW <ul><li>Dispersal via hitchhiking on hippoboscids? </li></ul><ul><li>B. galapagensis ‘contaminant’ on Small Ground Finch </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-island migration of Small Ground Finch with hippoboscids carrying lice? </li></ul>Geospiza fuliginosa
  15. 15. <ul><li>Wide confidence intervals on node ages </li></ul><ul><li>Indicative of the sequence of speciation </li></ul><ul><li>SE split 1.53 Mya on multi-species tree </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-species tree agrees with traditional Mockingbird taxonomy & geological history </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruence best seen in Google Earth visualization </li></ul>Cophylogeny *BEAST (node age & multi-species tree) Single calibration - Espanola (mean 2.9 Mya, SD 0.9)
  16. 16. <ul><li>GeoPhylo </li></ul><ul><li>ML gene trees </li></ul><ul><li>Lat. long. data </li></ul><ul><li>KML file </li></ul><ul><li>Google Earth </li></ul>Geophylogeny http://tinyurl.com/3pxboyu Google Earth
  17. 17. <ul><li>Evolutionary histories of Mimus & 2 ectoparasites ( Analges & Myrsidea ) broadly congruent </li></ul><ul><li>These diversifications can be explained by the successional origins of the islands (progression rule) and co-diversification of ectoparasite lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Low genetic variability & lack of co-phylogeographic congruence in one ectoparasite lineage ( Brueelia ) </li></ul><ul><li>May be explained by life history traits of Brueelia linked to phoretic dispersal </li></ul>Summary Read more shortly at: Stefka et al 2011. A hitchhikers guide to the Galapagos: co-phylogeography of Galapagos mockingbirds and their parasites. BMC Evolutionary Biology ( accepted pending revision )
  18. 18. <ul><li>Paquita Hoeck and Lukas Keller ( Zoological Museum, University of Zurich, Switzerland) who provided host and parasite samples and some microsat. data. </li></ul><ul><li>European Union FP7 Marie Curie Fellowship program. </li></ul>Acknowledgements ...and Douglas Adams

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