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Organic Solar Cells


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Organic Solar Cells

  1. 1. Low Cost Manufacturing of Organic Solar Cells<br />Vishal Shrotriya, Ph.D.<br />Solarmer Energy, Inc.<br />Printed Electronics USA | Nov 30 - Dec 2, 2010 | Santa Clara, CA<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Materials for High Efficiency OPVs<br />R2R Process Development<br />Lifetime and Stability<br />Products and Applications<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />2<br />
  3. 3. OPV Timeline<br />11/29/2010<br />3<br />Solarmer<br />Before 2005<br />Konarka<br />8.13%<br />7.9%<br />Plextronics<br />7.6%<br />Solarmer<br />6.4%<br />6.8%<br />6.0%<br />Plextronics founded<br />5.4%<br />5.1%<br />Konarka founded<br />4.8%<br />3.7%<br />3.2%<br />R2R line complete<br />Solarmer’s R&D began<br />Solarmer founded<br />2.7%<br />2007<br />2009<br />2005<br />2008<br />2006<br />2004<br />2003<br />2002<br />2001<br />2011<br />2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>Donor polymers
  5. 5. Acceptors
  6. 6. Interfaces
  7. 7. Device engineering
  8. 8. Materials stability
  9. 9. Barrier and adhesives
  10. 10. Testing standards
  11. 11. Manufacturability
  12. 12. Raw materials</li></ul>OPV Technology<br />4<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  13. 13. Materials Development<br />Next 2 years<br />2007-2010<br />5<br />PE USA 2010<br />Assumptions: <br /><ul><li>EQE = 65%
  14. 14. FF = 65%</li></ul>Recent Results: <br /><ul><li>EQE > 70% </li></ul> (White et al., APL 2008)<br /><ul><li>FF > 70%</li></ul>Efficiency up to 12% can be achieved for single cells<br />Schraber et al., Adv Mater 2006.<br />11/29/2010<br />
  15. 15. Challenges<br />Bang gap too large (1.9 eV for P3Ht vs. 1.1 eV for Si)<br />Low current density<br />Non-optimized energy levels<br />Low voltage<br />Significant energy loss during charge transfer<br />Low voltage<br />Low mobility<br />Low fill factor <br />11/29/2010<br />6<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  16. 16. New Materials – LBG I<br />PSBTBT<br />JSC = 13.6 mA/cm2<br />VOC = 0.66 V<br />FF = 0.62<br />PCE = 5.6%<br />11/29/2010<br />7<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  17. 17. New Materials – PTB<br />PTB1<br />VOC = 0.58V<br />JSC = 15 mA/cm2<br />FF = 66%<br />PCE = 6%<br />11/29/2010<br />8<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  18. 18. BDT Based Polymers<br />Nature Photonics 2009, 3 (11), 649<br />11/29/2010<br />9<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  19. 19. BDT Based Polymers<br />For OPV based on PBDTTT-CF:<br />JSC = 15.2 mA/cm2<br />VOC = 0.76 V<br />FF = 66.9 % <br />PCE = 7.73 %<br />Nature Photonics 2009, 3 (11), 649<br />11/29/2010<br />10<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  20. 20. Champion Cell (NREL Certified)<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />11<br />(Reported in July 2010)<br />VOC= 0.757 V<br />JSC= 14.97 mA/cm2<br />Fill Factor = 67.84%<br />Efficiency = 8.13%<br />
  21. 21. Champion Module<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />12<br />* Certified by Newport Corp.<br />
  22. 22. Materials Development Summary<br />VOC tuning by applying electron-withdrawing groups which lower polymer’s HOMO<br />Long wavelength absorption achieved through low band-gap which increases JSC<br />More than 7% efficiency achieved in OPVs using BDT-based polymers<br />Further improvement in efficiency is expected by increasing VOC by tuning polymer’s HOMO level<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />13<br />
  23. 23. Low Cost Manufacturing<br />Uses primarily existing technology<br />Roll-to-roll for high throughput<br />Low temperature process<br />Non-vacuum process<br />Low energy requirements<br />Very high material utilization<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />14<br />
  24. 24. Roll-to-Roll Process <br />15<br />Lamination of high quality barrier film <br />Rotary Screen,<br />Conductive paste<br />Deposition head,<br />Active layer <br />Deposition Head,<br />HTL Layer<br />Deposition Head,<br />ETL Layer<br />11/29/2010<br />Cond Paste<br />HTL/ETL<br />Active <br />ETL/HTL<br />ITO <br />PET<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  25. 25. Deposition <br />Head<br />Problem Drivers:<br />Low solid content (2-5%)<br />Low viscosity (10-150 cps)<br />Thickness<br />Pattern<br />Registration<br />Solid <br />Content<br />Solution <br />Viscosity<br />Process Parameters <br />16<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  26. 26. Solution Deposition Technologies<br />17<br />17<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  27. 27. Coating Line Design<br />18<br />Air Nozzle<br />Slot-Die<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  28. 28. Rewinding<br />Dryer<br />Oven<br />Antistatic Bar<br />Coating Head<br />Unwinding <br />Plasma<br />Treater<br />Tacky Roll<br />Backing Roll<br /><ul><li>Low cost and easy to modify
  29. 29. Multiple functions
  30. 30. Class 100/1000 clean room
  31. 31. Line speed: Up to 20 ft/min</li></ul>Solarmer’s OPV Pilot Line<br />19<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />
  32. 32. Stability of OPVs<br />Factors that affect stability<br />Temperature<br />Humidity<br />Cycling of temp, %RH, light<br />Load conditions<br />Pre treatment (light soak, etc.)<br />Packaging<br />Electrodes<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />20<br />Light<br />Temperature<br />Humidity/<br /> Oxygen<br />
  33. 33. Energy transfer from photo-excited polymer to adsorbed ground state oxygen molecules to form singlet oxygen<br />Degradation Mechanisms<br />11/29/2010<br />21<br />ONRSBIR Phase I Project<br />
  34. 34. Degradation Mechanisms<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />22<br />
  35. 35. Stability Testing<br />Accelerated Lifetime Testing<br />Adhesive<br />OPV Cell<br />Encapsulation Scheme<br />Flexible Barrier<br />Flexible Substrate<br />Flexible Barrier<br />23<br />PE USA 2010<br />11/29/2010<br />
  36. 36. Manufacturing Summary<br />High efficiency OPV cell and module demonstrated<br />New polymer development<br />R2R compatible manufacturing process being developed<br />High-speed, high-yield, low temperature process<br />Stable rigid and flexible cells<br />> 2500 hrs demonstrated under continuous illumination <br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />24<br />
  37. 37. Why OPVs Will Sell?<br />11/29/2010<br />CONFIDENTIAL<br />25<br />
  38. 38. Products Roadmap<br />CONFIDENTIAL<br />26<br />11/29/2010<br />>10%<br />10 years<br />$0.5/W<br />Gen IV<br />Performance<br />5-10%<br />5 years<br />$1/W<br />Gen III<br />3-5%<br />3 years <br />$2/W<br />Gen II<br />1-2%<br />1 year<br />$5/W<br />Gen I<br />Technology Maturity<br />Long Term<br />2017+<br />Short Term<br />2010-2013<br />Medium Term<br />2013-2017<br />Source: OE-A, Solarmer<br />
  39. 39. I. Portable Power<br />Off Grid Chargers market:<br />$2.3 billion (GSMA, Oct 2009)<br />Clean energy market in India’s rural:<br />$2 billion per year (WRI, Sep 2010)<br />Global market for portable power:<br />$461.5 billion in 2013 <br />(BCC Research)<br />11/29/2010<br />CONFIDENTIAL<br />27<br />Global Market for Portable Products, 2008<br />(Source: BCC Research)<br />
  40. 40. I. Portable Power (contd.)<br />11/29/2010<br />CONFIDENTIAL<br />28<br />OPV Price = $2 per phone (Cost = $0.68)<br />1 hour under sun = 30 min talk time (20 hrs standby)<br />$120 million/year (2013)*<br />OPV panel needed = 0.8 lbs (Compare to 30 lbs battery)<br />OPV Price = $500 per soldier (Cost = $178)<br />$140million (2013)*<br />OPV Price = $5 per Kindle (Cost = $2.05)<br />15 min under sun = No charging needed … ever!<br />$20million/year (2013)*<br />* Assuming 20% market share for OPVs<br />
  41. 41. II. Building Integrated PV<br />Power Windows for BIPV: Our “Killer App”<br />Affordable; Beautiful; Compatible<br />Potential market in BIPV = $380 million (2016: Year of launch)<br />CONFIDENTIAL<br />29<br />11/29/2010<br />Image: ThyssenSolartec<br />Source: NanoMarkets, 2010<br />
  42. 42. OPVMarket (Worldwide)<br />11/29/2010<br />CONFIDENTIAL<br />30<br />Key Points:<br />Revenues to reach $800M by 2015<br />A significant increase in production expected beyond 2013<br />Module price to reach < $1/W in 2014-15 for large scale power generation<br />
  43. 43. Outlook for OPV<br />Increasing competition from other thin-film PVs<br />Window of opportunity is closing fast<br />Materials development will be key<br />High speed roll-to-roll manufacturing will enable benefits<br />Way to win is to form a winning alliance… Now!<br />11/29/2010<br />CONFIDENTIAL<br />31<br />
  44. 44. Partners and Collaborators<br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />32<br />
  45. 45. Contact Information<br />Solarmer Energy, Inc.<br />3445 Fletcher Avenue, El Monte, CA 91731 USA<br />Tel: (626) 456-8090; Fax: (626) 456-8082<br />Email:<br />Web:<br />Vishal Shrotriya<br />Technology Director<br /><br />11/29/2010<br />PE USA 2010<br />33<br />