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Principal & Maxims Of
Teaching
Love Your Parents & Profession
V.SURESH KUMAR
Assistant professor of mathematics
Rajalakshm...
Teaching Principles
Purposeful Based Teaching
Data –informed learning &
teaching plans are developed to provide
differentiated focused teachin...
Purposeful Teaching
Involves
* Efficient Organisation.
* Clarity of Purpose.
* Structured Lesson.
* Adaptive Practice
Purposeful Teaching is in
Evidence
Make systematic use of literacy
transition data to monitor & plan for student
progress ...
Con/-
Discuss with teachers & students
preferred optimal times for time tabling of
literacy intervention to maximize learn...
Activity
* Bring out students existing ideas.
* Challenge some existing ideas.
* Shared intellectual control.
* Focus stud...
Child Centered Teaching
Active learning , student engagement & other
strategies that involve students & mention learning a...
Experience-Based
“The process where by knowledge is created through
the transformation of experience knowledge results
fro...
Elements
* Concrete Experience.
* Reflective Observation.
* Abstract Conceptualization.
* Achieve Experimentation.
Essential Components
* Involves something personally significant
or meaningful to the students .
* Students should be pers...
Con/-
* Students should be recognized for prior
learning they bring into the process .
* Teachers need to establish a sens...
Principle of Activity (or)Learning
by Doing
Teacher should produce activity in each type
of lesson.
Types:
Activity
Physic...
Physical Activity
To produce activity in the body organs
of the pupils.
Mental activity:
To activate the sense organs of t...
* Every child has in born instinct of
construction.
* For successful teaching the teacher should
make use of the pupils in...
Methods based on learning by
doing
* Montessori method.
* Kindergarten method.
* Heuristic method.
* Dalton method.
* Proj...
School council.
Declamations contest.
Various societies.
Meetings.
Conference.
Club.
Games etc.
Evaluation is a wider concept than testing
& measurement.
Evaluation is a continuous assessment of the
pupils day-to-day p...
Methods of Teaching
Objectives of Teaching
Curriculum Tools & Techniques
of Evaluation
Purpose of Evaluation
Educational Purpose Administrative Purpose
Learning Curriculum
Teaching
Parents Society
Education sy...
Diagnostic Evaluation.
Formative Evaluation.
Summative Evaluation.
This Evaluation in done in the beginning of the
teaching learning process.
Formative evaluation
Decision –Making process.
...
Evaluation Techniques
Quantitative Techniques Qualitative Techniques
Oral
Written
Practical
Observation
Anecdotal
Records
...
Tools & Technique Of Evaluation
Testing Procedures
Self – Reporting
Techniques
Observational Methods
Projective Measures
1. Written Tests.
2. Verbal Tests.
3. Practical Tests.
4. Performance Tests.
1. Questionnaire.
2. Autobiography.
3. Interview.
4. Personal Diary.
1. Anecdotal Record.
2. Check-list.
3. Rating scale.
4. Sociometry.
1. Association Test.
2. Sentence Completion Test- SCT
3. Word Association Test -WAT
4. Thematic Apperception Test –TAT
5. ...
1. For the assessment of students performance &
academic achievement.
2. For the teachers for judging the achievement of
o...
Education has transformed itself into child-
oriented education .
The concept of child-oriented education is
the gift of p...
1. Principle of activity or learning by doing.
2. Principle of play-way.
3. Principle of motivation.
4. Principle of self ...
Con/-
9. Principle of readiness.
10. Principle of effect.
11. Principle of exercise & repetition.
12. Principle of change ...
1.Child as a “Hero” in the drama of
education.
2. Teaching is to keep the children active
in the class.
Related to principle of learning by doing.
Play is the chief activity of childhood-
Froebel.
It gives joy ,freedom ,conten...
1. Satisfying the curiosity of children.
2. Utilizing all the senses of children.
3. Relating closely bogy & mind .
4. Lin...
1.Best teaching is enabling the child learn by
this own efforts.
2. Teaching enable the child to work
independently & with...
1. No two children are alike.
2. Teaching to be effective must cater
to individual difference of children.
1.Definite goal according to the standard of the
each students.
2. Short term of immediate goals should be set
before smal...
Teaching is the stimulation , guidance ,
direction & encouragement of learning –Burton.
If wants to go together should be put
together.
Discuss at various places ideas & thing
associated in a number of ways.
1. Prepare for action.
2. Make the mind to participate in the teaching –
learning process.
3. Teacher must be alive to thi...
Response is strengthened if it followed by
pleasure.
Response is weakened if it followed by
displeasure.
Exercise strengthens the bond between situation
& response.
Two subparts
(i) . Principle of use.
(ii). Principle of disuse.
Fatigue, lack of attention overcome by
providing change, rest & recreation.
While framing the time table that the students...
Praise, grade, certificate, token
money & other to incentives make the
learning joy able.
Senses are gateways of knowledge .
The power of observation discrimination ,
identification ,generalization & application ...
1.Group behavior , changes the behavior of the
members of the group.
2. A suitable climate for group to be created in
the ...
1. Provide opportunities to the students to
explore things events & find cause-effect
relationship .
2. Creativity explore...
Distribution of the knowledge & the teacher
ability , both are separate
Teacher needs two things
(i). The complete knowled...
Meaning
Psychologist introduced the laws of
learning , Educationists have presented their
experience & decision in the for...
(i). From simple to Complex.
(ii). From known to Unknown.
(iii). From seen to Unseen.
(iv). From concrete to Abstract.
(v)...
Con/-
(x). From Analysis to Synthesis.
(xi). Follow nature.
(xii). Training of Senses.
(xiii). Encouragement to self- stud...
From Simple to Complex
Teaching is to be made successful & essential
by using a maxim called “ From simple to
complex”.
Te...
Con/-
Example:
(i). Drawing a straight line simple to teacher but
difficult to pupils.
(ii). Drawing an animals picture ma...
From Known to Unknown
A good teacher bases this new knowledge on
previous knowledge of students.
Example:
Profit or Loss -...
From Concrete to Abstract
The mental development of the pupils
begins with the concrete objects & afterwards the
gains mic...
:
”
1. Knowledge should be presented according to the age of
pupils, cursorily, needs & acquiring power.
1. Knowledge before t...
3. In order words , we should proceed from
psychological order to the logical order.
principle & maximum of teaching
principle & maximum of teaching
principle & maximum of teaching
principle & maximum of teaching
principle & maximum of teaching
principle & maximum of teaching
principle & maximum of teaching
principle & maximum of teaching
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principle & maximum of teaching

  1. 1. Principal & Maxims Of Teaching Love Your Parents & Profession V.SURESH KUMAR Assistant professor of mathematics Rajalakshmi college of education Thoothukudi.
  2. 2. Teaching Principles
  3. 3. Purposeful Based Teaching Data –informed learning & teaching plans are developed to provide differentiated focused teaching & open- ended learning challenges for all students.
  4. 4. Purposeful Teaching Involves * Efficient Organisation. * Clarity of Purpose. * Structured Lesson. * Adaptive Practice
  5. 5. Purposeful Teaching is in Evidence Make systematic use of literacy transition data to monitor & plan for student progress over time. Establish professional learning teams to plan, implement & evaluate comprehensive literacy programs for students identified as having potential to achieve at a higher standard.
  6. 6. Con/- Discuss with teachers & students preferred optimal times for time tabling of literacy intervention to maximize learning time for improving student literacy outcomes. Time table provision for at least three to five weekly sessions of explicit, intensive, literacy instruction.
  7. 7. Activity * Bring out students existing ideas. * Challenge some existing ideas. * Shared intellectual control. * Focus students attention on overlooked detail. * Helping students workout some of the “scientific” explanations for themselves. * Collecting evidence/data for analysis. * Open discussion via a shared experience.
  8. 8. Child Centered Teaching Active learning , student engagement & other strategies that involve students & mention learning are called learner-centered. Teaching should be child centered . Interest & liking of students given priority while teaching. Subject taught to the child as per this liking. An intelligent teacher is able to deal with this type of teaching very wisely.
  9. 9. Experience-Based “The process where by knowledge is created through the transformation of experience knowledge results from the combination of grasping & transforming experience”.
  10. 10. Elements * Concrete Experience. * Reflective Observation. * Abstract Conceptualization. * Achieve Experimentation.
  11. 11. Essential Components * Involves something personally significant or meaningful to the students . * Students should be personally engaged . * Reflective thought & opportunities for students to write or discuss their experiences should be on going learning they bring into the process .
  12. 12. Con/- * Students should be recognized for prior learning they bring into the process . * Teachers need to establish a sense of trust , respect , openness,& concern for the well-being of the students.
  13. 13. Principle of Activity (or)Learning by Doing Teacher should produce activity in each type of lesson. Types: Activity Physical Mental
  14. 14. Physical Activity To produce activity in the body organs of the pupils. Mental activity: To activate the sense organs of the pupils.
  15. 15. * Every child has in born instinct of construction. * For successful teaching the teacher should make use of the pupils instinct of construction & senses to the maximum. * Pupils mind & body work together. They shows more interest in learning. For Effective Teaching
  16. 16. Methods based on learning by doing * Montessori method. * Kindergarten method. * Heuristic method. * Dalton method. * Project method . * Basic method etc.
  17. 17. School council. Declamations contest. Various societies. Meetings. Conference. Club. Games etc.
  18. 18. Evaluation is a wider concept than testing & measurement. Evaluation is a continuous assessment of the pupils day-to-day progress in all spheres. Helps in determining the potentialities & interest of the students. Provides information essential for an effective guidance programme.
  19. 19. Methods of Teaching Objectives of Teaching Curriculum Tools & Techniques of Evaluation
  20. 20. Purpose of Evaluation Educational Purpose Administrative Purpose Learning Curriculum Teaching Parents Society Education system
  21. 21. Diagnostic Evaluation. Formative Evaluation. Summative Evaluation.
  22. 22. This Evaluation in done in the beginning of the teaching learning process. Formative evaluation Decision –Making process. Help in making changes in the curriculum, teaching strategies & the learning environment. Summative Evaluation Judgement – Making process. Terminal(Final) Examination.
  23. 23. Evaluation Techniques Quantitative Techniques Qualitative Techniques Oral Written Practical Observation Anecdotal Records Check list Rating Scale Cumulative Records
  24. 24. Tools & Technique Of Evaluation Testing Procedures Self – Reporting Techniques Observational Methods Projective Measures
  25. 25. 1. Written Tests. 2. Verbal Tests. 3. Practical Tests. 4. Performance Tests.
  26. 26. 1. Questionnaire. 2. Autobiography. 3. Interview. 4. Personal Diary.
  27. 27. 1. Anecdotal Record. 2. Check-list. 3. Rating scale. 4. Sociometry.
  28. 28. 1. Association Test. 2. Sentence Completion Test- SCT 3. Word Association Test -WAT 4. Thematic Apperception Test –TAT 5. Rorschach Ink –Blot Test –RIBT
  29. 29. 1. For the assessment of students performance & academic achievement. 2. For the teachers for judging the achievement of objective. 3. For guidance workers. 4. For Educational administrations. 5. For improving schools activities. 6. For improving schools activities. 7. For promoting co-curricular activities.
  30. 30. Education has transformed itself into child- oriented education . The concept of child-oriented education is the gift of psychology. Important to students abilities , capabilities , mental level , interests & age.
  31. 31. 1. Principle of activity or learning by doing. 2. Principle of play-way. 3. Principle of motivation. 4. Principle of self education. 5. Principle of individual difference. 6. Principle of goal setting. 7. Principle of simulation. 8. Principle of association.
  32. 32. Con/- 9. Principle of readiness. 10. Principle of effect. 11. Principle of exercise & repetition. 12. Principle of change or rest. 13. Principle of feedback & reinforcement. 14. Principle of training of senses. 15.Principle of group dynamics. 16. Principle of creativity.
  33. 33. 1.Child as a “Hero” in the drama of education. 2. Teaching is to keep the children active in the class.
  34. 34. Related to principle of learning by doing. Play is the chief activity of childhood- Froebel. It gives joy ,freedom ,contentment , inner , outer peace.
  35. 35. 1. Satisfying the curiosity of children. 2. Utilizing all the senses of children. 3. Relating closely bogy & mind . 4. Linking teaching-learning with life.
  36. 36. 1.Best teaching is enabling the child learn by this own efforts. 2. Teaching enable the child to work independently & without the teacher at a later stage. 3.Encourage students in the development of their natural desire to work .
  37. 37. 1. No two children are alike. 2. Teaching to be effective must cater to individual difference of children.
  38. 38. 1.Definite goal according to the standard of the each students. 2. Short term of immediate goals should be set before small children . 3. Goals should be very clear & definite & understand by children.
  39. 39. Teaching is the stimulation , guidance , direction & encouragement of learning –Burton.
  40. 40. If wants to go together should be put together. Discuss at various places ideas & thing associated in a number of ways.
  41. 41. 1. Prepare for action. 2. Make the mind to participate in the teaching – learning process. 3. Teacher must be alive to this principle.
  42. 42. Response is strengthened if it followed by pleasure. Response is weakened if it followed by displeasure.
  43. 43. Exercise strengthens the bond between situation & response. Two subparts (i) . Principle of use. (ii). Principle of disuse.
  44. 44. Fatigue, lack of attention overcome by providing change, rest & recreation. While framing the time table that the students do not experience boredom & fatigue. Two consecutive periods of a subjects are not provided in a class.
  45. 45. Praise, grade, certificate, token money & other to incentives make the learning joy able.
  46. 46. Senses are gateways of knowledge . The power of observation discrimination , identification ,generalization & application are developed through the effective functioning of senses.
  47. 47. 1.Group behavior , changes the behavior of the members of the group. 2. A suitable climate for group to be created in the classroom.
  48. 48. 1. Provide opportunities to the students to explore things events & find cause-effect relationship . 2. Creativity explored & developed to the maximum extend.
  49. 49. Distribution of the knowledge & the teacher ability , both are separate Teacher needs two things (i). The complete knowledge of the subject matters. (ii). The scientific knowledge of the teaching styles for disseminating the knowledge to the pupils.
  50. 50. Meaning Psychologist introduced the laws of learning , Educationists have presented their experience & decision in the form of maxims considering their laws & elements as the basis of teaching. Experience & decision ,performed in the form of maxims have been named as “Maxims of teaching”.
  51. 51. (i). From simple to Complex. (ii). From known to Unknown. (iii). From seen to Unseen. (iv). From concrete to Abstract. (v). From particular to General. (iv). From whole to Part. (vii). From indefinite to Definite. (viii). From psychological to Logical. (ix). From Empirical to Rational
  52. 52. Con/- (x). From Analysis to Synthesis. (xi). Follow nature. (xii). Training of Senses. (xiii). Encouragement to self- study.
  53. 53. From Simple to Complex Teaching is to be made successful & essential by using a maxim called “ From simple to complex”. Teacher should be divided the subject- matter into simple aspects & complex aspect. Teacher should tell simple concept first &difficult concepts latter.
  54. 54. Con/- Example: (i). Drawing a straight line simple to teacher but difficult to pupils. (ii). Drawing an animals picture may be viewed by the teacher as the difficult task while it is very easy for pupils.
  55. 55. From Known to Unknown A good teacher bases this new knowledge on previous knowledge of students. Example: Profit or Loss - taught to the pupils by referring to the shopkeepers.
  56. 56. From Concrete to Abstract The mental development of the pupils begins with the concrete objects & afterwards the gains micro words for them. Example: While teaching geography , the knowledge of mountains , lakes , rivers, & oceans or perceptual things or through their models, pictures & lines.
  57. 57. : ”
  58. 58. 1. Knowledge should be presented according to the age of pupils, cursorily, needs & acquiring power. 1. Knowledge before the pupils dividing , it logically into various units. 2. Presenting the knowledge logically , the pupils interest, age & acquiring –power are over –looked .The presentation of the knowledge in psychological order is definitely better & useful instead of teaching in a logical manner. In lower –classes teach by using psychological order but logical order must be adopted as the pupils enters higher classes along with mental development.
  59. 59. 3. In order words , we should proceed from psychological order to the logical order.
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