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Shorekeepers of Mumbai


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This presentation is about Mumbai Mangroves.

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Shorekeepers of Mumbai

  1. 1. Mission Mangroves Knowledge Partner By Dr. V. Shubhalaxmi Founder & Managing Trustee iNaturewatch Foundation 1
  2. 2. About Mission Mangroves A special community impact initiative of United Way Mumbai for conservation of mangroves in Mumbai. • Plantation and maintenance of 1,00,001 Mangroves in degraded wetlands • Education and sensitization of citizens of Mumbai on importance of Mangroves 2
  3. 3. Session Layout  Presentation covering topics such as Introduction to Mangroves, Mangroves Adaptation, Mangroves Distribution, Types of Mangroves, Importance of Mangroves, Major threats, Protective measures for Mangroves, Conservation  Quiz based on the above presentation (Group & Individual) 3
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  5. 5. Shorekeepers of Mumbai Mangroves guard our shorelines and ensure that the sea doesn’t encroach upon the land 5
  6. 6. Knowing Mangroves  Mangroves are trees or shrubs that are found at the interface between land and sea. (coastal swamps, estuaries, mud-flats, seashores, riverbanks, intertidal regions of shallow bays and creek.  They are only plants that could survive in salt water & they have special roots that allow them to inhabit at water logged areas.  Mangrove ecosystem is a peculiar habitat & the plant community of this ecosystem is termed as "mangrove vegetation". 6
  7. 7. What makes them unique?  Ability to cope with salt through transpiration  Breathing pop up roots allows the plant to remain afloat Stilt roots 7
  8. 8. Did you know? Mangroves supply nutrients to adjacent coral reef and sea grass communities, sustaining these habitats’ primary production and general health. 8
  9. 9. Where all they are found?  Mangroves are found practically in almost all the continents, excepting Europe, the Arctic and Antarctic. The richest mangrove communities occur in tropical and sub-tropical areas.  India has around 7% of the world's total area of mangroves. 9
  10. 10. Did you know? The best luxuriant patches of mangroves are found in Asia, especially in India and Bangladesh - the Sunderbans are the largest mangrove forest in the world both in size as well as biodiversity 10
  11. 11. History of Greater Mumbai Mangroves Mumbai was earlier seven islands during 1670. However, the Britisher’s, deforested the fringing mangroves and reclaimed these islands into one continuous landmass. Since then the increasing development and population pressure are taking the toll of mangrove land. During these process a few mangrove patches are still left in the heart of the city, which proves that today's megacity had a luxuriant past of mangrove forests. 11
  12. 12. Mangroves areas in Greater Mumbai In the early nineties, perhaps over 37 sq. km. of mangroves existed in Mumbai. Today major mangroves are seen today in Greater Mumbai along the • Vasai Creek • Thane Creek • Manori and Malad • Mahim - Bandra • Versova • Sewri • Mumbra – Diva • Vikhroli • Bhandup 12
  13. 13. Lets explore Mangrove Forests  Around 15 species of true mangroves are found in Mumbai. However data about 10 species is available.  Mangroves are home to several species insects, reptiles, birds, and mammals like crocodiles, waders, deer, monkeys, and honeybees.  Many animals find shelter either in the roots or branches of mangroves. 13
  14. 14. Mangroves Zones on the Shores 1. Front mangroves (Proximal Zone): This zone is towards water front. Main species with these features are Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata. On rocky and coral reef substrata, Avicennia spp, Sonneratia sp. Caseolaris sp., are also found. Both Avicennia and Sonneratia produce pneumatophores. 2. Mid mangroves (Middle Zones): Ceriops sp. and Bruguiera sp.are found in this region which develop a strong hold fast in the form of knee roots or bent roots as a special adoption for supporting the erect bole. 3. Back mangroves (Distal Zone): Towards island area mangroves like Excoecaris agallocha, Heritiera littoralis and Xylocarnus spp occur. Both Heritiera sp.and Xylocarpus sp.produce buttress roots. 14
  15. 15. Top 10 Mangroves of Greater Mumbai TOP TEN MUMBAI MANGROVES 15
  16. 16. 1.Grey Mangrove: The coloniser  A gregarious species seen in large stretches along the estuarine region and creeks. This is the first among mangrove species to establish itself in new habitats.  Commonest on west coast of India and in Mumbai.  Source of fuel, timber, pickle, cattle feed, tannin.  Used as abortive, on fish bites and wounds . 16
  17. 17. 2. Red Mangrove: Walking Roots  Mainly seen along sheltered estuaries and creeks.  Self propagation  Source of firewood, charcoal, fodder, mosquito repellent, cure for diabetes, dysentery, haemorrhage  Identified by prominent prop roots and pointed leaf apex  Fewer in Mumbai 17
  18. 18. 3.White Mangrove: Rebounder  IUCN listed  24% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. However, it has a high rejuvenation rate, and is often one of the first species to return after removal of mangrove habitat  Identified by knee roots 18
  19. 19. 4. Mangrove Apple: Versatile  IUCN Listed  7% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. It is a fast-growing species but has low seed viability.  Prominent knee roots  Grows in unstable conditions, preferred for forestation 19
  20. 20. 5.River Mangrove- Honey provider  IUCN Listed  21% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980.  On the verge of entering the threatened category  Grows in less saline area  Few in Mumbai. 20
  21. 21. 6.Back Mangrove : The Blinding Tree  IUCN Listed  21% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. However, this species is able to grow quickly and colonize disturbed areas.  Sea level rise is a major threat, especially to back mangroves that have no area in which to expand. 21
  22. 22. Mangrove Neighbours  Some of the plants that grow within or in the peripheral area of mangrove wetlands. are considered as mangrove associates.  They are tolerant to mild level of salinity  They lack aerial roots 22
  23. 23. 7. Meswak- The toothbrush Tree  Young stems of 3 to 5 mm are used as toothbrushes. A toothstick is also said to relieve toothache and gum disease, and the leaves are used as a mouthwash and for tooth and gum problems  Fruits are edible  Commonest mangrove associate in Mumbai 23
  24. 24. 8. Sea Holly : Joint Pain Reliever  IUCN Listed  The species is decreasing with destruction of mangrove habitats but there are no formal studies on species population decline.  Grows in fresh & saline waters  Used in Ayurvedic medicines to treat joint pains 24
  25. 25. 9. Common Night Glory: Night Bloomer  Flowers bloom in night  Leaves are used in preparing bread.  Tender shoots and leaves eaten as vegetable 25
  26. 26. 10. Sea Purslane: The vegetable plant  A perennial herb found on the sea coasts.  Flowers are pink or purple and opens for only a few hours each day.  These plants are known to help build dunes by catching sand in between stems and leaves. 26
  27. 27. Top Ten Magrove Animals  A large variety of fishes, molluscs, prawns, and crabs are totally dependent on the mangrove ecosystem.  Deep sea fishes are known to use the habitat for breeding and rearing their juveniles in the food-rich and safe shelters of mangroves. Fiddler Crab Mud Skipper 27
  28. 28. 1. Mudskipper- The walking fish 28
  29. 29. 2. Fiddler Crab: The Calling Crab 29
  30. 30. 3. Telescope Snail: The largest shell 30
  31. 31. 4. Small Salmon Arab: Mangrove Butterfly 31
  32. 32. 5. Teak Defoliator: Mangrove moth 32
  33. 33. 6. Monitor Lizard: Largest Lizard Water Monitor Lizard 33
  34. 34. 7. Olive Ridley Turtle: Arribada Makers 34
  35. 35. 8. Greater & Lesser Flamingos- Winter Guest Flamingos 35
  36. 36. 9. Mongoose- The Snake Hunter 36
  37. 37. 10. Jackal: The pack movers 37
  38. 38. Importance of Mangrove  Helps in Coastal Ecosystem  Place of living  Storm buffer  Water Quality  Air Quality  Mangrove and Human Being 38
  39. 39. Major Threats 39
  40. 40. Garbage Dumping Construction and Encroachment Illegal Dumping Release of industrial effluents and untreated sewage 40
  41. 41. Oil Spills and Mangroves 41
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  45. 45. Borivli-Dahisar Link Road: The illegal construction and parking of private vehicles and tourist buses have taken a toll on the green cover along the Borivli-Dahisar Link Road. Kandar Pada-Dahisar: Even this stretch was marred by similar problems — illegal dumping and rampant construction in the CRZ. Surprisingly, all houses constructed on the mangrove land had electricity and water supply. Dharma Nagar (Borivli West) Despite falling under CRZ, a paver block manufacturing unit was set up on mangrove land. 45
  46. 46. Illegal dumping of debris in Nerul, Ghansoli and area near NRI complex 46
  47. 47. Mumbai Deluge- An eye opener 26 July floods & Mithi river Monsoon floods in Maharashtra in 2005 killed nearly 1,000 people in Mumbai alone. This could have been avoided or the impact could have been reduced if the floodplains and mangroves were not destroyed and Mithi River’s natural drainage system had not been repeatedly diverted and blocked. On the other hand, Navi Mumbai did not suffer any flooding due to good mangrove cover and presence of retention ponds along the creek 47
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  49. 49. Mangrove Cell Mangrove cell was formed in 2012  Established a mangrove nursery in Vasai Creek and planted 250,000 mangrove saplings in five locations in the city.  They aim to provide mangroves for recreational purposes (create promenades and boardwalks around the edges of mangrove areas)  They are developing a mangrove park on Waghivli island which was later shifted on an open plot near Khandeshwar railway station 49
  50. 50. Other NGOs working for Mangrove conservation  Dahisar , New Link Road Residence Association  Vanshakti  Conservation Action Trust  Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)  Mangrove Society of India  Mangrove and Marine Biodiversity Conservation Foundation  iNaturewatch Foundation 50
  51. 51. How can you Help  Report cutting of mangroves to your nearest police station  Reduce Reuse Recycle  Spread Awareness  Don't buy flats on reclaimed area  Participate in Mangrove plantation drives  Engage in clean up drives  Report any clearing of mangroves in your area  Participate in mangrove walks 51
  52. 52. Like Mangrove Cell 52
  53. 53. Places to Visit Thane Creek, Sewri Mudflats, Palm Beach Road in Navi Mumbai, Airoli Marine Centre, Godrej Marine Centre, Vikroli, Bhandup Pumping station 53
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  55. 55. Hightlights Plant Life Animal Life  Grey Mangrove-The coloniser  Red Mangrove- Walking Tree  White Mangrove-Rebounder  Mangrove Apple-Versatile  River Mangrove-Honey Providers  Back Mangrove- Blinding Tree  Mesawak- Toothbrush tree  Sea Holly- Joint Pain Reliever  Common Night Glory- Night Bloomer  Sea Purselane- Vegetable Plant  Mudskipper-Walking fish  Fiddler crab- Calling crab  Telescope snail- Largest shell  Small Salmon Arab – Mangrove butterfly  Teak defoliator-Mangrove moth  Monitor lizard- Largest lizard  Olive Ridley- Arribada makers  Flamingos- Winter visitor  Mangoos- Snake hunter  Jackal- Pack Movers 55
  56. 56. FOR CARE FOR MANGROVES CALL US iNaturewatch Foundation 9987013144 56